English for Health andBehavioural Sciences Universitat de les Illes Balears School of Nursing
UNIT 1 Patient admissionsOn the session of the 8th October, we looked at thefollowing topics:First of all, the teacher reviewed how "the wiki" works andthen solved some problems a few students had whenaccessing it. Then, he explained the most importantsections of the wiki followed by the procedure to mark thewritten assignments that we shall carry out through thecourse.
Then, we also saw a motivational video entitled“marcianitos” located in the page "my sandbox". Thecontent of this video is about pursuing our aim and notgiving up under any circumstances if we really wish to attainour objectives.After that, we focused on unit 1. The teacher showed us thesection “English for nursing, unit 1: Patient admissions" allof its contents: the glossary, the objectives, theabbreviations, the anatomy of the heart and the hyperlinkslocated in the page "useful web links”.
Next, the teacher also explained the vocabulary and the newhandover tool, which is like a diary on what has been dealt witheach session. The handover is a new tool from Google drive,and anyone can access it (with a permission by the editor,similarly to the wiki) as long as we provide a gmail account. Itcan be used as a personal portfolio where we can find, amongothers, all the words with their corresponding meaning that wehave previously studied.
To end the class session, we looked at the first activity ofthe unit 1 paragraph c and we were told to do the followingactivities:● Explain in our own words how the heart functions.● Become familiarized with the abbreviations document.● Write our personal "handover" with a vocabulary section.
Vocabulary section of unit 1● Personal portfolio● Gauze● Take shifts - turn taking● Over - the - counter● Next of kin● Rely on= trust● Ward ICU● Collect = gather● Greet● jot down● living will
On the session of the 15th October, we looked at the followingtopics:First of all, we read the handover from the previous session. As wewere reading the writing, the teacher explained again to us howthe wiki and the Handover worked in order to update it for thenew students who have joined the course.Then, we saw Unit 1. The teacher showed us some very interestinghyperlinks located on page "Useful Web Links" which are"English for nursing, Unit 1: Patient admissions". Inside them youwill find the following hyperlinks:● Clinical Knowledge Summaries: is a source of evidence-based information and practical "know how" of the common conditions in primary care. For example: you go into topics and click allergies and you will see all kinds of allergies there.
● Living Will (Advance Directive): you learn the advantages of an advance directive, the limitations, how to manage and develop them and who should make them.● Advice and information about the consent form.● Heart animations and interactives.After that, the teacher explained again how to access theHandover tool by means of our gmail account. When we enter ourgmail, at the top there is a section that says Drive. Click and itwill take you directly to the Handover.
Next, we dedicated about half an hour to talk about the differentvariety of errors that we made in the compositions handed in forour first assignment.i.e. spelling, accuracy, coherence, cohesion and grammar.If we have any doubts, we will be able to solve them on thefollowing session as the teacher has offered to answer questions(grammatical...). We will have around 10 minutes to solve anykind of doubts.
After that, we focused on Unit 1 of the course book "CambridgeEnglish for Nursing". We did exercises 1g, 2a, 3a and 3b.The script we followed was:● How to admit patients with: we learnt formal questions to ask to elderly patients e.g.: Would you mind if....? or Could you please…?. The language we use with young patient and finally the approach we should have with a patient who has been waiting for a long time.● Active listening strategies: They show interest in what is being said and confirm the understanding of what has been said. The most important strategies are: eye contact, social ability, nodding, gestures and body language.● How the heart works.
For our information the next day we will end unit 1 and we willbegin unit 2. Also, we shall need the book to continue the class.The assignment for the forthcoming session is:1. Explain in our own words how the heart functions (it will be a performance)2. Exercise 2e. You make a short admission form following the pattern. You have to write the questions (your choice) and their answers. It is an individual task and the deadline is on Friday 19th. Also, the next day in class we will role-play it.
I found very useful vocabulary:● Complain, approach, aid, assist her/him, straight language, anxiety, empathise, apologise for the delay, reassure, active listening, eye contact, nodding, social ability, body language, gestures, personal space, put somebody at ease, key (e.g. what is the key to...? make up = invent, leaflet,● The heart ○ Systole / diastolic ○ Shortness of breath ○ Cardiac cycle ○ Heartbeat ○ Blood
● Flow, atrium (singular) / atria (plural), valves (tricuspid valve), ventricles, pulmonary / lungs, blood vessels: vein or artery, aorta, chambers, pump, oxygenated / de- oxygenated / re-oxygenated, t-shaped, tissue, muscles, healthy, illness = sickness, perform = carry out, stick, life threatening, care, prescription, Encase in, thicker, entire, let in = coming, fill, shut, backflow, blockages, lead, in order to, disease
On the session of the 22nd of October, we saw thefollowing topics:First and foremost, we took a look at the handover that wasread by Inés.The teacher explained to us that, from now on, thehandover will be a collaborative work between twoclassmates, who will be in charge of explaining what hasbeen seen in the previous class.Moreover, all the students are welcome to edit, correct ormake any suggestions on the handover. In other words, itwill be a joined intellectual effort that gathers and mixesanything each one of us has absorbed and retained.
