DAILY AGENDA Essay 3: Due Exam 3: Vocab and Terms Introduction to Essay #4: The Research Essay. Break In-class writing: Essay 2 Revision:
ESSAY 3: DUEEssay #3 packet includes two workshop drafts, two completed peer review forms, and a final draft.Please put your final draft on top, the two peer review forms next, and the two drafts on the bottom.Pass them to the front.
EXAM 3: VOCAB AND TERMSAnswer all 25 questions; there are questions on the back.Extra credit to anyone who can identify one or both of the authors of these two examples that I used to demonstrate figurative language. ―All the world’s a stage‖ The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough.
INTRODUCTION TO ESSAY #4: THE RESEARCH ESSAY.ObjectivesTo Lean to Write a Clear and Cohesive Research PaperTo Learn Rhetorical Strategies: Definition, Division and Classification, Process Analysis, and Persuasive Argument.To Learn to do Library ResearchTo Learn MLA Documentation Style
INTRODUCTION TO ESSAY #4: THE RESEARCH ESSAY.Trickster characters have existed in stories from most cultures since the earliest times. The long- lasting appeal of this archetype (recurring symbol of a recurring model) emphasizes the cultural need to acknowledge that all is not what it seems to be, that we need to be on the lookout for those who would fool us. It is not hard to account for the appeal of tricksters—they are fun in their radical assault on the status quo, yet their trickery also strikes a deeper chord for most people.
As societies have evolved, the cultural function of the tricksterhas been reinvented: who or what are they in a modern society?When and why do they appear?Helen Lock, in her essay ―Transformations of the Trickster,‖writes, Contentious issues include the status of the archaic archetypal tricksters (were they mortal or divine? can a god be a trickster?), the relation of tricksters to gender and to ethnicity, and the vexed question of whether modern tricksters exist at all. In one sense it does seem entirely appropriate that these embodiments of ambiguity (no dispute there, at least) should remain so elusive. However, it is still important to address these tricky questions, because the trickster performs such fundamental cultural work: in understanding the trickster better, we better understand ourselves, and the perhaps subconscious aspects of ourselves that respond to the trickster’s unsettling and transformative behavior.
TOPIC: For this essay, consider trickster tales and trickster or trickster-like characters from our reading. Do they, as Lock asserts, help us ―better understand ourselves, and the perhaps subconscious aspects of ourselves that respond to the trickster’s unsettling and transformative behavior‖? How? Or, do these trickster tales and trickster or trickster-like characters serve another purpose? Which?
• Due Dates: Last day of class: finals week• Submission Requirements: Please submit a hard copy with supporting documents.• Format Requirement: MLA-style formatting and citations• Length: Your finished text should be between 1000 and 1500 words, excluding the Works Cited page.Research Requirements• Works Cited Page• A Works Cited page names all of the sources that were used in an essay or research paper; it credits the source or sources for the information you present, evaluate, analyze, and synthesize to support your thesis. A Works Cited page also serves as a reference to the sources that were used so that a reader or writer can quickly refer to the original text.• The Works Cited page for this research project must contain at least three secondary source entries. Two of these must be either a book or article from a scholarly journal; the other may be a website or an article from a popular magazine, such as Time, National Geographic, or the LA Times. Remember, you can also draw on your own experiences and knowledge to discuss, explain, and analyze the texts you choose to support your assertion.
Ways to Begin:Consider the answers to the following questions:• What is a trickster? • Can you provide multiple definitions? Can you find one (or several) that supports your assertion? Can you modify a definition based on what you believe to be an evolution of the trickster character?• What is a trickster tale? • Can you provide multiple definitions? Can you find one that supports your assertion? Can you modify a definition based on what you believe to be an evolution of the trickster tale?
