The rise and spread of christianityPresentation Transcript
The Rise and Spread of Christianity
The of the Roman Empire signaled the end of the ancient period of European history.
The next millennium is called the Middle Ages (500-1500 C.E.) which connects the ancient with the modern period.
It is divided into Early Middle Ages (500-1050 CE), High Middle Ages (1050-1270 C.E.) and Late or End of Middle Ages (1270-1500 C.E.)
In the Middle Ages, some of the characteristics of classical civilization – Greek and Roman were combined with other fields of Germanic civilization to form a way of life that is called medieval.
During this period, the most stable institution was Christianity and its church.
It is also said that the growth o Christianity was one of the factors that brought about the fall of the Roman Empire.
The teachings of Jesus Christ
It compared his teachings to a call for rebellion. This was because Jesus promoted the belief on one god.
In 33 C.E. Jesus was executed through crucifixion on the cross upon the orders of Pontius Pilate, the governor of Judea
Paul: Disciple of Jesus
The most important of Christian missionaries
A Jew from Tarsus, a city in Asia Minor.
Believed that Christianity was against Judaism.
He joined in the torture of Christians.
From 37 C.E. until 67 C.E. he traveled to various cities in the Eastern Mediterranean to bring the teachings of Jesus.
The Torture of Christians
Roman Empire allowed other religions as long as the people accepted the authority of the government.
Christians did not accept the law on emperor worship; enemy of the state.
Nero was one of the emperors who hated Christians.
He accused them of burning Rome in 64 CE and therefore punished them.
The widespread persecution of Christians occurred during the time of Emperor Decius in2 49 until 252 CE.
However, Christianity did not fade away as many believed.
In 311 CE, Christiaity was made legal in Eastern Roman Empire.
After 2 years, through the Edict of Milan, Emperor Constantine made Christianity legal religion throughout the Roman Empire.
In 395 CE, Emperor or Theodosius made Christianity the official religion.
The First Churches
Ecclesia- a small group, means a meeting
- they usually meet on their houses.
-the first churches were built in Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople and Corinth.
- the church in Rome was visited by St. Peter and St. Paul.
A Religion for All
In 325 CE Emperor Constantine convened the Council of Nicaea to draft a collection of teachings of Christianity.
The result of the meeting was the belief that God and Jesus Christ were of the same substance.
The Old Testament of the Jew is the official book of the divine scriptures of Christianity. The 27 books of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John wrote after the death of Jesus Christ constitute the Ne Testament.
Epistles- letters used by Paul to communicate.
The official doctrine or theology of the Christian Church was arranged in an orderly framework by four scholar priests – Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, and Gregory.
Vulgate- Latin bible used during the Medieval Age.
The Organization of the Church LAYMEN PRIESTS BISHOPS ARCHBISHOP CARDINAL POPE
The Germanic Tribes
In the 4 th century CE, many Germanic tribes in Europe lived east of the Rhine River and north of the Danube River.
These Germanic tribes were called barbarians.
They tilled soil and herded animals.
They were large and athletic built.
They value strength and courage in battle.
They worshipped various gods like Tiw, Woten, Thor, and Freya.
The Church As The Defender Of Civilization
With the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the church shouldered the burden of preserving the civilization of the Roman Empire and the introduction of this civilization to the Germanic tribes.
During the invasion of the Germanic tribes, the church fulfilled its duty to defend the weak and punish the wicked.
Anyone who wanted to defend himself could find refuge called right of sanctuary in any church.
The popes carried out some of the powers of the former emperors of the Roman Empire.
The church established courts and the collection of taxes was allowed.
withdrawal from the world to attain higher level of devotion to Christianity.
Spread in Europe in 520 CE when St. Benedict established a monastery in Monte, Casino in Italy.
The Age of Faith
With the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe entered the period of the Dark Ages from 6 th -8 th century.
The Church has a collection of beliefs that are accepted by anyone who becomes a Christian.
7 Sacraments* - is an external sign left to give grace.
Laws of the Church
Canon Law- is derived from Holy Scriptures, from the writings and decrees of the Popes.
Heresy- belief that was contrary to Christian doctrines or teachings was the gravest of all crimes.
Inquisition- the court that was established to look for and punish heretics.
Principal Weapons Used By The Church
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE FRANCISCAN AND DOMINICAN ORDERS
In the 13 th century, two orders of priests were established.
The Defense of the Holy Land
For hundred years, Christians were free to go to Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land to visit the holy places associated with the life and death of Jesus Christ.
However this privilege was revoked by the Seljuk Turks; they were nomads from the deserts of Central Asia who embraced Islam.
Call For Crusade
Emperor Alexius I asked help from pope Urban II to save the empire and preserve Christianity in the east.
Pope Urban II called for a council in1095 in Clermont where he invited thousands of knights “to take up the cross” and promised them forgiveness for al their sins.
Sincere desire to defend Christian devotees
Escape debts or the law
To become wealthy
They feared closure of trade (merchants)
First Crusade ( 1096-1099)
Joined by more than 10,000 farmers who did not have any knowledge and training in warfare.
A large part of the first crusade consisted of 20,000 to 25,000 knights.
1097- invaded Asia Minor; after 2 years Antioch in Syria.
July 15, 1099, they successfully entered Jerusalem
Four Crusader states were established:
Kingdom of Jerusalem- Godfrey of Bouillon
Second Crusade (1147-1149)
1144, Edessa once again fell into the hands of the Seljuk.
Bernard of Clairvaux called for another crusade.
Many responded but French and German lords did not trust one another. They left Europe separately.
Immediate defeat to Musilims.
Third Crusade (1189-1192)
1189- Seljuks captured all of the crusader states except for the city of Tyre.
2 years after they captured Jerusalem; the power of Muslims was returned to Saladin.
Three of the greatest kings of Europe led the 3 rd crusade: Frederick Barbosa, Richard the Lion-Hearted, and Philip Augustus.
Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)
In 1198, Pope Innocent III called for a Crusade to restore the once great honor of Jerusalem.
Instead of going to Jerusalem and fighting the Muslims, the Crusaders invaded Constantinople; because of the invitation of the merchants of Venice that it was necessary to bring back the Catholic faith among the Christian Orthodox.
1203, Crusaders captured Constantinople and placed their emperor on the throne.
Destroyed the altar in Hagia Sophia.
Results of the Crusade
Failed to achieve its principal aim to return Jerusalem into the hands of Christians
The Byzantine Empire was greatly weakened by the crusades.
At first crusade increased the power and influence of the Pope. However, after the 4 th crusade, church received criticisms and castigations.
The crusade help the kings to extend their power over the nobles who controlled large tracts of lands.
Improved science of warfare
Hastened the growth of trade between east and west
Brought a new incentive in the search for new trade routes and the emergence of commercial towns.