On the other hand, the teacher showed us how he gatheredall the vocabulary studied up to now, and, by using a webtool, he creates a heart-shape form with all the words.The amazing thing about this is that, by clicking on anyoneof these words, it leads you directly to a web page thatshows the definition of the word chosen. You can also hearhow it is pronounced.
The teacher also informed us that we will have to prepare aportfolio which contains everything we have learned:assignments performed, role-playings, or any othermaterial that has served us to learn. This portfolio will bedelivered at the end of this course and will be rated.Portfolio: is used to plan, organize and documenteducation, work samples and skills. Career portfolios serveas proof of ones skills, abilities, and potential in the future.It should include: personal information, evaluations,sample work, awards and acknowledgments.
Right after that, we saw a video on Youtube, whose messagespreads a very important rule about how to learn English.The rule says: "learn complete phrases rather thanindividual words".In other words, vocabulary is best retained if it is studiedwith words that fit in phrases with specific meaning andcontext. It is a new way of learning English and sounds veryefficient. If you are interested in the video click here.
Next , we used, once again, the "Assignment number 1 " tocorrect all types of errors. We can highlight the followings: ● "Get on very well with someone" instead of "have a good relationship" cuando hablamos de persona que no son la pareja. ● REMEMBER: the personal pronoun "I" always goes in CAPITAL LETTER. Never in lower case letter. ● In English we say: "To choose from ..." but not "to choose between... ". ● Don´t use the preposition "with" after "to get married". Instead we use "get married to" or "be married to". ● Be careful! Use punctuation. Dont abuse of using "and, and, and...."
We have seen another Youtube video called "What Ivelearned" and we were asked to respond some questions.The video deals with how a nurse is taking pride in nursing.Afterwards, we saw another video: How does the heart work?Then, two classmates explained to us how the heart worksin their own words.
The blood enters theright atrium passingthrough the tricuspidvalve to the rightventricle. Then, theblood continues itsway through thepulmonary artery to bereoxygenated in thelungs.The reoxygenatedblood goes back intothe heart through thepulmonary vein.
After that, the blood enters into the left ventricle. It´s herewhere the oxygenated blood is pumped around the body viathe aorta.These valves open to let in sufficient blood flow to fill eachheart chamber and then shut to prevent the backflow ofblood.
Finally, we will use the rule nº 1 mentioned above for thevocabulary section:● We can leave whenever youre ready = at whatever time youre ready.● I get on well with all the members of this class = Im in harmonious term with them.● Humility is one of the virtues of a nurse = being modest is a virtue.● You may meet sticking patients at the hospital but you still have to care about them = Even if the patients are very demanding or it is hard to deal with them you should keep great patience and take care of them.
● She took great pride in her sons = She felt very proud of them.● Older people feel alone when their children leave home = they feel lonely.● I only regret, in my childhood, the opportunities that I didnt embrace = I didnt take up certain occasions willingly.
The assignment for the forthcomingsession is:1. From the book (Professional English in Use), we must do: unit one, two and three; the teacher said that he would put this book on the wiki.2. The teacher has put on wiki a few extra pages that we have to check, so that, if we have any doubts, we will be able to solve them the next day.
On the session of the 29th October, we sawthe following topics:First of all, we read the last handover which was writtenby our classmates, Asma and Jennifer. We reviewed itto check if it was well done and complete.Later, the teacher explained to us that he will send an e-mail to everybody with an opinion poll, where we canwrite our suggestions and make comments about thesubject. It will be anonymous and individual.
We continued reading “ A nursing handover” in thepage 11 and after we discussed about three questions;● Why could handovers be problematic?● Why is it important to be clear and concise when giving a handover?● Why are effective comunication skills important?
The exercises that we did during the session were:1. Exercise D, in page 11 → We had to connect the abbreviations to their meanings2. Exercise F, in page 12 → First, we did a listening and we had to complete a text with all the words3. Exercise D, in page 13 → We practiced how you would say the blood pressure readings4. Exercise B, in page 13 → We listened to a conversation and we had to complete some questions5. Exercise 5H, in pages 86 and 93 → We practiced on a patient record form in an oral exerciseAt this point, we finished Unit 1.
