Agenda Presentation: Four Sentence Types Discussion: review for essay #1
Types of Sentences1. Simple2. Compound3. Complex4. Compound-complex
#1: Simple Sentence A simple sentence has one subject and one verb I like to study grammar. A simple sentence is also called an independent clause. An independent clause ends with a period or semicolon.
Simple Sentences Examples: Carol’s sweater is red. You and Alex need to be quiet. Ms. Bennett did a cartwheel and a backflip.
#2: Compound Sentence A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by one of the following: A comma and a coordinating conjunction I like to study grammar, and I love this class. A semicolon I like to study grammar; I love this class. A semicolon and an adverbial conjunction I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class.
Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions are used to join together two independent clauses. Examples: For And Nor But Or Yet So
Independent clause I love you, and you love me. Independent clauseTwo independent clauses joined together
Semicolons “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).
COMPOUND SENTENCE:SEMICOLON Mary has benefited from her writingexercises; she has good grammar and punctuation. Tiffany works in San Francisco; she runs The Duck. Elaine pays attention in class; she takes copious notes
COMPOUND SENTENCE:CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBSThomas is cool; moreover, he is fashionable Clause 1 . Clause 2 Independent Independent Luke’s grandmother buys him sweaters; however, he does not like them.
#3: Complex Sentence A complex sentence is a simple sentence (independent clause) to which a part of a sentence (dependent clause) has been added. Because I like to study grammar, I love this class. I love this class because I like to study grammar.
Dependent clause Because you love me, I love you. Independent clauseA dependent clause joined to an independent clause. (The dependent clause needs the rest of the sentence for support.)
Fragment! Because you love me.A dependent clause contains a subject and verb. It beginswith a subordinating conjunction, and thus it does not expressa completed thought. A dependent clause is also called asubordinate clause.Dependent clauses, like babies, cannot stand alone.
A Tip on Punctuation Since dependent clauses are only part of a sentence, you can never connect them to another sentence with a semicolon. Semicolons are only used between two independent clauses. I have loved you for years ; although I never admitted it. No! I have loved you for years, although I never admitted it. OK
Common Subordinating (Dependent) Conjunctionsafter even if now that that wherealthough even once though whereas thoughas if rather than unless whereveras if whenever since until whetherbecause in order so that when whichbefore that than in case while
Complex Sentences Examples: When Trey was little, he played with blocks. After class, good students study. If I pass 1A, I will take 1B. Use the stairs in case of fire. Ava stands at the bottom of the cliff while the climber moves up the rock.
#4: Compound/ComplexSentence A compound/complex sentence is the last and most complicated type of sentence. It contains at least one dependent clause and at least two independent clauses.
Dependent clause Because we are a family, I love you, and you love me. 2 independent clausesA dependent clause added to two or more independentclauses
Compound ComplexSentencesExample: Laura forgot her friend’s birthday, so she sent her a card when she finally remembered.
Since every sentence in English fits intoone of these four categories, Simple Compound Complex Compound/ complex
Think You’ve Got It? 1 independent clause = simple sentence Don’t’ forget: These can have compound subjects and predicates! 2 independent clauses = compound sentence 1 or more dependent clause + 1 independent clause = complex sentence 2 or more independent clauses + 1 or more dep. clause = compound complex sentence
Simple, Compound, or Complex? The teacher walked into the classroom, greeted the students, and took attendance.
Simple, Compound, or Complex? The teacher walked into the classroom, greeted the students, and took attendance. SIMPLE: Subject: “the teacher” Compound Predicate “walked into the classroom, greeted the students, and took attendance.”
Simple, Compound, or Complex? Juan played football while Juanita went shopping.
Simple, Compound, or Complex? Juan played football while Juanita went shopping. COMPLEX Independent Clause: Juan played football Subordinate Clause: while (subordinating conjunction) Juanita went shopping.
Simple, Compound, or Complex? Juan played football, yet Juanita went shopping.
Simple, Compound, or Complex? Juan played football, yet Juanita went shopping. COMPOUND Juan played football, yet (coordinating conjunction) Juanita went shopping.
Simple, Compound, or Complex? After Reggie passed the test, he went to the bar to celebrate!
Simple, Compound, or Complex? After Reggie passed the test, he went to the bar to celebrate! COMPLEX After (subordinating conjunction) Reggie passed the test, he went to the bar to celebrate!
YOU NOW KNOW EVERYTHINGYOU NEED TO KNOW• To write anything you want towrite• Any way you want to write it• And still get the punctuation righteach time! CONGRATULATION S!
OutlineWrite a one-page outline to use on the essayexam tomorrow.•I suggest the following format•Introduction idea•Thesis•Topic sentences for paragraphs•Counterargument ideas•Conclusion idea
HOMEWORK Post #4: Outline with thesis Bring: A hard copy of your outline, pen, and paper to class tomorrow for the test.