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20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
20 web sessions EN
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20 web sessions EN

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Summary of the web 20 sessions of the Generalitat de Catalunya held between April 2005 and maig 2010 in the auditorium of the CEJFE, Barcelona.

Summary of the web 20 sessions of the Generalitat de Catalunya held between April 2005 and maig 2010 in the auditorium of the CEJFE, Barcelona.

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  • 1. Web Sessions (2005 – 2010)Centre for Legal Studies and Specialist Training (Ministry of Justice) and Directorate General of Citizen Attention(Ministry in charge of Presidency) 1st Web Session. ‘Internet in the Ministry of Justice: why’. Alfons Cornella Organisations with a differential value are the ones that act as a system capable of receiving information, transforming it and offering it in the form of services, and with a management model that gives more with less. 2nd Web Session. ‘Discover the Government of Catalonias new website’. Marta Continente In the transition towards the knowledge society, the Government has to make data communications infrastructures accessible, ensure that information is transparent and act as a catalyst of collective knowledge. 3rd Web Session. ‘Learning in the digital age’. Sergio Vasquez Communities of practice open up the possibility of participating in a network of people with a common practice, in a relationship of trust and based on the functions offered by ICT (knowledge sharing and interaction between people). 4th Web Session. ‘From the analogue to the digital society: Where are we? What needs to be done?’. Antoni Farrés Analysis of the situation in Catalonia and how we have to position ourselves in the context of the knowledge economy, which makes up the economic and social environment of the twenty-first century. 5th Web Session. ‘How do CC licences help the Government make knowledge accessible to society?’. Ignasi Labastida Creative Commons (CC) licences are a useful tool for providing citizens with the knowledge created by the Government by offering a flexible system for managing the copyright on all kind of works. 6th Web Session. ‘Internet tools that make people interact in the Government’. Roc Fages Technology helps us manage conversations between people to exchange knowledge and good practices using interaction tools on the Internet such as blogs, wikis and other resources. 7th Web Session. ‘In what direction is training in organisations going?’. Javier Martínez Aldanondo Understanding how we really learn and how technology can help reconsider the journey from onsite learning to virtual learning. 8th Web Session. ‘Can the Government persuade people by Internet?’. David Boronat There are public governments that, by following the strategies of the private sector for gaining customer loyalty, use the Internet intensively to raise awareness, communicate and involve citizens. 9th Web Session. ‘What can the Government do with the knowledge it generates?’. Mario Pérez-Montoro How to set up knowledge management projects through communities of practice and other resources, as in the case of the Ministry of Justice. 10th Web Session. ‘Social networks on the Internet: the added value of our contacts’. Albert Armengol Networking is the technique that shows us to construct and maintain professional relationships with benefits for both parties, strategically managing the network of contacts.
  • 2. 11th Web Session. ‘Why do we need to innovate in the Government?’. JoanMajóThe Government has to adopt the strategy of innovation to be up to the challenge ofmodern times, possessing the internal and external knowledge to be competitive and togenerate value in its services.12th Web Session. ‘Can we achieve an Government 2.0? Collaborative toolsand attitudes’. Carlos GuadiánThere are already examples and case studies that show how web 2.0 tools and resourcesgive us possibilities for working collaboratively in the Government.13th Web Session. ‘The transformation of online learning through socialnetworking and video’. Gregor GimmyThe social network and video can change the way people learn on line and raise thequestion of what can be done in the Government. Sclipo case study.14th Web Session. ‘Collective intelligence and web 2.0’. Ricardo Baeza-YatesThe current impact of social networks on the Internet, known as web 2.0, where content isgenerated by people and intelligence is collective.15th Web Session. ‘Do people need to have a digital identity? Howto construct it’. Juan FreireIt is essential to have a digital identity to make ourselves visible to the rest of society and itneeds to be constructed strategically.16th Web Session. ‘Darwin in the information society: adaptation (andbenefits) or extinction’. Ismael Peña-LópezTechnological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the newknowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and tocreate value in society.17th Web Session. ‘Networking in the Government: where do we start?’.Genís RocaSocial network projects in the Government must have clear aims and methodology andhave to combine hierarchy and meritocracy in a dual leadership.18th Web Session. ‘New forms of institutional communication’. JordiSegarraThe communication of organisations must be based on the generation of information,debate and participation. Messages are no longer addressed to a group but to a person, astechnology allows our users to be individually segmented.19th Web Session. ‘Institutional leadership on the Net’. Antoni GutiérrezRubíIn the digital society, traditional communication is not sufficient to maintain adialogue with the citizen. Change is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new cultureof communication and a different organisational model that fosters creative talent.20th Web Session. ‘Digital skills and learning’. Boris MirThe mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure that digital skill islearned but creates the conditions to make it possible. Digital skill is the strategic use ofskills in five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology.