After that, we started unit 2 which is about Respiratoryproblems: Asthma. The teacher mentioned the points ofthe unit that we will be studying in the next sessions.These points are:● Educating patients about asthma management● Giving Instructions effectively● Using a nebuliser● Talking to a child about asthma● Putting a young patient at ease● Describing respiration● Charting respiratory rates
Next, we saw two videos about asthma. The first videowas about a doctor who explained what asthma illnessis. The second video explained what happens in thelungs when someone has an asthmatic attack.To finish the class, the teacher told us importantvocabulary of the first three units from the ProfessionalEnglish in Use book.Unit 1: What is your general health like? How’s your health, generally? Get over = to recover Get better = to improve Get worse = to deteriorate
Unit 2 and 3: We have to know the anatomical terms,but common words also for when the patients arrive tothe hospital so we can understand them and help them.For example: Anatomical term Common word Abdomen Stomach Axilla Armpit Carpus Wrist Coxa Hip Cubitus Elbow Patella Kneecap Small bowel Small intestine Large bowel Large intestine
Unit 3: The pelvis: Bladder Right kidney and left kidney, Ureter Urethra The chest: Airways, Bronchioles WindpipeThe assignment for the forthcoming session is:From the Professional English in Use book, we must do:Unit four, five, six and seven
I found very useful vocabulary: UNIT 1Go in-depthBriefed- informedRestless nightNursing jargonControl nursing wardBP: blood pressureqds: four times a dayMI: myocardial infarction, or heart attackGTN: glyceryl trinitrate; also called nitrolingualSHO: senior house officer
4º: four hourly, or every four hours; also 4/24c/o: complain ofsl: sublingual, or under the tongueO2: oxygenECG: electrocardiogramADLs: activities of daily livingPt: PatientObs.: Observations
UNIT 2Suffer fromPreventionDiminish-reduceBreathBreatheTake breath in/out inhale/exhaleInfectionVirus- virusesBacteriaExposed toWheeze- Breathing out
On the session of the 5th November, wedealt with the following topics:First of all, we read the last handover which was writtenby our classmates, Sheila and Raquel. We checked itand corrected some mistakes.Later, the teacher reminded us that we must answerand send opinion poll, where we can write oursuggestions and make comments about the subject assoon as possible
Then we were reminded about the importance ofcorrect pronunciation by the teacher.Example:● pronunciation of -ed forms (/d/ or /id/)● Past Simple of read it pronounced /red/
Plan of the todays lesson:● Educating patients about asthma management.● Using nebulizers.● Respiratory problems.● Use of English: Passive Voice.
Next we did a warming up activity, wediscussed about three questions:1. What types of respiratory problems are you familiar with?2. Have you cared for a patient with respiratory problems?3. What factors might aggravate a respiratory condition?
During the class we did the followingexercises:● Listening: How to use a peak flow meter. After that we did the exercise 1B of page 14.● With the same listening we realised the next exercise (1C) that consist in get missing information.● Exercise 1D in page 15: we had to place the sentences in correct order.● Then we did together the activity 2B about giving instructions effectively.
● After that we discussed in pairs the following questions: a. What is your experience of asthma management? b. What kind of asthma treatment is available?● Listening: How to use a nebulizer for the first time. er the listeAftning we did the exercise 3B that consists of putting several steps in the correct order. Next in the exercise 3C we completed instructions matching the beginnings to the endings.● At the end of the class, we listened to a conversation between a nurse and a child talking about asthma and completed the exercise 4A.
Passive Voice: main steps in EnglishIn passive voice we dont want to inform about theagent who carried out the action as such. In fact, wedont need to say who did the action.The main rule:Write the verb To Be in the same tense as the mainverb, and the main verb in the 3º form if its anirregular verb or by adding -ed if its a regular verb.The direct object became the subject and theoriginal subject doesnt appear.
Examples:Somebody built this house in 1935.This house was built in 1935.Somebody cleaned this room yesterday.This room was cleaned yesterday.They told me the information.The information was told to me.I was told the information.
Important advices given by ourteacher:We should use polite expressions when we talkto our patients: would you mind if...?; Id likeyou to+infinitive...; could you...?When we give instructions we must use a thissequence:1. First of all2. Next3. After that4. The last thing to remember
The language we use is very important whenwe talk to patients, it must be approachableand polite so that we can put them at ease.
Pronunciation focusDuring the class we practice our pronunciationExamples:LarynxLaryngealPharynxPharingeal
The assignment for the forthcoming session is:From the Professional English in Use book, we must do:Units 8, 9 and 10.Practice Passive Voice.
Useful VocabularyWe found some useful vocabulary:ObesityDrugsPollutionHand-deviceHoovering/vacuuming(vacuum cleaner)At easeNasal cavityOral cavity
Voice box or larynxBronchusAlveoli Throat or pharynxepiglottistracheapleural membraneintercostal placewindpipeDyspnoeapneumonia
TuberculoseAirway infectionsinvasive ventilationrelief from painkeep an eye on something
On the session of 12th November wesaw the following topics:First of all, we read the last handover that was done by Paulina andVictor. We reviewed it and checked it.Before starting with the lesson, the teacher exposed us three topics todiscuss at class.First: The date of the first partial exam will be on 3rd December (writtenexam) Including Unit I and II of English for nursing, and the first ten lessons of Professional English in use.Second: The percentage of the oral test will be 30% of the final score.The date will be in February but we dont have a date yet.Third: Extra classes on February before the oral exam date. Twosessions of two hours each on February 1st and 4th. Additionally, willbe held a seminary of 4,5 hours.