• Which, from our reading, are clearly identifiable as trickster tales?• Can you include others, or parts of others, that are not so easily identifiable?• What makes them trickster tales?• Which, from our reading, are trickster or trickster-like characters? What characteristics make them tricksters?• Morrison: ―Recitatif‖• Hughes: ―Passing‖ and ―Passing‖• Hughes: ―Who’s Passing for Who?‖• Chesnutt: ―The Passing of Grandison‖• Feinberg: Stone Butch Blues• Hwang: M Butterfly
ABOUT TRICKSTERSSouthern slave trickster tales focus on outwitting theplantation masters; in this way, they deviously attackedthe very system to which they were condemned: ―Theylearned what justice was, and they learned, as slaves,they had none. But they were able to make up storiesand even laugh in the face of their tragic predicament‖(Hamilton, A Ring of Tricksters 9).
JEAN HARDY PROVIDES THIS DEFINITION OF THIS ARCHETYPE:The archetype of the Trickster…is the existence of the unexpectedas it appears in every human society, sometimes fullyacknowledged, sometimes feared and hidden. He is the oppositeof order – but then he is opposite of everything: he can turn into ashe…He is the Green Man, the Jester, the clown, the witch or thewizard, Mercury, a shape shifter … the Fool with the potential attimes for becoming a Savior. He upsets normality and hierarchicorder…He can change the expected world, and therefore be anagent of transformation. (1)
POSSIBLE TRAITS OF THETRICKSTER• Deceitful: The trickster uses trickery to bring about change.• Self-Serving: The trickster often feels that he or she has been wronged and is therefore justified in taking action to bring about change and/or to defeat ―the enemy.‖• Shape Shifter: The trickster may change forms, sex, and so forth as an element of surprise to his victim. The change may also be psychological instead of (or in addition to) a visual change.
Cultural Hero:The trickster may be idealized as a cultural hero when, as the agentof transformation, he or she overturns a cruel or unfair leader orpolitical/social system or reverses the fortunes of the more powerfulparty. Prometheus, Raven, and Maui steal fire from the gods and giveit to humans. According to Helen Lock, this characteristic separatesthe fool from the trickster. ―The true trickster’s trickery calls intoquestion fundamental assumptions about the way the world isorganized, and reveals the possibility of transforming them (even iffor ignoble [shameful] ends)‖ (6). Michael J. Carroll includes culturalhero as an attribute as well; he characterizes the trickster as ―atransformer who makes the world habitable for humans by ridding itof monsters or who provides those things [such as fire] that makehuman society possible (―Levi-Strauss, Freud, and the Trickster‖305). Hardy characterizes the trickster as the source of unexpectedchanges in a world where change is not always comfortable and as asymbol of the uncertain world in which we live.
• Solitary creature – Many tricksters are solitary animals (or humans), working alone rather than with a partner or within a group – to undertake change. Michael P. Carroll notes that ―Ravens are usually sighted singly or at most in pairs; coyotes forage independently…; hares have long been noted for their solitariness…Spiders generally associate with members of their own species on only two occasions: when they are born and when they mate‖ (―Trickster as Selfish Buffoon‖ 115).• Physically, intellectually, or socially weak creature: The trickster is often portrayed as a much weaker character than his prey, and yet through cleverness and trickery, he is able to overcome all obstacles and prevail. In some cases the trickster may appear to be weaker physically in order to confuse his prey (false frailty).
• Special tools: The trickster may have special tools or abilities that enable him to perform his acts. Often these tools include magic and/or supernatural powers. An example would be the Chinese Monkey who keeps a needle behind his ear; when he removes the needle and recites a request, the needle may turn into any tool or implement that is required for a particular story.• Teacher: The trickster is a purveyor of life lessons through the stories, from manners to ethics. The teacher often forces the reader to examine the status quo and often, ―to break out of old stereotypes, whether they’ve been imposed by ourselves, our families, our culture, or circumstances (―The Trickster‖ 3).
BEST PRACTICES• As you reread the primary texts that you choose to use, keep in mind your argument; highlight specific passages, lines, or scenes that support your thesis.• Write a thesis that helps readers understand the point of the essay as well as enables them to understand the reasoning behind your assertions, examples, and explanations.• Avoid telling the reader that something is ―interesting,‖ or ―exciting‖; instead create images or use examples that show it.• Use metaphors to make the reader see the intensity or scope or depth of the trickster concept in modern literature.• Come to my office if you are unsure, confused, or behind.