  • 3. 1st web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised training‘Internet in the Ministry of Justice: what for?’Alfons Cornella i Solans, Director of Zero Factory SL www.infonomia.com, specialist and consultant inknowledge economy for a number of organisations.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 14 April 2005. 190 people attended.Infostructure (content + services) complements infrastructure (machines + tools)Although we have technological applications to manage information, technology is not in itself the factorthat makes an organisation competent and stand out from others. An organisation generates added valuewhen we understand it as a system able to receive information, transform it and offer it as a service.When information is managed well, we can do more with less (greater efficiency and productivity). AlfonsCornella illustrated this with slides showing the Ministry of Justice website and the ‘a un clic’ (a clickaway) applications on the home page of the Ministry’s intranet.Googleization + relevanceGoogleization (access to information using a search engine) leads to the danger of infoxication. It istherefore advisable to balance exhaustive searches for information against the criterion of relevance. Thecapture of this information is not automatic, however: it calls for method, resources and effort. Thiscriterion is the inspiration for the structure of the intranet.Constant innovationWithin organisations a new professional culture is needed, that of innovation. Although there will bepeople and units with greater facility for innovating, all members of the organisation need to beencouraged to do their work in this spirit. This involves proposing ways to improve what one does usingtechnological resources and providing the added value of information.Managing what the people in the organisation know and experiencePeople’s experience is a source of greater efficiency and it should be passed on to the rest of theorganisation. The knowledge management model proposed by Alfons Cornella is as follows:1. Work. Reducing the distance between employees and the information they need. The example given was the search facility for forms on the intranet.2. Learning. Connecting people with questions and the person who has the answers. It was proposed that the directory of people and identification data on the intranet should include information about the areas in which they are experts.3. Teaching. Transferring best practice. This was illustrated by the future community of family mediators in the e-Catalunya project (promoted by the General Directorate of Citizen Attention).Conclusions1. Technology x information = information to innovate (an information-oriented organisation is needed)2. A specific common objective is needed.3. Driving forces are needed which promote the use of information technologies to improve services.4. It must be made part of everyday activity (innovation and knowledge management).5. It needs to become part of the process (the organisation has to work in this way; it should never be optional).Diffusion service. Barcelona, April 2005
  • 4. 2nd web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingThe new Gencat and other systems for attention to the publicMarta Continente i Gonzalo, Director General for Citizen Attention, Presidential Department.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 24 November 2005, 16.00 h.IntroductionIn the transition to the knowledge society, the Government must make data communicationinfrastructures accessible, make information transparent and act as a catalyst for collective knowledge.New model for internet channels1. Changing from “all services by all channels” to “each service has its own ideal channel”.2. The effect of search engines must be taken into account.3. Importance of push tools (browsers, newsletters, alerts, RSS news syndication, podcasting, blogs, etc.) as they arouse surfers’ interest, encouraging them to visit websites.Gencat.net 2005Process of transformation:1. Diagnosis: website analysis, usability, surveys and consultancy.2. To move towards a new model: interactivity, transparency, network databases, transversal structure by topics and services, multimedia, customising information, relational webs.3. It has been implemented in certain projects: statistics portal, integration of databases, taxonomy (classification from the viewpoint of the public), a browser (Google adapted for Gencat), content manager (Vignette), Citizen Attention System-Information portal and new Gencat.Citizen Attention System-Information portalIn 2005 migration to a new application took place and work is under way on integrating the CitizenAttention System with Open Administration of Catalonia on-line transactions.Information portal: internal consultancy for 012 operators and citizen attention offices (additionalinformation which is not publicly available).A cultural change is needed for the internet channel to become an integral part of the Ministry’sprocesses (and even become the backbone of systems for providing citizen attention).e-CatalunyaThe Government of Catalonia’s social website, complementing the gencat.net portal. Members of thepublic will have access to public information from groups with portals. However, groups will also have aprivate area, where they will have substantial storage space for their own content together with freecommunication tools (messages, forum, virtual congresses, wiki, social network, etc.). The Ministry ofJustice is a pilot participant – together with the Ministry of Health – with the family mediation group.Diffusion service. Barcelona, December 2005
  • 5. 3rd web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingLearning in the digital ageSergio Vasquez, expert in e-learning and knowledge management, lecturer at the European School ofManagement in Paris, and an advisor to communities of practice in the Ministry of Justice.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 16 February. 170 people attendede-learning as a new form of learningVirtual learning (e-learning) should not mean adding a computer to traditional face-to-face classes. Theaim is for education and training to be more effective.Success and failure in virtual learningThe speaker mentioned various cases of success (“la Caixa” area communities) and failure (Cisco UNIXcourses, “la Caixa” Virtaula, courses by a multinational auditing firm, etc.) Virtual learning must avoidtechnocentrism (relating everything to technology) and infocentrism (memorising content). He thusprefers to refer to “working with assistance”, meaning that users must be borne in mind when designingcourses: speaking to them and observing them to find out what they need.Situated learning and communities of practiceLearning must be a social phenomenon, with a location in time and space, and should have everydaywork situations as a source. People can rarely be expected to share their best ideas or practices and willbe reluctant to use the ideas of others for fear of being seen as incompetent. For knowledge managementto be shared there must be a setting, communities of practice, in which people are linked by a common,recurring practice, and which develop around what is important for its members. The model of teacherand learner is the best system for learning.Communities of Practice at the Ministry of JusticeFor this purpose at the Ministry of Justice communities of practice have been set up in the areas of prisonservices (teaching staff, educators, technical staff, social workers) and the treatment of young offenders.Conclusions1. Sharing both positive aspects and problems, feeling part of a common organisation and being able to communicate with others are features which help to motivate the members of a community.2. It is important, then, to know what we want to share, establish ground rules and work on what the members of the community consider to be important.3. The benefits of communities of practice affect not only their members (learning, solving problems, sharing knowledge, etc.) but also the organisation (reduction in costs, saving time, incremental innovation, etc.).4. Communities of practice open up the possibility of being part of a network of people with a common practice and, at the same time, allow people to develop confidence and establish links with experts outside the community, increasing the members’ social resources.5. Information technologies facilitate the sharing of knowledge and participation and interaction within the communities.6. Innovation occurs when the community’s ideas are implemented.Diffusion service. Barcelona, February 2006