After that, we returned with some passive voicetheory and a few exercises prepared by theteacher:About the passive Voice:PRESENT: VERB TO BE (AM, IS , ARE) + VERB –ED/3RD FORM OF IRREGULAR VERBI´m afraid I cant do it= Im afraid it cant be donePAST: VERB TO BE (WAS/WERE) + VERB –ED/3RDFORM OF IRREGULAR VERBThe thief took all my CD´s= All my CDs were takenby the thief
PRESENT CONTINUOUS: VERB TO BE + BEING +VERB –ED/ 3RD FORM OF IRREGULAR VERB Someone is building a new house= A newhouse is being builtFUTURE: WILL BE + VERB –ED/ 3RD FORM OFIRREGULAR VERB They will hold the World Cup in Brazil in 2014=The World Cup Will be held in Brazil in 2014PRESENT PERFECT: HAVE or HAS BEEN + VERB–ED/ 3RD FORM OF IRREGULAR VERB Someone has written a book about alien visitsEurope= A book has been written about alien visitsEurope
Right after that, we continued with ProfessionalEnglish in Use book.We started with Unit 4: Functions of the bodyWe discussed the 5 senses: Sight, smell, taste,hearing and touch (also called sensations orfeeling)To ask about senses we use these questions: - What is your…..like? - Is your…. Normal?Doctors talk about NUMBNESS when there is aloss of sensation
Other functions of the body are:Function Verb NounSpeaking Speak SpeechWalking Walk GaitBreathing Inhale (breathe in) BreathRespiration Exhale (breathe out) BreathUrination Urinate UrineMicturition Pass urine / pass waterDefecation Defecate Faeces Pass faeces /pass stools StoolsMenstruation Menstruate Period/ Monthly Have a period
When taking a history, nurses can ask: Do you have any (trouble, difficulty,problems) + function or verb?We practiced with our classmates thesequestions on page 17 exercise “Over to you”: Do you have any trouble with your appetite? Do you have any trouble passing water? Do you have any problems with your speech? Do you have any problems breathing?
Other expressions commons in English are: When did you last… When did you first…We finished the Unit 4 doing all the exerciseson page 17.
We started Unit 5: Medical Practitioners 1In this unit the teacher explained to us the twomain branches of medicine: Surgery; the doctors are called Surgeons(Male are addressed as Mr., and female asMs.) Internal medicine; the doctors are calledPhysicians (are addressed as Dr.)
Specialties:Names of specialties usually end in –ology;names of the specialist usually end in –ologistIf the specialties ends in –ics; names ofspecialist usually ends in –icianThere are some exceptions: anaesthetics andanaesthetistE.g. Cardiology – Cardiologist Pediatrics- Pediatrician
When we talk about specialist, we say they aregood with or good at, also we can say they areinterested in, worse with or specialize in. Good with + something Good at + verb-ingE.g.: Good with people Good at dealing with illness
If you need to ask about the specialty you can usethis question: What does a _________ specializes in? What does a dermatologist specializes in?We made the four exercises on page 19 andfinished unit 5 with the last exercise “Over to you”What qualities do you need to be good at to benurse? Good at listening Good at taking care of patients Good with empathy Good at taking quick decisions
In the last 30 minutes of the class we returnedto the English for nursing book. We listenedagain to the conversation of the exercise 2.4and we made the exercise 4C and 5B.Homework:Do the exercise 5E on page 18. In pairs use thediagram of healthy airways and asthmatic airways onpage 17 to explain what happens in an asthmaattack. Student A is a nurse and student B is apatient.Practice this dialogue between them because we aregoing to represent this conversation in class with aclassmate.
Additional VocabularyUnit 4: Unit 5:To toddle AppealToddlers Tying ofBlush NHS – National health serviceSweatSwallow General Medical CouncilNotice GraduateOvercome Pregnant woman or pregnancyGet over Small talkRecoverStools Decision-makingGait
Session of 19th NovemberAt first time, we revised and checked the previous handover.Then, we watched a segment which was the beginning of the filmGirl Interrupted, a film released in 1999 and made by JamesMangold. We would have liked watching a little more of themovie but we had to practice the expressions: “THERE IS “,“THERE ARE” and its past tenses. We practiced talking with ourclassmates checking the items which would be, in our opinion, inthe psychiatric institution showed in the film. For example: Doyou think there is any art-room in the hospital of the film?(Remember it´s an indirect question and the verb does not changethe order).
While we were doing this exercise a new expression very usefulin the nurse offices appeared. That´s “TO HANG OUT” whichmeans to spend time doing nothing, just chatting, having a coffeeor just doing nothing special.After that, we were thinking about an ideal hospital using themodal verb SHOULD+BE to make an advice or opinion. Forexample: “In our opinion, in a utopic world, an excellent hospitalshould be warmer and cozier because the people who live thereare in narrow circumstances and need be surrounded by beautyand tranquility. For instance, in our ideal hospital should beprivate rooms, wifi and a recreation area with a garden.”
