Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
Summer 1 b class 4
Class 4EWRT 1B
AGENDAPresentation: TermsAuthor Lecture: Langston HughesQHQ Discussion: Racial Passing: "Passing" and "Passing‖Lecture: Writing a Summary and Paraphrasing PoetryIn-class writing: Summary; paraphrase
Terms 19. Characterization: the creation of the image of imaginary persons in drama, narrative poetry, the novel, and the short story. Characterization generates plot and is revealed by actions, speech, thoughts, physical appearance, and the other characters’ thoughts or words about him. 20. Dialogue: is a conversation, or a literary work in the form of a conversation, that is often used to reveal characters and to advance the plot. Also, it is the lines spoken by a character in a play, essay, story, or novel. 21. Epistle: a letter, especially a formal or didactic one; written communication. Also (usually initial capital letter ) one of the apostolic letters in the new testament or ( often initial capital letter ) an extract, usually from one of the Epistles of the New Testament, forming part of the Eucharistic service in certain churches.
22. Irony: a dryly humorous or lightly sarcastic figure of speech in which theliteral meaning of a word or statement is the opposite of that intended. Inliterature, it is the technique of indicating an intention or attitude opposed towhat is actually stated. Often, only the context of the statement leads thereader to understand it is ironic. Irony makes use of hyperbole, sarcasm,satire, and understatement.There are four types of irony:• Verbal irony as defined by Cicero: ―Irony is the saying of one thing and meaning another,‖ or Socrates: ‖when one adopts another’s point of view in order to reveal that person’s weaknesses and eventually to ridicule him.‖• Situational irony, such as when a pickpocket gets his own pockets picked• Dramatic irony, such as when Oedipus unwittingly kills his own father• Rhetorical irony, such as that of the innocent narrator in Twain’s Huckleberry Finn
23. Literal: pertaining to a letter of the alphabet. More typically, itmeans ―based on what is actually written or expressed.‖ A literalinterpretation gives an exact rendering— word for word— takingwords in their usual or primary sense. It is also used to describethinking which is unimaginative or matter of fact.24. Literature: writings in which expression and form, inconnection with ideas and concerns of universal and apparentlypermanent interest, are essential features. While applied to anykind of printed material, such as circulars, leaflets, and handbills,there are some who feel it is more correctly reserved for prose andverse of acknowledged excellence, such as George Eliot’s works.The term connotes superior qualities.25. Paraphrase: (also called rewording) – the restatement of apassage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involvesexpanding the original text so as to make it clear.
LANGSTONHUGHES 1902-1967One of the founders of thecultural movement known asthe Harlem Renaissance.
Few authors of the twentieth century are more significant thanLangston Hughes. He is assured his status by his manycontributions to literature.• The length of his career: 1921-1967• The variety of his output: articles, poems, short stories, dramas, novels, and history texts.• His influence on three generations of African American writers: from the Harlem Renaissance through the Civil Rights Movement• His concern for the ―ordinary‖ African American: The subject of his work• His introduction of the jazz idiom: the quality of black colloquial speech and the rhythms of jazz and the blues.
During his long career Hughes was harshly criticizedby blacks and whites. Because he left no singlemasterwork, such as Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man(1952) or Richard Wright’s Native Son (1940), andbecause he consciously wrote in the common idiomof the people, academic interest in him grew onlyslowly. The importance of his influence on severalgenerations of African American authors is, however,indisputable and widely acknowledged.
―Passing‖ The Short Story Q. What did [Jack] trade for passing as white and was it worth it? Q: How far is jack willing to go to keep this life? Q. How [long] can he pull [passing] off? Q. Is there a sense of entitlement that comes with the new way of life [Jack] has adopted? Q: Will he finally tell the truth to his girlfriends after ten years? Twenty year? When her parents are dying? Q. Will Jack ever introduce [his] girlfriend to [his] Mother or [will he] lie about her existence?‖ Q: Should jack feel guilty for lying about his heritage to his friends and family? Q. Is Jack ashamed to associate with or be around [people of color]? Q: How are people suppose to acknowledge black people if Jack can’t even accept himself for what he truly is? Q. Is [Jack] really a free man?