  • 6. 4th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingFrom the analogue society to the digital: where are we? what do we need to do?Antoni Farrés Sabater was Mayor of Sabadell from 1979 to 1999, is a member of the Cercle delConeixement, has taken part in the programme “Els matins de Catalunya Ràdio”, and is a specialist in theuse and application of ICT in business and society in general.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 13 June 2006. 90 people attended.Industrial society- Catalonia’s development in the 20th century came about through its rapid integration in the industrial revolution, alongside leading countries such as England.- Industrial society saw the convergence of the steam engine, mechanical engineering and the science of materials.- The industrial economy shaped the economic and social environment for much of the 19th and 20th centuries.The knowledge society- Today another convergence is shaping a new economy: information technology, telecommunications and the technologies of content.- The knowledge economy shapes the economic and social environment of the 21st century.- The European Council in Lisbon (23-24 March 2000) stressed the need for a radical transformation of the European economy.Current situationFarrés supported his explanation with data and graphics from Spanish and European programmes.- According to the World Economic Forum report, Spain ranks 31st in the world (its position has been falling), while Catalonia does not occupy a strong position in the Spanish context.- This is the starting point for his talk: how to stimulate growth in Catalonia.Challenges for Catalonia in the knowledge society1. The education of its people, especially the young2. Adapting production to the new network models.3. Catalonia’s incorporation in world knowledge and innovation networks as a node generating value.4. The implementation of policies designed to preserve the quality of life and welfare.Electronic Government- Spain and Catalonia are in a stronger position in European rankings in this area.- However, priority has been given to transactions which transfer money to the Government (tax authorities, etc.)- All transactions between the Government and the public, employees or companies should be conducted electronically (with support services for the public).Conclusions1. The philosophy behind the change to the knowledge society should be explained to the public.2. A comprehensive strategic agreement is called for to promote the full incorporation of Catalonia into the knowledge society, involving not only political parties but also the public and private sectors.Paraphrasing Torres i Bages, he concluded that “Catalonia will be digital or it will not exist.”Diffusion service. Barcelona, June 2006
  • 7. 5th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingHow do the Government’s Creative Commons licences help to make knowledge accessible tosociety?Ignasi Labastida i Juan, Doctor of Physics from the University of Barcelona. Responsible for thepromotion and implementation of Creative Commons licences in Catalonia and the rest of Spain.The event was chaired by Joan Turró, Secretary General of the Ministry of Justice and it was introducedby Marta Continente, Presidential Department Secretary for Telecommunications and the InformationSociety.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 19 October 2006. 120 people attended.IntroductionOne of the challenges of the new economic era is to make knowledge available for innovation in productsand services. Creative Commons (CC) licences are a useful tool to achieve this by offering a flexiblesystem to deal with royalties for all kinds of works. The idea is to authorise some uses of the work insteadof restricting and banning them from the outset. The classic notion of “all rights reserved” is thus changedto “some rights reserved”.What are Creative Commons licences?Creative Commons is an American non-profit making organisation founded in 2001. At the end of 2002 itlaunched a project for licences, offering them to anyone who did not want to reserve all rights for theirwork but were prepared to cede some rights under certain conditions.The licences are free and works do not have to be registered. They are legal texts which allow the authorto grant the rights corresponding to the work for purposes which are considered suitable. Copying,reproduction, distribution and public dissemination are always allowed when acknowledgement is given tothe author in credits, but limitations may be placed on commercial use or the possibility of producingderivative works, or these may be subject to the terms of the licence for the original work. The sixstandard licences currently available are the result of combining these conditions.The iCommons project dates from 2003 and was introduced to adapt licences to the requirements of eachstate in the USA. This year the University of Barcelona became the Spanish affiliate institution forCreative Commons. The licences are now adapted to Spanish legislation on intellectual property and areavailable in all the official languages.Different government applications of Creative Commons licencesThe conclusions of the study by the British consortium Common Information Environment on theapplication of CC licences to the public sector show that the dissemination of public resources usingthese licences is viable. Examples already exist, such as the Governments of Brazil and Mexico,institutions such as the British Council, policies on research by the National Health Institutes in the USA,etc.In Catalonia we also find examples, such as Recercat (Catalonia Research repository), RACO (CatalanOpen Access Reviews), Zona Clic (Dept. of Education). It should also be noted that on 27 June 2006 theproposal to apply CC licences to all Government of Catalonia publications was approved by the EditorialBoard.Conclusions1. We do not need to perpetuate the traditional model of “all rights reserved”.2. Only necessary reservations should be made.3. It should be made easy to access and reuse information for which we have all paid.4. What is allowed must always be made clear, applying minimum restrictions.5. A full study of the possibilities and applicability of the licences should be carried out.Diffusion service. Barcelona, October 2006
  • 8. 6th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingInternet tools that allow people to interact with the GovernmentRoc Fages, consultant journalist specialising in the Internet. He writes regular commentaries onelectronic government in the broadest sense in his cyberdiary www.goldmundus.com. The event wasintroduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 30 January 2007. 175 people attended.IntroductionTechnology allows people to exchange knowledge and good practice through interactive internet tools,such as blogs, wikis, and other resources, especially using interactive web 2.0 tools.Interaction and blogsBlogs are personal or collective on-line diaries where information on different topics appears as articles orposts. They follow a chronological sequence which is regularly updated, allowing readers who visit theblog to add comments. There are various tools for creating blogs: Blogger, e-Catalunya, etc. RSS contentsyndication also means that we can receive a notification when the blogs that interest us are updated,using local applications such as Feedreader or web access applications such as Bloglines (like RocFages’ own blogline).Blogs have become a tool for both private and public participation. Ministers, mayors and other politicianshave created their own blogs to comment on measures which have been adopted or to reflect oneveryday life in a city and gather the opinions of those who read them (e.g. the blog by the Mayor ofMataró Joan Antoni Baron, the blog by Government workers Alberto Ortiz de Zárate and Iñaki Ortiz).Some companies use corporate blogs to maintain contact with their staff and interact with users orcustomers (IBM, Microsoft).Interaction and web 2.0Web 2.0 includes tools which allow quick, easy, real time cooperation on the net. The e-Catalunyaplatform is an example of the way in which different professionals can work together with others in thesame field, taking part in discussions and taking advantage of each other’s contributions. The platformmakes available to members tools such as wikis and blogs, and the storage of all types of files to interactand share knowledge. Leadership plays an important part in its use.Participation can be enhanced through interaction from mobile phones: the e-lens project, based on atagging system with chips which allow information to be received and modified on a mobile phone (pilotscheme in Manresa), and Zexe.net, a website about accessibility in Barcelona where people withdisabilities take photographs of places which are not accessible and publish them on the web.Conclusions1. Interaction goes beyond internet. Now we need to look at tools (blogs, wikis, RSS, etc.) and integrated platforms for interaction (computer, TV, mobile phone, PDA).2. Interactive tools should be explored and exploited to encourage participation.3. We should use interactive tools which are useful and user-friendly.Blogs and wikis are the ideal tools for interaction between users and the Government. Used internally, bystaff, they encourage reflection and cohesion within the organisation. Used externally, they promote theinstitution’s brand by encouraging participation in the generation of ideas.Diffusion service. Barcelona, January 2007