Later we took the book Professional English in Use and we did the unit 6: MedicalPractitioners. To know who is who in hospital we almost need to study a Master muchmore difficult than study the medical career!The person in charge of or the manager of the hospital is called Medical or ClinicalDirector. He or She is the chief of the medical staff.In the UK after the university degree in medicine you are Qualified, then you have todo the Foundation Programme that lasts two years.The person who is doing the Foundation Year 1 or 2 is called generally Junior Doctor.But if we want to talk more properly we must use Foundation Year 1 Doctor (FY1), andFoundation Year 2 Doctor (FY2). There are two expressions which are not commonlyused nowadays: Pre Registration House Officer (PRHO) or House Officer, which isequivalent to FY1 Doctor, and Senior House Officer to refer FY2 Doctor.
After these two years they finish the training and they becomeGeneral Practitioners. They have the option of studying aspecialty (this is volunteer). When a doctor has finished specialtieshe/she becomes Consultant. While they are studying specialtiesthey are called Registrar or Specialties Registrar.There is a junior doctor IN CHARGE OF/RESPONSIBLE FORtaking the Medical History of the patient. The action of taking themedical history is TO CLERK., ex. the Junior doctor clerks thepatient. The registrar together with the junior doctor decides thetreatment or what to do next. For example: X-ray, ECG, etc.Later, the impatient (a patient who is staying at hospital) receivesthe visit of Consultant, who does Ward Rounds together with ateam of junior doctors plus nurses.
Sometimes doctors go home but they are still on duty, the expression used for that is tobe on call. That´s means that the doctor could be at home but he/she is localized overradio pager or bleeper.The staff of the hospital usually works taking shifts. That’s means that they work on arota basis.After we have learned this new vocabulary we completed the exercise number 6.4.Then we went to Lesson 7 to learn the vocabulary associated to the nursing profession.Nurse working in hospitals are divided in different grades.Student Nurse is the nurse who is still in training.When the nurse finishes her/his studies becomes Staff Nurse.The Charge Nurse is in charge of ward, she is also called Sister. She/He is not thesuperior. The superior is the Manager, also called Matron.There are three kinds of support workers such as: Clinical Support Worker (only withvocational studies), Auxiliary (unqualified, not university studies) and Ward Clerks.The ward clerk is in charge of updating, that means put the dates in correct order,answering the phones and so on.
Like doctors there are specializations for nursing job in the UK:Midwife is a nurse who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth.District Nurses visit patients in their homes.Health Visitors work in preventional education area, prevention of illness andvaccinating and education programs.Then we talk about the specialization in Spain. We identified six specializations:psychiatric, geriatric, midwifery, surgical instrumentation and labour nursing.Two important verbs in nursing job are TO CARRY OUT and TO PERFORM. Bothhave the same meaning. It´s more appropriate using these verbs in the passive tense.Examples:The procedure was carried out instead of someone carried out the procedure.The test was performed.Then we did the exercise 7.1, 7.3 and 7.4 of the Professional English in Use withdifferent tenses of the terms to carry out and to perform.
At the end of the session we received good news about the next exam in December. Theunits included in the exams will be from unit 1 to 7 of Professional English in Use book,and unit 1 to 2 of English For nursing.Later we did exercise 6.a, 6.e and 6.d of the book English for Nursing.VOCABULARYTo hang outWard roundRota basisTo clerkAnd so onImpatientDischargedOn dutyOn callPCA: patient control analgesia
S.C: subcutaneousR.C.: register nurseOT: Operation TheatreVaccineTo vaccinateTo carry outTo performAppears to beSeems to beUpdatingThe suffix –less: means without. For example: pennyless,homeless, and breathless.
Session of 3rd DecemberWe started this session watching Charlie andthe Chocolate Factory, a 2005 American filmdirected by Tim Burton.The plot is about acandy producer that announces a contestwhere the children that find golden tickets inchocolate bars will be given a full tour of thefactory and a chance to win a great prize.Our task was to identify some misbehaviouralpatterns in two of the characters, Augustus andVeruca.
The definition of misbehaviour is a person whobehaves badly or in an inappropriate way.Veruca AugustusSpoiled bossyDemanding greedyArrogant = snobbish quite compulsiveCapricious unhealthyAuthoritarian selfishUngrateful
After that, we saw how to advise someonesconduct using modal verbs like should, mightand could. For example: “you could be moreeasy going” and “you should be more patient...”Then, we also learnt how to make suggestionsusing sentences as “why dont you try to…”,“let’s …” and “shall we…”We also read and corrected the last handover.
BonesLater, the teacher explained to us unit 16: BonesWe saw some common and anatomical names for bones: skull(cranium), jaw bone (mandible), spine (vertebral column), breastbone(sternum), rib (costa), collarbone (clavicle), shoulder blade (scapula),thigh bone (femur), knee cap (patella) and shinbone (tibia).A fracture is a break in a bone and there are 5 different types:-Greenstick: Its an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. Thistype occurs most often in children.-Displaced: It happens when broken bone pieces are not aligned.-Comminuted: Its a fracture in which the bone fragments into severalpieces.-Impacted: It`s one whose ends are driven into each other.-Open (compound): Its an injury where a broken bone is open throughthe skin.