Consequences Q. Does Jack regret passing as a white man? Q: What is going to happen when people (his girlfriend, work, etc.) actually find out Jack’s true ―identity‖? Q: What is going to happen to his relationship with the girl when she finds out he is actually black? Q: Do you think Jack would have had the opportunity to keep his job […] if his employer found out he was passing? Q: How will Jack’s life change after he tells his girlfriend about his family? Q: How has being a privileged white man changed [Jack’s] viewpoint about his siblings?
Jack’s Poor Mother Q. What is the purpose for Jack to write this letter to his mother? Q: Is it right that Jack lives this way with his mother? Q: Is there any regret in the way Jack wrote to his mother? Q: Despite receiving the privileges and ―passing,‖ would Jack reconsider changing his life for his mother Q: Do you think Jack will ever be able to talk to his mother? Q: What would his mother have to say about this? Q: Did she avoid him because of the shame he would get or indifference towards her son leaving the family? Q. How would Jack’s mother would respond to this letter? Q: How can Jack’s mother approve/encourage of him ―passing‖ as a white person? Q: Did his mother make the right decision on pushing her son to be white? Did it cause him to be distant from his family?
What does this mean? Q: What did his girl mean when she [said] ―darkies are so graceful and gay?‖ Q. Jack makes the comment that he is going to ―live white‖ in comparison to live life as a white man. What does Jack mean by the phrase ―live white‖? Q: What do you think Jack meant when he said ―I’m free, Ma I’m free!‖? Q: Why does the author call his girlfriend ―weakness‖ in the last paragraph?
Broader Inquiries about social policy, perspective, and choice. Q. How horrible must it have been to actually feel it necessary [. . .] to detach from one’s roots and adopt another? Q :Is is worth lying to someone to get past initial prejudice? Q: How hard was it to pass for white when people would ask about your history and background? Q: Why do we [care] about where [other people’s] ancestors came from? Q. Is it considered morally corrupt to pass as a different race to the extent where you sacrifice ties with your family, in order to live a more successful life? Q: Do we as individuals [view] society’s views as more important than our own actual views? Q. Is mental slavery worse than physical?
―Passing‖ By Langston HughesOn sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlemwhen the air is one interminable ball gameand grandma cannot get her gospel hymnsfrom the Saints of God in Christon account of the Dodgers on the radio,on sunny Sunday afternoonswhen the kids look all newand far too clean to stay that way,and Harlem has itswashed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out,the ones who’ve crossed the lineto live downtownmiss you,Harlem of the bitter dreamsince their dream hascome true.
―Passing‖: The Poem Q: What is happening in this poem; what is it all about? Q: What does the phrase ―the ones who’ve crossed the line to live downtown miss you, Harlem of the bitter dream since their dream has come true‖ mean? Q: Why would people have to pass as a downtown person in order to show that they are successful and living their dreams? Q: Why is Harlem referred to it as the ―bitter dream‖ as opposed to something else? Q. How does this fit with Hughes’s short story by the same title?
How to Paraphrase A Paraphrase is a restatement of a passage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involves expanding the original text so as to make it clear. A paraphrase will have none of the beauty or effectiveness of the original. It merely aims, in its prosy way, to spell out the literal meaning. It will not substitute for the original, then, but will help us appreciate the compactness and complexity of many poems. Write in prose, not verse (in prose the lines go all the way to right margin). The line breaks of the original are irrelevant in paraphrasing. Write modern prose, rearranging word order and sentence structure as necessary. As far as possible, within the limits of commonsense, avoid using the words of the original. Finding new words to express the meaning is a test of what you are understanding. Write coherent syntax, imitating that of the original if you can do so with ease, otherwise breaking it down into easier sentence forms. Write in the same grammatical person and tense as the original. If the original is in the first person, as many poems are, so must the paraphrase be.
