Alfred adler


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Alfred adler

  1. 1. Alfred Adler Individual Psychology
  2. 2. Individual Psychology <ul><li>Used this term for his conception of personality because he was interested in investigating the uniqueness of the person. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapsychic (‘within the psyche”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpsychic (“interpersonal”) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Social Interest <ul><li>Refers to the urge in human nature to adapt oneself to the conditions of the social environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It expresses itself subjectively in one’s consciousness of having something in common with other people and of being one of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Leading concept of Adler’s individual psychology is his emphasis on the importance of human culture and society. </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings, like all living creatures are driven by certain innate instincts, drives or needs. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Finalism <ul><li>Adler agreed with Jung that teleology is necessary for a full understanding of personality. </li></ul><ul><li>For Adler, the goal that the individual pursues the decisive factor and he called this FINALISM. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Many of our guiding goals are fictions. Adler did not equate fiction with falseness;rather he indicated that we cannot know whether or not our goals a are true or false because there is no way to scientifically test them. </li></ul><ul><li>We are unable to have a complete understanding of things as they really are, so we structure our own idea of reality. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ FICTIONS ” are an individual’s or group’s interpretations of the events of the world. They are philosophical assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>We may assume that it’s best to tell the truth, that all people are basically good, or that hard work will eventually pay off. Such basic concepts are fictional finalisms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Striving for Superiority <ul><li>Adler suggested that the psyche has as its primary objective the goal of superiority. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the ultimate fictional finalism for which all human beings strive,and it gives unity and coherence to the personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially, Adler conceived of the primary motivating force as aggression. Later he identified the primary drives as a “will to power”. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>He refined the concept of a drive toward power and suggested that the essential dynamic of human nature lies in its striving for superiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, he changed from striving for individual superiority to striving for a superior society. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The drive for superiority involves the desire to be competent and effective in whatever one strives to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Jung idea of self-realization. Adler frequently used the term perfection, as a synonym for “superiority” which also means “completed” or “made whole”. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The striving for superiority may take the form of an exaggerated lust for power. An individual may seek to exercise control over objects and people and to play God. </li></ul><ul><li>Life is encouraged by the desire to move from below to above. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Inferiority Feelings <ul><li>The striving for superiority arises because as human beings we feel inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>Inferiority feelings have their origin in our encounter as infants in the environment. As human infants, unlike other animals, we are born immature, incomplete to satisfy even our basic needs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>There is a protected period during which we are almost totally dependent on other people for our survival. Feelings of inferiority thus reflect a fact of existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Such feelings are inescapable, but also invaluable, as they provide the major motivating force that leads to growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Our efforts and success at growth and development may be seen as attempts to compensate for and overcome our imagined or real inferiorities and weaknesses. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Style of Life <ul><li>Each individual seeks to cope with the environment and develop superiority in a unique way. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of us shares the common goal of striving for superiority, even though there are many different ways by which we may achieve this goal. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>One individual may try to develop competence and superiority through intellectual skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Another may seek self-perfection by capitalizing on physical strengths. </li></ul><ul><li>Style of life acts in part as a perceptual filter, influencing the ways in which we view the world. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Style of life results from 2 factors <ul><li>Inner goal orientation of the individual with its particular fictional finalisms and; </li></ul><ul><li>the forces of the environment that assist, impede, or alter the direction of the individual. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Each individual’s style of life is unique because of the different influences of our inner self and its constructs. </li></ul><ul><li>No two individuals ever had or could have the very same style of life. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 4 primary styles of life <ul><li>The Ruling type </li></ul><ul><li>The Getting type </li></ul><ul><li>The Avoiding type </li></ul><ul><li>The Socially Useful type </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Ruling Type <ul><li>Aggressive dominating people who have little social interest or cultural perception. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The getting type <ul><li>Dependent people who take rather than give. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Avoiding Type <ul><li>People who try to to escape life’s problems and engaged in little socially constructive activity. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Socially Useful type <ul><li>People with a great deal of social interest and activity. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Birth Order <ul><li>Among the factors that lead to different life-styles are the ordinal position of birth and different experiences in childhood. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Family Constellation <ul><li>Refers to one’s position within the family in terms of birth order among siblings and the presence or absence of parents and other caregivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Adler emphasized that the personalities of oldest, middle and the youngest children in a family are apt to be quite dissimilar simply by virtue of the different experiences that each child has as that particular member of the family group. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Oldest Children <ul><li>Tend to be more intelligent, achievement oriented, conforming and affiliative. </li></ul><ul><li>They often try to regain the glory that was theirs before they were dethroned by younger siblings. </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to exercise authority, lead or protect and help others. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Second Child <ul><li>May feel the need to accelerate and catch up with the first child. While oldest children often dream of falling from places (dethronement), second children are apt to be competitive and ambitious and often surpass as the firstborn in achievement and orientation. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Lastborn Children <ul><li>Are more sociable and dependent, having been the “baby” of the family. </li></ul><ul><li>They may also strive for excellence and superiority in an effort to surpass the older siblings. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Only children <ul><li>Tend to be more like older children in that they enjoy being the center of attention. Because they spend more time to the company of adults, rather than siblings, they tend to mature sooner and to adopt adult-like behaviors earlier in life. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Family Atmosphere <ul><li>The quality of emotional relationships among members of the family reflects the family atmosphere, which assists in determining whether or not the child will react actively or passively, constructively or destructively in the quiet toward superiority. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Adler thought children who are pampered or neglected are particularly predisposed to a faulty style of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The pampered child is one who is excessively spoiled and protected from life’s inevitable frustrations. Such a child is being deprived of the right to become independent and learn the requirements of living within the social order. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents who pamper a child make it difficult for the child to develop social feelings and become a useful member of society and culture. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>The neglected child is one who feels unwanted and rejected. Such a child is virtually denied the right to a place in social order. </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection arouses resistance in the child, feelings of inferiority and a tendency to withdraw from the implications of social life. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Creative Self <ul><li>Adler considered this concept the climax of his theory. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the self in its creative aspects that interprets and makes meaningful the experiences of the organism and that searches for experiences to fulfill the person’s unique style of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The creative self establishes, maintains and pursues the goals of the individual. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>The concept of the creative self also reinforces Adler’s affirmation that individuals make their own personalities from the raw materials of their heredity and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Adler believed that we are aware of everything we do and that, through self-examination, we can understand why we behaved in a certain way. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Adlerian Psychotherapy <ul><li>Neuroses, according to Adler, entail unrealistic life goals or fictional finalisms. Goals are not realistic unless they take into account our capacities, limitations, and social environment. </li></ul><ul><li>A person who felt extremely inferior or rejected as a child may set goals that are too high and unattainable. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Compensation entails making up for overcoming a weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcompensation refers to an exaggerated effort to cover up a weakness that entails a denial rather than an acceptance of the real situation. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Inferiority complex - individuals who feel highly inadequate may be suffering from this. </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority complex – individuals who exaggerate their own importance may be suffering from this. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Adler suggested that neurotics actually live a mistaken style of life, or life lie. Neurotics strive for personal aggrandizement. </li></ul><ul><li>Their style of life belies their actual capacities and strengths. They act as if their weak, as if they were doomed to be losers, when in fact they could create a constructive existence for themselves. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>They capitalize on imagined or real weakness and use them as an excuse rather than a challenge to deal constructively with life. </li></ul><ul><li>They employ safeguarding tendencies, compensatory devices that ward off feelings of inferiority in a maladaptive rather than adaptive fashion. </li></ul>