We also saw the treatment of fractures. Treatment consistsin promoting bone union by reducing the fracture. Afterreduction, excessive movement of the broken bone isprevented by fixation, which can be external (for example asplint or plaster of Paris cast) or internal (for example a pinor a plate and screws).Later, we completed the exercises 16.1, 16.2 and 16.3.Additional vocabulary:ReduceUniteMalunionExcruciating = extremely painful
OncologyIn addition, we saw Unit 28: Oncology. The teacherexplained us about neoplasms and the differences betweenthem; benign ones do not spread and are less harmful,and malignant ones spread throughout the body causingserious illness or death.Growth or tumour, are common terms usually used bydoctors when informing patients.A lump or swelling is a collection of tissue or fluid visibleand palpable, indicating a possible neoplasm, althoughthere are other causes.
When a tumour invades local tissues or spreads to distalparts of the body, it receives the name of metastasis. Theresults of metastasis are called secondary neoplasms(opposed to the original tumour which is the primary). Wealso saw some examples of symptoms and signs ofmalignancy, as pain and weight loss (anorexia).The treatments of tumours consist in removing or excisingthem by surgery and also radiotherapy or chemotherapy.When a cure is not possible, the patient receives palliativetreatment (to resolve symptoms).
Then, we completed exercises 28.1, 28.2 and 28.3Table of exercise 28.1Verb Noun(s) Adjective(s)cure cure curativeexcise excision excisedgrow growth growinginvade invasion, invasiveness invasiveobstruct obstruction obstructivepalliate palliation palliativepalpate palpation palpablespread spread spreadingswell swelling swelling, swollenAfter that, we discussed about a "lymphoma" in groups.
LymphomaIts a neoplasm produced by excessive growthof lymphocytes, cells that form part of thebodys immune system.Normally is presented as a solid tumor andtreatment may involve chemotherapy and insome cases radiotherapy and/or bone marrowtransplantation, and can be curable dependingon the histology, type and stage of the disease.Its also a related opportunistic disease inHIV patients.
TherapiesWe concluded the class studying unit 42 wherewe saw different types of therapies:Radiotherapy is the use of controlled radiationdoses to treat cancers.Chemotherapy is a treatment with anti-cancerdrugs.Physical therapy is a remediation of disabilitiesand the promotion of mobility, quality of life andmovement carried out by physiotherapists (alsoknown as physical therapists).
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is used to treat mentalhealth disabilities. It can be conducted as a face-to-face session between patient and therapist or providedby computer.Additional vocabulary:Adjuvant StrontiumGrays Hip replacementDaily dose (fraction) ManipulationRadioactive MassageImplants CrutchesNeedlesFinally, the teacher told us to do exercises 42.1, 42.2 and42.3 at home.
Session of 10th DecemberWe started this session with the exam aboutunits 1 and 2 to Cambridge English for Nursingand units 1 still 7 to Professional English inUse.The exam was in two parts. Firstly we startedthe exam with grammar and vocabularyactivities, then we did the listening part.
The second part to the session was dedicatedto learn the modal verbs.Why they call modal verbs?They are called modal verbs because areauxiliary verbs. They are used to indicatemodality.We saw differents kinds:-Permission: can, may.-Obligation: must, have to ( is semi modal verb)-Predictions: Be going to, future simple withwill..-Advice o suggestions: should, could...-Prohibition: Can´t , musn´t...
What are Modal Verbs?Modal Verbs are special verbs which behavevery differently from normal verbs. Here aresome important differences.1º. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the 3rdperson.e.g: He can speak Chinese. She should be here by 9:00.2º. You use "not" to make modal verbsnegative, even in Simple Present and SimplePast.e.g: He should not be late. They might not come to the party
3º. Many modal verbs cannot be used in thepast tenses or the future tenses.e.g: He will can go with us. I will can speak english.This two sentences are not correct. We have tosay:Will be able to speak english.4º. They never take do/does/didException: With "have to" as it is a Semimodal:Does she have to go?
After that we focused in predictions.When making predictions ( what we think we´llhappen in the future) we can either use:-BE GOING TO + VERBBe going to is used to predict future events thatare very near ( and can be seen ) or seem sureto happen. Such predictions are based onpresent evidence:e.g: Look at the clouds; It´s going to rain.-FUTURE SIMPLE WITH WILLThe future simple is used to made predictionsthat are based on personal judgement, opinionor intuition, and not on present evidence.
Whether or not the event will happen is notcertain. Such predictions are often introducedby I think / I dont think.e.g: I dont think hell come tonight.In the first person SHALL can be used insteadof WILL in formal contexts:e.g: Whatever happens, we shall always bebest friends.The future simple is also used to make generalpredictions about facts that are always true orevents that always happen.e.g: A gentleman will hold the door for a lady.