  • 9. 7th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingWhere is training going in organisations?Javier Martínez Aldanondo, Head of the Knowledge Management Division of Catenaria, is one ofthe leading figures in e-learning and knowledge management in the Spanish-speaking world. Theevent was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 21 March 2007. 120 people attended.IntroductionNormally we do not remember knowledge passed on in a conventional face-to-face course. However, wedo remember experiences, stories and what we learn from making mistakes. To learn we need toremember: we don’t need courses or content, but someone who knows how to teach and how to do whatthey are teaching. In training, there are 3 revolutions which are pending:1st revolution: training linked to the organisation’s resultsTraining objectives should be part of the strategic objectives of the organisation. Training is intended tochange behaviour, so it is necessary to find out what doesn’t work, what staff do and what theorganisation would like them to do, what problems they have, who the experts are, what are the mainmistakes they make, etc. Indicators are also needed to assess the training.2nd revolution: learning by doingPractice is needed to learn: if what we teach cannot be practised, it may not be worthwhile teaching it.Mistakes are the most important part of learning, as we learn from our mistakes. The aim of this learningis to store experience which we can take advantage of in the future.3rd revolution: learning with technologyflexibility mustn’t be the only advantage of e-learning: it must offer things we cannot get from a face-to-face class. It is people who are intelligent; technology is only a means. The problem of e-learning is thatit has transferred face-to-face teaching to the virtual context without adapting it: often we just read on thescreen what we used to read in a textbook, but the computer is an instrument that allows us to practise,get feedback, work in a network, etc.ConclusionThere are two basic problems in training:1. We tend to teach things that nobody needs, we don’t teach the things people really need, and when we do teach them it isn’t when people need them.2. We need to change the way we teach because it is doomed to failure. There are three pillars on which the learning process is based: a. People learn by doing, practising things they are interested in. If you don’t practise, you don’t learn. b. Mistakes are the most important part of learning. c. Stories are a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge whose value is incalculable: we learn from others, with others and teaching others.Learning (and doing it faster than our competitors) is an indispensable skill for survival in the presentsystem, where change is a constant. Organisations can only last if they help workers to adapt to thesechanges, i.e. to learn. The change calls for cooperative working practices, intensive use of technology,innovation, and, above all, a focus on people.Diffusion service. Barcelona,March 2007
  • 10. 8th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingCan the Government persuade people by internet?David Boronat is an Internet specialist and a founder member of the company Multiplica. He writesregular comments about persuasion skills on the internet at www.persuabilidad.com, a website whichdiscusses the role of persuasion in turning users into customers. The event was introduced by JoanXirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 27 March 2007. 130 people attended.IntroductionGovernments should be aware of developments in the private sector in the use of strategies to capturethe attention of users and turn them into loyal customers. They should use the internet more intensively toraise awareness, communicate and involve the public emotionally, to project local culture or to promote ahigh standard of management.The private sector on the internetBusinesses have users, with whom they need to establish dialogue and whose emotions they mustengage. Challenges for companies on the internet:- Saying things differently, speaking the users’ language and explaining things simply and visually.- Recognise the importance of e-mail addresses and make intelligent use of e-mail. Multi-channel facilities are also important as is getting to know users without asking them for too much information (e.g. using cookies)- Offering favourable conditions for customers who are willing to operate electronically with them.The Government on-lineThe Government on-line:- It must be attractive, persuasive and promote certain local values.- Like businesses, it must explain things to users and the public in the simplest, most visual way, in familiar language. It should also encourage people to contact it on-line.- It has to sell its programmes and its on-line services (and make sure that the public use them), but it also has to be transparent (explaining Government action, its strategic priorities and its objectives, and publishing their results).- Push services should be promoted and lessons learnt from success stories (e.g. a high percentage of visitors to the Barcelona City Council website go there to look at the streetguide and this page could be used to draw attention to important information).ConclusionThe Government has a genuine ability to use the internet to persuade people. Currently there are manyexamples of the persuasive use of internet by Governments:- Chilecompra (Chilean Government): on-line system for purchases and public contracting.- My eCitizen (Government of Singapore): privatisation of institutional information.- One Cent Now (Toronto): raising public support for regional projects (cyberactivism).The Government has, then, to be able to make use of strategies and resources from the world ofbusiness to approach the public and other customers and establish a relationship based on trust leadingto loyalty.Diffusion service. Barcelona,March 2007
  • 11. 9th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingWhat can the Government do with the knowledge it generates?Mario Pérez-Montoro, holds a doctorate in Philosophy and Educational Science from the University ofBarcelona (UB) and is a lecturer in the Faculty of Librarianship and Documentation at the UB. The talkwas introduced by Joan Mauri, Secretary General of the Ministry of Justice.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 5 June 2007. 200 people attended.IntroductionIn the knowledge economy, information is the main source of activity for organisations and is the valueadded to goods and services which gives them a competitive edge and makes them attractive to users(these are the prerequisites of innovation). Organisations are structured round knowledge and seelearning as a way to improve and thus adapt to processes of change.Managing knowledge in organisationsType of knowledge:- Tacit (personal and difficult to transmit) and explicit (can be verbalised and transmitted).- Individual (each person’s tacit and explicit knowledge) and corporate (belongs to institutions).- Internal (critical knowledge which allows an organisation to fulfil objectives) and external (to relate to other organisations and people).Knowledge management consists in designing a system that incorporates all the types of knowledge inthe organisation and transforms it into corporate knowledge in order to to achieve its objectives.Corporate knowledge suffers, however, when staff leave and when knowledge becomes outdated.Traditional learning and other forms such as virtual learning, cooperative learning, experience, etc. help tocompensate for the knowledge lost in this way.The cost of knowledge and what we can obtain in exchangeObstacles: resistance to change and to sharing, lack of time and incentives, need for technologicaltraining and for group work, lack of a common organisational culture, intolerance of mistakes, etc.Personal benefits: solving everyday problems, improving decision making, greater flexibility, access tonew forms of learning, gaining professional recognition, etc.Collective benefits: increasing the organisation’s effectiveness and efficiency, reducing the knowledgedeficit, avoiding duplication of knowledge, benefiting from investment in training, greater commitment tothe organisation, creating an ecological context for knowledge (only useful knowledge remains in theorganisation).Schemes to implement knowledge management: the Ministry of Justice model- Strategic stages in the project: 1. Identifying potential communities. 2. Providing logistics. 3. Assessing the contribution to the organisation.- Community of practice: e-moderators (leaders) + 15 groups working according to the project’s methodology. 190 people working on the project and approximately 900 associated with it (outside groups, etc.)- Working pattern: face-to-face meetings + collective work via the e-Catalunya platform.- Presentation of problems, proposal of standardised solutions and development of products (models for documents, standard procedures, etc.)- Dissemination of the project: intranet (knowledge portal), website, e-moderators’ blog, digital review.- Assessment: activity indicators (no. of activities per group and tool), production (no. of face-to-face sessions and no. of products developed) and impact (related to efficiency and experience).Conclusion“Where culture and knowledge are concerned, you only lose what you keep, you only gain what yougive.” Antonio MachadoDiffusion service. Barcelona, June 2007
  • 12. 10th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingSocial networks on internet: the added value of our contacts.Albert Armengol holds a degree in Medicine and Surgery from the Barcelona Autonomous University(UAB), an MBA from ESADE and is founder of eConozco www.econozco.com, the world’s first on-lineSpanish language contact network. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre forlegal studies and specialised training.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 16 October 2007. 170 people attended.On a face-to-face level, networking is the development and dissemination of good management of ournetworks of personal and professional contacts.On-line social networksTogether with forums, wikis, e-mail, instant messaging and blogs, social networking programs are toolswhich help to construct an organisation’s knowledge through cooperation.It is interesting to observe the differences in the graphic representation of contact networks inorganisations: organisational relations, corresponding to the hierarchy, and inter-personal relations, whichare those we refer to as social networking.What is networking?Networking consists in developing and sharing our network of contacts; it is, then, a very suitableresource for developing cooperative work projects. There are two types: personal and professional.Within networking we can distinguish between strong links (contacts with whom we share a group ofcontacts similar to our own) and weak links (people we have just met). Strong links provide a frameworkof trust while weak links provide diversity and it is desirable to strengthen them through network projects.What is on-line networking?On-line networking (social networking software) involves a network of professional contacts which can beextended to the contacts of our existing contacts. In this way an extensive network of relations can bebuilt up.Through on-line networking we can find people whom it would be very difficult to contact otherwise. On-line networking thus allows us to be in the right place at the right time.The concept of on-line networking first appeared around 2002 on open websites. To join a socialnetworking website, we first need to post a good professional profile or CV, so that we will be accessibleto people who may want to contact us (passive visibility).Within on-line networking, there are social and professional networks. From a geographical perspective,networks range from local (such as e-Catalunya http://ecatalunya.gencat.net, with communities promotedby the Government of Catalonia or which are Catalan in scope) to others which are international, such asthe German Xing (which has bought eConozco and Neurona and is the leader in Europe) and Linked-in(leader in the English-speaking world).Conclusion. “Dig the well before you are thirsty” (Chinese proverb)Just as we can determine specific uses for other internet tools (forum = discussion; blog = expression ofimplicit knowledge, conversation; wiki = joint production of final document), social networkingprogrammes help us to manage and extend our network of contacts efficiently and facilitate thestructuring of collective intelligence.Diffusion service. Barcelona, October 2007
  • 13. 11th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingWhy do we need to innovate in the Government?Joan Majó Cruzate. Doctorate in industrial engineering and Director of the Catalan BroadcastingCorporation. He has worked in the business world and for local and international institutions related totelecommunications, research and science. The talk was introduced by Joan Mauri, Secretary General ofthe Ministry of Justice.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 23 January 2008. 175 people attended.What is innovation?In the business world innovation is understood as the ability to turn knowledge into profit. In the non-commercial world, including government, innovation is the ability to turn knowledge into value to improveservices. Innovation is always a tool to achieve goals and not a goal in itself.Rather than developing a better product, innovation means thinking of a new one which people canclearly see the usefulness of.The ability to innovate is a general characteristic of a country or a region. It is part of a culture, it is in thepeople and spreads from them. There are four indispensable requirements for innovation, itsdevelopment and implementation: educational and professional system networks, business models andgovernment policies.Innovation in economic processesThe objective of companies is to be competitive and make profits. Business development involves threeareas: being competitive in cost, quality and innovation. Today western countries can only be competitivethrough innovation, as other countries are more competitive regarding prices and they have the sametechnological capacity to make quality products.In the European Union the capacity of different countries and regions for innovation has been monitored.Based on 17 indicators, such as the number of graduates in science and engineering, the percentage ofthe population aged 25 to 64 with higher studies or undertaking institutionalised retraining, the percentageof GDP devoted to research and development, etc., the progress of European countries towardsinnovation is measured. The figures show that in recent years Catalonia’s position in innovation hasdropped.How can we innovate in Government?It is difficult in government to accept innovation and overcome inertia. Things are done well but wecontinue doing the same things. In the public arena, rather than exchange knowledge, we need toexchange experience and always bear in mind the need to improve service to the public. For example, toinnovate we need to provide services which fit in with the public’s new habits (internet, mobile phones,etc.)ConclusionInnovation is a change in consumer habits in response to people’s needs. A good example of aninnovative product which has been widely accepted is the mobile phone and the associated applicationswhich allow the user to access a range of content and services.Innovations in procedure lead to improvements in the quality of service. We must be imaginative andanticipate people’s real needs in the future to plan our activity in this area.Diffusion service. Barcelona,January 2008
  • 14. 12th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingIs Government 2.0 achievable? Tools and attitudes for cooperation.Carlos Guadián Orta www.k-government.com, consultant specialising in internet communication andcontent. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 16 April 2007. 200 people attended.The web 2.0 concept is changing the mentality of users and of the GovernmentInternet, and in particular web 2.0 provides channels for communication which affect the way we relatesocially, our learning and acquisition of knowledge.With web 2.0 the net is like a big conversation which allows the formation of communities with commoninterests and maximises each member’s contribution. The user goes from a purely receptive role to beingthe centre, as everything is two-way. This is how the global conversation is shaped.In this new setting a cooperative attitude is essential, an interest in producing knowledge and sharing it.How to integrate the web 2.0 model in the GovernmentThe Government must manage the change carefully, ensuring that the attitudes of directors andmanagers are positive and that proper training and technical solutions are provided. It is important forGovernment staff to gain confidence in this new cooperative system so that they can contributeprofessional knowledge and learn from the system.The Government’s role is not to control people but to cooperate with them; the public add value toservices.Tools and resources for cooperation on internet: blogs, RSS, bookmarking and social filters fornews, social network, wikis, etc.Various tools and resources which help users managa this change are available on the internet. Theyinclude the Wordpress and Blogger blogs, RSS (Bloglines, Google Reader, Thunderbird), socialbookmarking, such as Del.icio.us, social news filters (Digg, Menéame), browsers for news or posts(Wikio, Blogsearch), social networks (Linkedin, Facebook), wikis, etc.Experiences with web 2.0 in the GovernmentThere are Government departments, such as the Ministry of Justice, which are already fully committed toweb 2.0. The Compartim program is a good example.This and other experiences (like the e-Catalunya platform) treat the service they provide as a platform onwhich a network of relationships is built among their staff and with the public.ConclusionWeb 2.0 makes it easier for everyone to participate in a free medium. To reap the maximum benefit fromthis new system it is essential for organisations and individuals (including Government bodies and theirstaff) to adopt a cooperative attitude which favours the development and sharing of knowledge. Therehave already been valuable experiences within the Government. We need to extend our knowledge of thetools which facilitate work in this new environment (blogs, RSS, bookmarking, browsers, social newsfilters, wikis, etc.) and our confidence in using them.Diffusion service. Barcelona, April 2008
  • 15. 13th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingThe transformation of on-line learning through social networking and videoGregor Gimmy www.sclipo.com, founder and CEO of the Sclipo company. The event was introducedby Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 11 June 2008. 194 people attended.Traditional education suffers from certain shortcomings in its infrastructure, as it is limited to a certainplace and time, and lacks interaction. Web 2.0, and in particular social network technology, video andwebcam, offer us new opportunities to improve learning, because they enable us to learn from the best,wherever they may be (delocalisation), know who and what is the best, reduce the cost of assessment,facilitate the learning of any subject, however uncommon it is, and find and store relevant audiovisualmaterial and interaction.Web 2.0 and social networksWith web 1.0 people could receive information, shop and search, while web 2.0 also allows them tocreate content (texts, photos, audio, video) without having knowledge about programming. As there isinteraction between users, content can be assessed and shared more easily.The common features of web 2.0 are that users have a public profile (public area), they can create andshare content, and interact publicly and privately. This interaction raises users’ profiles and promotes thecontent they create.Web 2.0 can be used in different ways, according to users’ objectives: suggesting and finding content(digg, Technorati), establishing their presence on the net (Blogger, Youtube, Flickr, MySpace), developingfriendships (Facebook), teaching and learning (Sclipo), professional networking (Xing).Social network+education = Sclipo: social educationThe combination of the social network with the objective of teaching and learning has made Sclipo apioneer in social education.Sclipo is a social network where anybody can publish an indefinite number of videos (there are norestrictions) to facilitate the learning of any content, including subjects of minority interest. Assessment ofcontent is very extensive because participants give direct and indirect assessment (number of views,forwarding to friends, voting, comments). Choosing the best material is easier on Sclipo because theusers themselves choose the best content, which reduces the cost of assessment.SclipoLive is a pioneering service which provides synchronic teaching via a web camera and recordsteaching content and chats (notes indexed to the video of the class), as well as saving audiovisualcontent and relevant interaction so that they can be found easily later. In the near future there will be anew version, in which there will be one teacher for several students, and it will be possible to add texts tocomplement the video.ConclusionThe internet’s main value is for learning. On-line learning is a wonderful opportunity with great potential toimprove education through social network technologies combined with an audiovisual support.Customised solutions can also be provided for companies and government bodies so that good practicecan be shared by all staff.Diffusion service. Barcelona, June 2008
  • 16. 14th Web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingCollective intelligence and web 2.0.Ricardo Baeza Yates www.dcc.uchile.cl/~rbaeza/spanish.html, Director of Yahoo! Research, Barcelonaand Santiago de Chile. The event was introduced by Joan Xirau, Director of the Centre for legal studies.Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 9 October 2008. 200 people attended.The web 2.0 concept. Impact on today’s internetIt is currently estimated that between 1 and 2.5 billion people have internet access and the number isexpected to reach 5 billion by 2015; internet traffic has increased 20-fold in the last 5 years and there areover 181 million web servers. The main characteristics of web 2.0, which consists of social networks orsocial media, are the fragmentation of the ownership of content and the fragmentation of access.Characteristics of web 2.0: content generated by people and collective intelligenceThe main ingredient of web 2.0 is the community dynamic: in its new products the distinction betweencreators, synthesisers and consumers is blurred. For example, let us consider the case of Flickrwww.flickr.com: the users themselves generate the content, organise it, distribute it, and develop newuses for it. The web 2.0 ecosystem consists of blogs; social networks like MySpace www.myspace.com,Facebook http://ca-es.facebook.com, Friendster www.friendster.com; the sharing of favourite linkshttp://delicious.com; instant messaging; sharing photos (Flickr) or videos www.youtube.com; participationin groups http://es.groups.yahoo.com and individuals answering questions from othershttp://es.answers.yahoo.com. South Korea is the most advanced country in social networks.Data mining on web useIn 2004 the journalist James Surowiecki published the book The wisdom of crowds. On web 2.0 datamining based on people’s wisdom improves the user’s experience through the data collected: it is aessential for improving web searches (browser rankings), the content and the structure of information(based on the anchor text).Digital community systems, the new emerging science, and people’s implicit wisdomDigital community systems are a new way to participate, belong and share: the web today reflects theeconomy and society in general, it is scientifically young and intellectually diverse. People’s implicitwisdom can be seen at work in folksonomy (collective classification through tagging) and knowledgenetworks, resulting in implicit social networks, such as the Open Directory Project www.dmoz.org orWikipedia www.wikipedia.org. On the governmental level digital communities have also been set up in anumber of countries. In Catalonia the Compartim programme is of particular interest. Knowledge ismanaged and the programme’s annual conference prepared through the social bloghttp://compartim.socializame.com.ConclusionOn web 2.0 the content is produced and shared by the users themselves, which has a great impact oninternet and also on society, the economy, the world of publicity, education, etc. Consumption becomesan implicit act of production, with no added effort required. It is a matter of capturing people’s experience,allowing people to be tagged as trustworthy sources on an ongoing basis.Diffusion service. Barcelona, October 2008
