Unit 5 an additive approach to planning in plurilingual classrooms

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English training course for teachers who need a certification to teach through English

English training course for teachers who need a certification to teach through English

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  • 1. UNIT 5. AN ADDITIVE APPROACH TO PLANNING IN PLURILINGUAL CLASSROOMS. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION RESEARCH.
  • 2. AIMS OF THE SESSION
    • Knowing several language acquisition theories:
      • The Common Underlying Proficiency Theory and the Iceberg Metaphor.
      • The Interlanguage.
      • Interactionism and the Scaffolding
    • Recognizing the factors that affect language acquisition.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • “ LANGUAGES EMBODY THE INTELLECTUAL WEALTH OF THE PEOPLE THAT SPEAK THEM. LOSING ANY OF THEM IS LIKE DROPPING A BOMB ON THE LOVRE”
    • (Ken Hale, linguist)
  • 4. SUPPORTING MOTHER TONGUE
    • Advantages of maintaing one’s mother language:
      • Personal identity
      • Cultural heritage
      • Intercultural understanding
      • Skills supporting cognitive development
      • Additive bilingualism vs. Substractive bilingualism
      • Many opportunities for schools and students
      • European Council ideas on intercultural awareness
      • Multilingualism
  • 5. BILINGUALISM
    • Bilingual Kids from Parents.wmv
  • 6. BILINGUALISM
    • ADDITIVE BILINGUALISM
      • “ Social and emotional conditions for learning that value all languages and cultures and affirm the identity of each learner and promote self steem.”
      • Does not replace the mother tongue.
    • SUBSTRACTIVE BILINGUALISM
      • Does not affirm identity
      • Another language replaces the mother tongue
      • Colonial situations or political situations in which one language is over another language.
  • 7. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • Jim Cummins (Canada, 1980)
    • “ People who are learning a second language are not faced with a totally unmapped territory ”
    • Common framework of language structures and functions = Common underlying proficiency (CUP)
  • 8. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
  • 9. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • CUP implies the interdependence hypothesis: the surface features of any two languages may be different (BICS), but the underlying cognitive proficiency skills are common across languages (CALP).
    • Linguistic exposure and experience in two languages can promote the cognitive academic skills underlying both languages.
  • 10. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
  • 11. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS): language needed to interact in social contexts, language used in everyday communication or informal settings.
    • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): formal academic learning. Thinking skills: analysis, synthesis, evaluation related to CALP.
  • 12. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • CUP linked to CALP
    • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
    • Type of language that allows for the transfer of academic skills from one language to another.
    • The aim of high quality bilingual education
  • 13. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • Bilingual or multilingual people with meaningful exposure and experience
    • develop CUP skills which enable the development of CALP skills in both languages.
    • ONE CENTRAL PROCESSING SYSTEM
  • 14. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • In summary,
      • Child’s first language is not a hindrance
      • Cognitive and academic skills transfer to the new language
      • Such skills are interdependent across languages.
      • The knowledge of one language helps to learn the second (or third) language
  • 15. THE COMMON UNDERLYING PROFICIENCY THEORY AND THE ICEBERG METAPHOR
    • LITERACY SKILLS THAT CAN BE TRANSFERRED :
      • Directionality
      • Sequencing
      • Ability to distinguish shapes and sounds
      • Kwoledge that written symbols correspond to sounds and can be decoded in order and direction
      • Semantic and sytantic knowledge
      • Text structure
      • Use of clues to predict meaning
      • Variety of purposes
      • Confidence in oneself
  • 16. FACTORS AFFECTING LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (I)
    • Case study: an oral production of a 5 year old bilingual boy.
    • At school:
    • “ Pau m’ha pushat”
    • “ I not can do this” / “I no can’t do this”
    • “ I not want to go” / “I not want go”
    • “ Lucia not goes” / “She not go”
    • “ Want you this”
    • “ Me no like this homework”
    • At home:
    • “ M’he deixat el llibre on the table”
    • “ Estic on the carpet”
    • “ Dóna’m el apron, please”
  • 17. FACTORS AFFECTING LANGUAGE ACQUISITION (II)
    • Language transfer: appliance of native language knowledge to a second language.
    • Interference or negative transfer: errors originated in the application of L1 grammar rules to the construction of L2. The greater the differences between the languages, the more negative transfer will result (false friends).
    • Interlanguage: linguistic system developed by a learner of a L2 who has not become fully proficient yet but who is approximating to the target language. (Spanglish)
  • 18. INTERACTIONISM (I)
    • Krashen and language acquisition.wmv
  • 19. INTERACTIONISM (II)
    • Interaction between the learner and the language environment
    • Innate cognitive processes
    • Adults use modified input to address children
    • ESL learners need comprehensible input to make sense
    • Background knowledge
    • Language level of the lesson
    • Production of meaningful output and reception of feedback.
    • Differences between second language natural acquisition and second language formal acquisition.
  • 20. INTERACTIONISM (III)
    • KRASHEN’S 5 MAIN HYPOTHESIS
      • The natural approach: we learn in a predictable order. 5 stages:
        • Preproduction
        • Early production
        • Speech emergence
        • Intermediate fluency
        • Advanced level
      • The acquisition learning hypothesis: acquisition vs. learning
      • Monitor hypothesis
      • Input hypothesis
      • (Positive) affective filter
  • 21. INTERACTIONISM (IV)
    • KRASHEN’S THEORY APPLIED TO CLASSROOM:
      • Meaningful input
      • Real life communication
      • Foster positive situations
      • Limited use of grammar teaching
      • Correction of mistakes only during learning
      • Natural focus:
        • communicative skills,
        • comprehension before production,
        • speaking and writing skills when the pupil is prepared,
        • acquisition better than learning,
        • low affective filter
  • 22. INTERACTIONISM (V)
    • BRUNER
      • Scaffolding
        • “ Provision of appropriate assistance to students so that they may achieve what alone would have been too difficult for them.”
        • Comprehensive input
        • Teachers predict students’ difficulties
    • VYGOTSKY
      • Proximal development(ZDP)
        • Notional gap between
        • A) the learner’s current developmental level
        • B) the learner’s potential level
  • 23. SEE YOU NEXT WEEK THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION