3. TERMS LIST 2 Ableism: A pervasive system of discrimination and exclusion that oppresses people who have mental, emotional, and physical disabilities. Ally: A person who supports marginalized, silenced, or less privilege groups without actually being a member of those groups. This person will often directly confront and challenge biphobia, homophobia, heterosexism, racism, transphobia and other systems of oppression. Binary Gender: A system that defines and makes room for two and only two distinct, natural and opposite genders (i.e. male and female). These two genders are defined in opposition to each other, such that masculinity and femininity are seen as mutually exclusive. In this system, there is no room for any ambiguity or intermingling of gender traits.
4. Classism: Bias based on social or economic class. Critical Consciousness: a process of continuous self-reflection and action to discover and uncover how we continue to be shaped by societal assumptions and power dynamics: an essential tool to help us to recognize, understand and work to change the social forces that shape our societies an ourselves. Cultural Appropriation: The adoption of cultural elements not in one’s own culture, without full knowledge of or respect for its value within the original culture. Cultural Oppression: Social norms, roles, rituals, language, music, and art that reflect and reinforce the belief that one social group is superior to anther. Dominance: The systematic attitudes and actions of prejudice, superiority, and self- righteousness of one group (a non-target group) in relation to another (a target group). Internalized dominance includes the inability of a group or individual to see privilege as a member of the non-target group.
5. QHQ Discussion: "Recitatif"Where do you think the author came up with the idea to name this story “Recitatif”?
6. Racial Ambiguity: Class Difference? Why did Morrison choose to leave the girls’ races ambiguous? Does this story make the reader reinforce the black/white racial binary? What are the effects of stereotypes? Is racial identification still important to a person nowadays? What was the bigger conflict, class difference, or racism? What really IS the big problem nowadays? [race or class]
7. Reunions When Twyla sees Roberta, why is Roberta not as happy to see Twyla. In other words, why does she act so shallow? What did Roberta gain from being so shallow and mean to Twyla?
8. Mental Illness? Why does Roberta seem so mentally messed up? The story hints at the fact that Twyla may have some form of mental problems, due to her suppression of certain memories, lack of somewhat basic knowledge (poor grammar in her story as well), and irrational behavior at times. What is the author’s purpose for this? Does Twyla or Roberta have a memory problem or is something more complex than that?
9. Maggie Why was the Maggie reference important? Why can’t Twyla remember what really happened to Maggie? Why did Roberta want Twyla to believe that they beat up Maggie? Was Maggie pushed or not? Was Maggie really deaf/mute? What did happen to Maggie in the end? Why does the story end with the mystery of what happened to Maggie?
10. Comparing Works We Have Read What does” Morrison’s “Recitatif” have in common with Hughes’s “Who’s Passing for Who? What do they share with other works? How are they different? “Passing” the poem “Passing” the short story “The Passing of Grandison” The Human Stain Do you have any other insights into “passing” that you have realized through our readings or discussions.
11. Does PassingReinforce the social Disrupt the social construct? construct?
12. Reinforcement of Social Construct Passing scholar, Leo Spitzer writes that passing was “by and large a personal solution to discrimination and exclusion. It was an action that, when accomplished successfully, generally divorced its individual practitioners from others in the subordinated group, and in no way challenged the ideology of racism or the system in which it was rooted. Indeed, because individuals responding to marginality through . . . passing could be viewed as either conscious or unwitting accomplices in their own victimization—as persons consenting to the continuing maintenance of existing inequalities and exclusionary ideologies—it is certainly understandable why they often elicited such scathing criticism from their contemporaries” (Kennedy 11-12)
13. Disruption of Social Construct “Passing, however, does pose at least some challenge to racist regimes. That is why they typically try to prevent it. Fleeing bondage by passing may have been an individualistic response to the tyranny of slavery but it did free human beings and helped to belie the canard that slaves were actually content with their lot. The successful performance of “white man’s work” by a passing Negro upset racist claims that blacks are categorically incapable of doing such work. The extent of the disturbance is severely limited by the practical necessity of keeping the passing secret. But under some circumstances a limited disturbance is about all that can be accomplished” (Kennedy 12).
14. Writing Essay #2
15. The Prompt:If passing for white will get a fellow better accommodations on the train, better seatsin the theatre, immunity from insults in public places, and may even save his life froma mob,” only idiots would fail to seize the advantages of passing, at least occasionally ifnot permanently.”Write an essay of 750 to 1000 words arguing for or against William Pickens’sstatement. Use support from the texts you have read so far, our discussions, and yourown insights. Do you agree with Pickenss statement? If yes, why? If no, why not?
16. Your ThesisYour refined thesis will be your position onWilliam Pickens’s Statement: Do you agreewith him or not? Why or why not? You mayrefer to Pickens or not in your thesis. You mayforecast your reasons in your thesis, or youmay refer to a broader theme and provide yourreasons in the body of your essay.
17. What are your “reasons” for agreeing ordisagreeing with the act of passing? Your reasonsshould connect to your thesis. Each one should bea topic for at least one body paragraph Consider your best support for your assertion. This will likely be from your brainstorming using FREECASH. Find textual evidence to support your position. Explain how your examples support your thesis. You can also use secondary sources if you would like to, but they are not necessary for this paper.
18. Building Body Paragraphs Topic Sentence: This is reason #1 that you agree or disagree. Textual Evidence: This is an example from one of the texts that we read. Explanation/Analysis: This is where you explain how your example supports your topic sentence. You can also draw conclusion from inferences. Other Evidence: This could be from another primary text, a secondary text, or from your personal experience. Explanation/Analysis: This is where you explain how your example supports your topic sentence. You can also draw conclusion from inferences. Transition: This section moves your reader from your first body paragraph to your second body paragraph.
19. IntroductionsYou never get a second chance to make a first impression. Theopening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers withtheir initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, andthe overall quality of your work. A vague, disorganized, error-filled,off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negativeimpression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly ofyou, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper.
20. Start by thinking about the question you are trying to answer:Write an essay of 500 to 750 words arguing for or against William Pickens’s statement:"If passing for white will get a fellow better accommodations on the train, better seats in thetheatre, immunity from insults in public places, and may even save his life from a mob," wroteWilliam Pickens, "only idiots would fail to seize the advantages of passing, at least occasionally ifnot permanently"Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and yourintroduction is the first step toward that end. Your direct answerto the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis willbe included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use thequestion as a jumping off point.
21. Open with an attention grabber. Consider these options:• A provocative quotation: Consider a line or two from one of the texts we read.• An intriguing example of passing: Provide a situation or two in which a person might be inclined to pass.• A puzzling scenario: Imagine a scene that makes a reader consider the consequences or benefits of passing.• A vivid and perhaps unexpected anecdote: Open with a short story about a successful or failed passing attempt.• Find common ground with your reader: Offer a contemporary example of passing (maybe a humorous one, even) and then explain the more reasons for passing in this earlier time period.
22. Avoid statements like "In this paper, I will argue that racial passing destabilizes the social construction of race and is therefore beneficial to society." While this sentence points toward your main argument, it isnt especially interesting. It might be more effective to say what you mean in a declarative sentence: “Racial passing destabilizes the social construction of race and is therefore beneficial to society." It is much more convincing to tell your readers that than to tell them that you are going to say that it does. Assert your main argument confidently. After all, you cant expect your reader to believe it if it doesnt sound like you believe it!
23. Introductions to Avoid1. The restated question introduction: Twists the question to take up space in the introduction.2. The place holder introduction: Offers several vague sentences that don’t really say much.3. The Websters Dictionary introduction. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question.4. The "dawn of man" introduction. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time.5. The book report introduction. This introduction gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book.
24. Let’s Try to Write an Introduction or Two Now. An intriguing example of A vivid and perhaps passing: Provide a situation unexpected anecdote: Open or two in which a person with a short story about a might be inclined to pass. successful or failed passing attempt. A provocative quotation: Consider a line or two from Find common ground with one of the texts we read. your reader: Offer a contemporary example of A puzzling scenario: Imagine passing (maybe a humorous a scene that makes a reader one, even) and then explain consider the consequences the more reasons for passing or benefits of passing. in this earlier time period.
25. Possible OutlineIntroduction:Thesis: This will likely be near the end of your introductionMultiple Body Paragraphs supporting your thesis: The topic sentences of your body paragraphs(probably situated fairly early in the paragraph) should connect directly to your thesis. You should use thefollowing rhetorical strategies to support your topic sentence: define (describe and/or characterize unfamiliar terms, situations, or events) classify (briefly distinguish between types) exemplify (provide examples from primary or secondary texts) analyze (explore and/or evaluate, particularly in terms of the connections of the examples to your reasons or thesis) explain (give details about) the connection between your example and your assertions. conclude (provide a logical conclusion for your readers) Transition (prepare your reader for the next paragraph.Counter Argument: Anticipate your readers questions or doubts. Will will discuss this in our next class.Conclusion: We will discuss this in our next class.
26. WritingSketch out a rough outline.Intro: What kind?Thesis: Write out a working thesis or your refined thesisBody 1: One of your strongest arguments supporting your thesis. support/exampleBody 2: Another reason support/exampleBody 3: Another reason support/exampleBody 4:One of your strongest arguments supporting your thesis. support/exampleCounterargument:Conclusion:
27. HOMEWORK Reading: Begin Stone Butch Blues (1-65) Post #12: Post partial draft: Introduction, Thesis, Minimum three body paragraphs (with topic sentences, evidence, and explanation) Studying: Vocab/Terms