-MODALS IN FIRST CONDITIONALMain clause:Instead of will we can use other modals in themain clause of the first conditional:e.g : If you don´t watch your steps, you aregoing to fall over. (prediction)The last thing that we saw in class was onevideo " In the love and loss", about brainatrophy, was a really touching video. Afterthat, we had to made some questions aboutvideo and we changed the questions with therest of classmate for give answers to them. Wehad to send this answer to teacher Wednesday.
Additional vocabulary:-vanish: something that dies away, isconsumed,extinct.-Touching-Handle: I can handle it / Im able to managethe situation
On the session of the 7th of January, at the beginning of the class, the teacherexplained how to use the Google Drive, to hang all the tasks that we send.To do this go into google drive click on "create", choose the document you want to use, writethe task and share it with whoever you want, write his/her email address. Also we can decidewhat that person can do with our document, edit, comment or just read.Then, our colleagues Edurne and Luis, read their handover. The teacher made some corrections.For example, explained when to use the ending-ing.After that, the teacher showed us the phrases made by ourselves and correct them together.He emphasized the need to improve our English. As New Years resolutions, the professorrecommended studying modals verbs and the conditional sentences.Then, we did an exercise that consisted in writing two predictions about the video you wouldsee then. We only knew the title of the video, "Life Interrupted. Love in the Time of Cancer ".After watching the video, we discussed our predictions, to check if they were correct or not.After that, we started unit 30 of Professional English in Use, The respiratory system. Westudied aspects such as coughing and auscultation, and how to communicate with patients to askabout these parameters.
Then we did an overview of items 47, 48 and 49, entitled Taking a history 1, Taking a history 2and Taking a history 3, respectively.Following this review, the teacher explained to us what the oral test will be like. We should do alittle research before oral representation. It should contain the following sections: introduction,research, results and conclusion. To do this, the professor recommended us revising the units 55,56, 57, 58 and 59 of the book Professional English in Use.Moreover, the teacher gave us some recommendations. Like for example, change the language onthe menu on the TV or tune in radio channels in English. In addition, the management gave us avery interesting website "englishcentral.com".To end the last class of the year, we were surprised by John Lennon’s Christmas video clip towish us Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.New vocabulary:Fear, frightened, exchanged, bone marrow transplant, side effects, get through, care forsomebody, take care of..., look after somebody, cough, auscultation, stetouscope, crackles,sputum, phlegm, loose (productive), dry (non productive), blackout, dizzy, fits, blurred, prickles,to feel prichly, onset.
On the session of the 14th January, we looked at the following topics:First of all, we read the handover from the previous session. The teacher explained us the differences betweenmake/do, this/that and which/what. - Make: We use the verb make for constructing, building or creating. - Do: We use the verb do when someone performs an action, activity or task. - This: It is used to indicate something that is near. - That: It is used for something that is distant. - Which: we use “which” in a question that requires a choice between two or more items. - What: we use “what” when we are not asking for a possibility.Then, we decided the dates of the seminars: February the 1st for the first 11 students, following the order of the list,and for the rest of the list, the 4th of February. The seminars will last 4 hours (16h-20h). In these seminars, we willprepare the oral presentation. The date of the written exam is on the 7th of February at five oclock and the oralexam on the 8th of February at four oclock. Beware! The 3rd year Students have the exam on January 28th.After that, we saw a video entitled “Killed for organs: Chinas secret state. Transplant Business”, based in forceddonations in that country. We did a brainstorming and then we did a diagram that explains the most important pointsof the video. The teacher told us that it was a good way to expose the topic of our oral presentation. Following thisscheme, the oral presentation will consist of: 1. An individual presentation explaining the topic chosen for 5-7 minutes. 2. An interaction on a common situation with a partner, for example, giving advice to a diabetic patient.Next, we focused on Unit 41 and 34 of the course book "Professional English in Use". - Unit 41: Surgical treatment. We saw common vocabulary of surgical specialization: site (operating theatre), clothes (gowns, masks and gloves), the most basic instruments: retractor, scalpel, artery forceps, dissecting forceps and scissors, the actions common, and an operation report. We should do the exercises on page 91 at home. - Unit 34: Basic investigations. In this unit we saw useful instruments, like for example: the ones used in ophthalmoscopy or for measuring blood pressure (for example, a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope).