TRAPS TO AVOID:• Using too many primary sources. You only have a few pages to make your point. Cluttering your essay with examples from too many sources will make your paper seem superficial and undeveloped.• Failing to assert a clear and strong argument.• Failing to sufficiently describe the concept of trickster for readers who may be unfamiliar with it.• Failing to accurately convey how the primary texts and characters qualify as trickster tales or tricksters.• Seeking to present the subject from memory or hearsay.• Failing to support the argument with evidence from appropriate sources.• Citing Wikipedia as a source for your research paper.
HOMEWORKReading: Hwangs M ButterflyWriting: Blog Prompt
Introduction: Anecdote or other interesting beginningTransition to thesis: William Pickens wrote, "only idiots would fail to seize theadvantages of passing, at least occasionally if not permanently. ‖Accommodate the opposition: Even though passing can create problems for somepeople,OrEven though passing has some superficial benefits,Thesis: I agree/disagree with Pickens because passing _____A______,______B________, and _______C_________Body Paragraph One Topic Sentence referring to point ABody Paragraph Two Topic Sentence referring to point BBody Paragraph Three Topic Sentence referring to point CCounterargument refers to accommodation or refutation of the opposition: Think aboutthe reasons someone might doubt your conclusions and respond to each of them.Conclusion: So what?
What are your “reasons” for agreeing or disagreeing with the act of passing? Your reasons should connect to your thesis. Find your topic sentence for each body paragraph. Find the textual evidence that supports your position. Do you explain how your examples support your thesis? If you have used quotations, have you introduced them and cited them?
GLOBAL REVISION STRATEGY Copy the thesis statement and each topic sentence into one paragraph. Read the paragraph.• Do the ideas flow logically or do they jump around randomly? Are all points of the argument covered adequately?• Is the argument balanced? Or does one section of the paper outweigh the rest?• If the sentences seem out of order, the paragraphs will be out of order which will weaken the effectiveness of the paper.
SURFACE REVISION STRATEGIESREAD ALOUD Reading the paper aloud slowly can often bring to attention large and small mistakes missed in the writing and typing process.• Read each sentence and ask if it makes sense. • Is it awkward? • Are you including words that are not actually written on the paper?
Grammar and Sentence Structure LOOK FOR RUN-ON SENTENCES. LOOK FOR FRAGMENTS. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE COMMAS AFTER YOUR INTRODUCTORY CLAUSES MAKE SURE YOU USE A COMMA AND A CONJUNCTION TO CONNECT COMPLETE SENTENCES. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE CHOSEN THE RIGHT WORDS ELIMINATE WORDINESS WRITE IN THE ACTIVE VOICE.
PUNCTUATING QUOTES CAN BE FRUSTRATING BECAUSE WE OFTEN GET CONFUSED ABOUT WHERE TO PUT PUNCTUATION. THE FOLLOWING CHART OFFERS A STRAIGHTFORWARD VIEW ON HOW TO PUNCTUATE THE END OF A QUOTE: QUESTION MARKS & E X C L A M AT I O NPERIODS & COMMAS POINTS If the original quote ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark,They go inside the quotation marks we must include it inside the quotation marks. even if there is no period or comma ORIGINAL TEXT: at the end of the quoted material in Will not a righteous God visit for these things? the original text. QUOTED TEXT: When Douglass asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for theseException: If there is a parenthetical things?" he raises the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian" slaveholders. citation immediately after the quote, the period or comma goes Notice that we dont put a comma after the question mark, even though normally we would if there was not a question mark. We omit the after the parenthetical citation. comma to avoid double punctuation.COLONS & SEMI-COLONS If we want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation we create, then the question mark or the exclamation mark goesColons and semi-colons always go outside the quotation marks. outside the quotation, even if the ORIGINAL TEXT: original quoted material ends with The grave is at the door. (FD 38) either form of punctuation. QUOTED TEXT: How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door"?
Note that the works cited page is in alpha order and that there are no numbers next to the entries. You may underline or italicize your titles, but pick one and be consistent. This, like all of your papers should be done in Times New Roman 12.
HOMEWORKReading: Hwangs M ButterflyWriting: Blog Prompt