  • 17. 15th web session at the Centre for legal studies and specialised trainingDo people need to have a digital identity? How to construct it.Juan Freire http://juanfreire.net, expert in innovation and strategy in networks and organisations. Thespeaker was introduced by Jordi Graells, Coordinator of Content and Innovation for the DirectorateGeneral for Citizen Attention (Presidential Department).Hall of the Centre for legal studies and specialised training, 18 February 2009. 194 people attended.Digital identityNowadays the intensive use of web 2.0 tools, especially social network services, calls for the availabilityof a digital identity through which we make ourselves visible to other people: our identity which appearson the internet needs to be controlled and it is preferable to manage it ourselves, rather than not beinvolved and have others manage it for us.Learning about and constructing digital identityConstructing one’s digital identity is part of the learning process in the digital culture. We are headingtowards a situation in which we will have a hybrid identity (physical and digital); this does not mean wewill have two identities, as our identity is unique, although it is sometimes difficult to separate the personalfrom the professional.Adolescents nowadays only perceive one identity. A study carried out in the USA in 2008 on the usemade by adolescents of digital media concluded that adolescents relate to each other in two types ofcommunity: a) local networks of friends, as an extension of physical contact, through phone calls, sms,instant messaging and b) interest networks, global in scope, where they relate to other people with similarinterests, and it is through these networks that they develop their creative skills (writing blogs, publishingvideos, etc.), become visible and gain a reputation.Adolescents use the network in three different ways: 1) just spending time (hanging out); 2) looking forinformation without any clear purpose (messing around); and 3) specialised independent use of thetechnology (geeking out).There are two ways to view the internet: as a big space full of rubbish (games, inaccurate information,publicity, etc.) or as a space for learning and socialising. According to our own learning process we willadopt one position or the other.To construct our digital identity the tools we use are not as important as the purpose for which we aregoing to use them. The concept of digital competences has evolved: it has moved from a technologicalfocus (1990s to early 2000s) to a social and participatory communicative focus (since 2003).Conclusion- There are no rules for constructing and controlling digital identity; it is an individual learning process. The rules still have to be defined.- We should be careful about the information we publish; it may not be significant in itself but it may be mined for data and a pattern established.- If we do not have a digital identity, identity theft is easier.- Digital identity affects organisations; the Government also needs to construct its own digital identity and must know what it wants to transmit to the public. The Administration should also train staff so that they know how to construct their digital identity for the benefit of the organisation. This is particularly necessary for organisations involved in projects with social networks and work done jointly.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, February 2009
  • 18. 16th web session at the CEJFEDarwin in the information society: adaptation (and benefits) or extinctionIsmael Peña-López http://ictlogy.net, lecturer at the Open University of Catalonia and expert ininformation and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) and digital learning. The eventwas presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge ofPresidency.CEJFE hall, 10 June 2009. 163 participantsTowards a knowledge societyThe economic paradigm of the industrial society is based on the management of scarce resources andtransaction costs, and the world revolves around and is defined by these two parameters. Internet accessand the extensive use of ICT is configuring an economy based increasingly more on knowledge, withhorizontal organic structures and in which information is abundant, is distributed at practically nil cost, ismulti-directional and is accessible to everyone. How should citizens and institutions face these changes?Adapt or become extinctTechnological literacy and digital skill will not take us away from the risk of social exclusion if we are notcapable of being structurally relevant to the system and creating value for society. And this is valid bothfor companies and citizens and for institutions. If we want to survive, we should not limit ourselves tobeing mere executors or users of ICT. We have to know how to auto-program ourselves and evolve toadapt to the continuous changes.Following the evolutionary theory of Darwin, we can say that those who do not adapt to the newenvironment are condemned to become extinct. Some companies or institutions will disappear overnight,others will slowly fade away, and others will take quite a few years to adapt to the skills and demands ofthe information society.In this process of adaptation, we will have to rethink once again how we teach, work and relate, and it ishere where institutions play a crucial role. Besides technological and multimedia literacy and a digitalpresence, governments need to foster appropriate policies that help citizens and companies see theusefulness of entering the information society (pull strategies) so that they share the need to becomeintegrated in this new social and structural model in order not to get left behind. If they see theusefulness, they readily accept changes.Conclusions- Todays society is based on knowledge, abundant and at low cost, as compared with the industrial society, based on the scarcity of resources and on transaction costs.- Technological and multimedia literacy are elements that aid integration in the new knowledge society model, but to avoid social exclusion we need digital awareness and to create value in society.- Our survival depends on adapting to the changes and being structurally relevant to the system.- Citizens and institutions have to interact closely to rethink and remodel all spheres of everyday life according to the new needs.- Institutional polices based on pull strategies are key to bringing about a change of attitude.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, June 2009
  • 19. 17th web session at the CEJFENetworking in the Government: where do we start?Genís Roca www.genisroca.cat, specialist in strategy and the Internet. The event was presented byRoser Bach, director of the CEJFE, and Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention.CEJFE hall, 14 October 2009. 213 participantsIn a different format from the previous ones, the session was highly participative. Genís Roca acted asthe conductor of the session after the intense debate that occurred, before the web session, on theInternet: in the space enabled on Facebook, in various blogs and also on Twitter. There were over 100participants and more than 200 contributions. Genís Roca wrote the script for the session based on thesecontributions and, after analysing and classing them, proposed a reflection on what we understand byGovernment 2.0 and began a debate focused on five topics.The environmentCitizens do not ask for 2.0 projects, what they want is an efficient and streamlined Government, eventhough there is also a part of society immersed in 2.0 that seeks to relate directly. Also, the Governmentshould not wait for society to ask for 2.0 projects, it has to anticipate them.The invironment(internal organisation of the Government, according to Genís Roca)The use and implementation of 2.0 tools is not such a great priority as, for example, the digitalisation ofprocesses, which has to be completed by 2010 in accordance with Law 11/2007. The 2.0 projects alsogenerate a certain fear of criticism and of not being able to answer citizens requests properly.The projectsBefore setting up a 2.0 project, we need to have clear objectives, observe the environment and determinewhether there are similar projects as perhaps they simply have to be adapted or a different focus given tothem. Also, projects are in constant evolution and in a permanent beta version.The leadershipsThe 2.0 projects have to combine hierarchy and meritocracy, i.e. they have to have a dual leadership: ahierarchical leader who understands the project and provides the necessary resources and a projectleader who animates the network. Directors need to be made to see that networking offers an addedvalue, which is why adequate metrics need to be established.The legalityThe Government already uses profitable 2.0 tools; it simply has to take care with the information it postson external platforms as there is content that should not be made public (such as personal data).ConclusionsTo conclude, Genís Roca chose three sentences that exemplified the ingredients needed to push through2.0 projects in the Government:- If you want to do a 2.0 project, detect, ally and add.- Leadership, values and methodology are needed.- If you want to foster a 2.0 project in the Government... you need patience.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, October 2009