We have also seen the things that the phlebotomist needs during vein puncture.Finally, we returned to the Unit 3 of "Cambridge English for Nursing". We did exercises 1f, 2a, 2b, 2c, 3a, 3b.The script we followed was: - Asking for advice: o Would you mind + verb –ing….? o What would you recommend to change these dressings? o What do you think I should do with this ulcer? o What do you suggest we can use? - In small groups, we discussed some questions about our profession (Why are Clinical Nurse Specialists important members of the health team? What are the possible effects of chronic wounds on the patients?, What are the implications for the healthcare system?) and then we shared our ideas with the whole class. - We learned an interesting vocabulary on exercise 3b. - To end the class, we did the exercise 3a. It was about how to describe the images that appear. Describing images you should use: It looks..... I found very useful vocabulary: - Organ trafficking: to buy and sell transplantable organs or tissues illegally. - Organ donation program: A program that manages Organ donation. - Donors: someone who gives organ to be used in another person. - Business (noun): economical benefits. - Harvest: remove from a culture or a living or dead body, as for the purposes of transplantation. Forced organ harvesting - Transplant (verb) / transplantation (noun): to move something, or to be moved, from one place or person to another. - Overseas (adjective, adverb): foreign, out of country, beyond the sea. - Waiting time: The average waiting time for liver transplants in our hospital is one week. - Surgery: medical operation. - Operating theatre: a special room in which people are operated on in a hospital.
- Sterile conditions: free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms.- Scrub up (phrasal verb) = Disinfecting: Wash thoroughly.- Surgeon clothes = surgical gowns, masks and gloves.- Prepping: abbreviation of preparing.- Drape: a sterile covering arranged over a patient´s body during a medical examination or during surgery in order to reduce the possibility of contamination.- Retractor: surgical instrument that holds back the edges of a surgical incision.- Scalpel: a very sharp knife used in surgery.- Forceps: a metal instrument with two handles used in medical operations for picking up, pulling and holding things.- Scissors: a device used for cutting.- Operation: a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments.- Swab: a pad of cotton or other material used to soak up blood from the operation site.- Sucker: a mechanical device which to absorb.- Ligatures: thread used by surgeons to bind a vessel (as to constrict the flow of blood).- Diathermy: a method of therapy that involves physical or electrical therapeutic treatment.- Drain: tube inserted into a body cavity (as during surgery) to remove unwanted material.- Suture: surgical stitches which join together the edges of wounds.- Ophthalmoscopy /opthalmoscope: allows the doctor to examine all parts of the eye: the iris, lens, retina and optic disc.- Sphygmomanometer: a pressure gauge for measuring blood pressure.- Stethoscope: is used to hear the sound of blood rushing back through the artery.- Systolic blood pressure (SBP): the first thumping sound.- Diastolic blood pressure (DBP): the thumping sound is no longer heard.- Veinpuncture: taking blood.- Phlebotomist: a nurse specialized in taking blood.
- Tourniquet: a tight band above the site.- Haematoma: a black and blue mark.- Bruise: it is a specific mark where the vein was punctured.- Bruising: can be used to describe a number of bruises or a larger area.- Heal: get better.- Pus: a fluid product of inflammation.- Sore: an open skin infection.- Uneven: a quality of uniformity and lack of variation.- Edges: border.- Yellowish: slightly yellow.- Blackened: go black, darken.- Dry: describes something that has no water or other liquid in, on, or around it.- Necrosis: death of cells and living tissue.- Eschar: thick, dry, black, necrotic tissue.- Desiccation: drying out.- Inflammation: swelling caused by infection.- Swab: a small piece of material which is used to take samples of body fluids.- Slough: dead tissue which separates from healthy tissue after infection.- Debridement: the removal of dead tissue.- Cellulitis: inflammation of the tissue under the skin, often caused by infection.- Ulcer (noun) / Ulcerous (adjective): an open sore on the surface of the skin or a mucous membrane
On the session of the 21st January we saw the following topics:First of all, we read the last handover which waswritten by Judith. We reviewed it to check if it waswell done and complete.Later, the teacher gave us some questions aboutviruses and we had answer them (true or false).Then we watched a video on vaccination ofinfluenza virus in the USA where two doctors fromdifferent states exposed the importance ofimmunization against this virus.After watching the video, in groups, we made a briefsummary of four lines explaining the content of thevideo. Then we read some of these summaries.
Next, we focused on unit 4, “Diabetes care”. The firstthing that we did was to listen to a dialogue ofexercise 4.1, which accounted for a conversationbetween a diabetes specialist nurse and her patient.Then, we did the exercises 4.1b and 4.1cThen we saw an animation which very easilyaccounted for the differences between type I andtype II diabetes.
Afterwards, the teacher explained to us both, wherethe screenplay would be downloaded and how toperform with the procedure for the evaluation of theoral examination of our classmates.Finally, Judith took part in her oral examination,which was about the vaccination and vaccinationcalendar for children in our community. In order tocomplete this area, Mariángeles and Judit did a role-play about a dialogue between a nurse and a patientwho turned up at the emergency ward.
On the final session of English for Health andBehavioural Sciences carried out on the 28th ofJanuary the teacher confirmed the date for both thewritten (February the 7th at 17h) and oral exam(Friday the 8th at 16h).Then, we watched a documentary on Facing Deathabout which several issues were raised. After that,we studied the introduction to unit 6 Medications.As for the final exam, from the book ProfessionalEnglish in Use we studied units 1 to 10, 14,16, 28,30, 34, 41, 42, 47, 48, 49, 50 and 54 and the pages143 to 145.Whereas in the English for Nursing book we lookedat the units 1-4 and 6.