Expand what is condensed. Spell out explicitly what the original implies or conveys by hints. It follows that a paraphrase will normally be longer than the original. Spell out explicitly all the possible meanings if the original is ambiguous (saying two or more things at once), as many poems are. Use square brackets to mark off any additional elements you find it necessary to insert for the coherence of the meaning. The brackets will show that these bits are editorial -- contributed by you for the sake of clarity but not strictly "said" in the original. An example might be some implied transitional phrase or even an implied thought that occurs to the speaker causing a change in tone or feeling.
I, Too, Sing America Paraphrased Textby Langston HughesI, too, sing America. I am an American.I am the darker brother.They send me to eat in the kitchen Although the color of my skin may beWhen company comes, different from yours, I am like the rest ofBut I laugh, my fellowmen. Now I am separated fromAnd eat well, whites, but I [and my people] are gainingAnd grow strong. strength.Tomorrow,Ill be at the table Soon, I [we] will join the rest of America,When company comes. and my [our] rights will assure us that weNobodyll dare are not excluded from the fruits of theSay to me, country."Eat in the kitchen,"Then. My darker complexion makes me no less beautiful than everybody else, which shouldBesides, make whites feel sorry for treating me likeTheyll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed-- less than the average individual.I, too, am America. I am like the rest of you.
―Passing‖ By Langston Hughes On sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlem when the air is one interminable ball game and grandma cannot get her gospel hymns from the Saints of God in Christ on account of the Dodgers on the radio, on sunny Sunday afternoons when the kids look all new and far too clean to stay that way, Take a few minutes and Harlem has its washed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out, to paraphrase this the ones who’ve crossed the line to live downtown poem miss you, Harlem of the bitter dream since their dream has come true.
The SummaryA summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long nor should it be long. To write a summary, use your own words to briefly express the main idea and relevant details of the piece you have read. Your purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading. What was it about and what did the author want to communicate?
While reading the original work, take note of what or who is the focus and ask the usual questions that reporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions to examine what you are reading can help you to write the summary.Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfully and look for a thesis statement. Finding the thesis statement is like finding a key to a locked door. Frequently, however, the thesis, or central idea, is implied or suggested. Thus, you will have to work harder to figure out what the author wants readers to understand. Use any hints that may shed light on the meaning of the piece: pay attention to the title and any headings and to the opening and closing lines of paragraphs.
In writing the summary, let your reader know the piece that you aresummarizing. Identify the title, author and source of the piece. You may wantto use this formula:In "Title of the Piece" (source and date of piece), author shows/offers/suggeststhat: central idea of the piece. Remember: • Do not rewrite the original piece. • Keep your summary short. • Use your own wording. • Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece. • Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind.
Here is a sample summary:In the short story ―The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,‖ authorJames Thurber humorously presents a character whofantasizes about himself as a hero enduring incrediblychallenging circumstances. In his real life, Walter Mitty lives anordinary, plain life; he is a husband under the control of anoverbearing, critical wife. Thurber uses lively dialogue to givereaders an understanding of Mittys character. The story takesplace over a period of about twenty minutes; during this brieftime, Mitty drives his wife to the hairdresser and runs errandsthat his wife has given him while he waits for her. In betweenhis worrying that he is not doing what she wants him to do, hedaydreams about himself as a great surgeon, brilliant repairtechnician, expert marksman, and brave military captain. Thisstory shows that fantasy is often a good alternative to reality.
―Passing‖the Short StoryBy Langston HughesStart your summary of the story
HOMEWORK• Reading: Kennedy "Racial Passing" Posted under "Secondary Sources."• Post #5: Post summary of "Passing" and paraphrase of "Passing."• Studying: Terms• Post #6: Discuss one story from Kennedys article that particularly spoke to you. How did it influence you in your thinking about passing?