  • 20. 18th web session at the CEJFENew forms of institutional communicationJordi Segarra www.stpolitics.com, consultant in political and institutional communication. The event waspresented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry in charge ofPresidency.CEJFE hall, 19 January 2010. 200 participantsTechnology is simply a toolTechnology is an instrument at the service of a strategy. Nowadays we have many tools with which tocommunicate, but before anything else, we need to research: we need to know what we want, how wewant it or how it can be done and,based on this, to do it. This is why it is essential to know the target public and the environment.We need to know what the target is because politics is local, yet also personal. This is done on the basisof what is known as microtargeting: identifying the public we are aiming at through various tools, such asbuzz monitoring (tracks the conversations and social trends on forums, social networks, etc); specialistsocial networks; data mining; offline regional implementation (through local leaders, people capable ofinfluencing and who are naturally trusted).Cut and paste doesnt workWe do not have to copy successful communication strategies as it is more profitable to adapt what wehave learned from others to our context.Dialogue/conversation instead of monologueThe external and internal communication of organisations must be based on the generation ofinformation, debate and participation.All politics is personalMessages are no longer aimed at a group but at a person. Technology affords us the direct audiovisualcreation and dissemination of citizens. The multiplication of the media market allows greaterpersonalisation. Through technology, we can segment our public individually. Politics, however, is still not100% viral, as socially the traditional media still dominate.The future trends are geolocalisation, specialisation of social media and the transformation of thetraditional media.Without emotion there is no reactionIn politics, emotion always wins out over reason. What makes voters believe something or want change isnot new information but new emotions.From the public sphere to the public sporePolitics has to use the media to communicate with people. There should not just be a programme butemotions, social networks and connection with people.Conclusions- What is needed is a reason, a message with a story (storytelling), an emotion, a spark (momentum).- The right language and channel need to be used.- People need to be mobilised: we should not try to convince them, they have to be involved and motivated.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, January 2010
  • 21. 19th web session at the CEJFEInstitutional leadership on the NetAntoni Gutiérrez-Rubí www.gutierrez-rubi.es, political communication advisor and political consultant.The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of Citizen Attention of the Ministry incharge of Presidency.CEJFE hall, 9 March 2010. 148 participantsContextTodays society is in a process of transformation: the changes are social and economic, but also cultural,relational and geopolitical. In this context, the Government is seen with prejudices and stereotypes in anincreasingly more demanding society: the concepts (value-price, employment-work, skills-profession)change and new actors emerge: online citizens, digital activists, e-consumers... who expect quality ofservice, speedy answers, transparency and the possibility of participation. The Government should not domarketing but should converse with these new actors.Institutional leadership on the Net: ideas are powerIn this new context of the digital society, traditional communication is not enough to keep up a dialoguewith the citizen and satisfy their demands. The sole discourse is no longer possible, as the socialnetworks show. The power relationship has changed, it is no longer hierarchical: digital identity dependson reputation; this is why we need to be on the Net contributing ideas and information of value andcommitting to co-creation with the service providers and with the citizens.Power now is agility, speed, creativity and ideas with value. Power is no longer a position but presence,and presence configures the position.Resources- Virtual press offices.- New open web spaces, optimised for search engines and with personalisation of content.- Extensive digital repositories and open databases.- Use of 2.0 tools.- Monitoring of the presence of the institution on the Internet and of responses to citizens.Key ideas: 1.0 communication with 2.0 tools is condemned to failChange is not technological, it is cultural and entails a new culture of communication and a differentorganisational model that fosters creative talent: collaborative creation and collective intelligence.Conclusions: it is not a case of cosmetics, it is a case of change- The Government has to respond transparently to the demands of an increasingly more critical and demanding society.- The aim of information is not to detect power but to share it to improve and change things.- Innovating is not doing something that you did not do before, but doing a new thing that you need to learn.- Innovation entails the pleasure of learning, but also of knowing and sharing. This will make us better professionals and better people and we will be happier.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, March 2010
  • 22. 20th web session at the CEJFEDigital skills and learningBoris Mir www.xtec.cat/~bmir, secondary school teacher and currently a member of the team behind theEDUCAT1x1 Project. The event was presented by Marta Continente, director general of CitizenAttention.CEJFE hall, 11 May 2010. 124 participants1. School and learningIn Catalonia there are 1,180,460 students; 62,805 teachers in state schools, and 4,373 schools, betweenstate, direct-grant and private. School has the non-exclusive function of learning, but also of safekeepingand socialisation, and it appears that these functions will not diminish, but quite the contrary. School is notjust a service, it is an institution, which is why user satisfaction is always subordinate to the degree ofrespect for educational and ethical principles that are the basis of the school institution.2. Cross-disciplinary skills in the new education systemBoth the State Education Act (2006) and Catalan Decrees 142 and 143/2007 include cross-disciplinaryand specific skills to the new curricula, one of which is information treatment and digital skill. This skills-based learning represents the integrated and strategic use of different skills in real, contextualised, non-school situations and entails changes in teaching practices that cannot be decreed. In all, it leads us tobelieve that we are undergoing a transition between different models that will call for more far-reachingchanges.3. Digital skill: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technologyThere are diverse visions and trends that speak of digital skill, but many have a common basis, abackground music that converges in key dimensions that would comprise learning, information,communication, digital culture and technology.Digital skill has to combine knowledge, abilities and skills, in conjunction with values and attitudes, inorder to achieve objectives effectively and efficiently in digital contexts and with digital tools. Digital skilltakes on meaning if it is tackled from the framework of knowledge, and as it forms part of it, it can belearnt and taught.A digitally skilled person has to be able to generate knowledge, with digital tools and environments, butthey also have to know how to treat and assess information, how to communicate, relate and collaborate,they have to act responsibly, civic-mindedly and securely and, naturally, they also have to know how touse the tools, not so much any specific software but the common baseboard that is behind the tools.4. Innovation and management of educational changeThe 2009 Catalan Education Act proposed changes to the organisation and management of the humanand economic resources of schools and envisaged a progressive increase in education expenditure.Innovations in education have to be scalable in order for them to have an overall impact. Simplyimproving education infrastructures is not enough, what is needed is decisive change management thatinvolves teachers and helps them move closer to the new digital context.Conclusions- Digital skill is the strategic use of skills in five areas: learning, information, communication, digital culture and technology.- The mass introduction of technology into classrooms does not ensure that digital skill is learned but creates the conditions to make it possible.- Schools cannot change themselves, they need the help of the whole of society.- Changes come about by doing them. We cannot wait until we have the perfect conditions to start, we will create the conditions as we steadily change and improve.Government of Catalonia. Barcelona, May 2010

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