1. Protagonist: The protagonist or hero1. Protagonist: The protagonist or hero is the central character in the story is the central character in the story who engages our interest or who engages our interest or sympathy. Sometimes, the term sympathy. Sometimes, the term protagonist is preferable to hero, protagonist is preferable to hero, because the central character can be because the central character can be despicable as well as heroic. despicable as well as heroic.2. Antagonist: the character or force2. Antagonist: the character or force that opposes the antagonist. that opposes the antagonist.
3. Character: an imagined person in a literary work.3. Character: an imagined person in a literary work.4. Flat characters: are one-dimensional figures with4. Flat characters: are one-dimensional figures with simple personalities. They show none of the simple personalities. They show none of the human depth, complexity, and contrariness of a human depth, complexity, and contrariness of a round character or of most real people. round character or of most real people.5. Round characters are complex figures. A round5. Round characters are complex figures. A round character is a full, complex, multidimensional character is a full, complex, multidimensional character whose personality reveals some of the character whose personality reveals some of the richness and contradictoriness we are richness and contradictoriness we are accustomed to observing in actual people, rather accustomed to observing in actual people, rather than the transparent obviousness of a flat than the transparent obviousness of a flat character. We may see a significant change take character. We may see a significant change take place in a round character during the story. place in a round character during the story.
7. Motivation is the external forces7. Motivation is the external forces (setting, circumstances) and internal (setting, circumstances) and internal forces (personality, temperament, forces (personality, temperament, morality, intelligence) that compel a morality, intelligence) that compel a character to act as he or she does in a character to act as he or she does in a story. story.8. Plot: the artistic arrangement of events8. Plot: the artistic arrangement of events in a story. in a story.9. Chronological Order: the story is told in9. Chronological Order: the story is told in the order in which things happen. It the order in which things happen. It begins with what happens first, then begins with what happens first, then second, and so on, until the last incident second, and so on, until the last incident is related. is related.
The Review Review: In your groups, Review: In your groups, discuss plot and POV. Consider discuss plot and POV. Consider the three stories from your the three stories from your reading reading Plot and POV “The Tell Tale Heart” “A Very Short Story” “Dr. Chevalier’s Lie”
Climax: The turning point. The most Plot Line intense moment (either mentally or in action). The conflict is generally addressed here. Rising Action: the series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to Falling Action: all of the the climax. action that follows the Climax. Conflict: Struggle between opposing forces Resolution: The conclusion; the tying together of all of theExposition: The start of the threads.story. The way things are beforethe action starts.
The Tell Tale Climax: The narrator kills the old man, Heart cuts up the body, and hides it under the floor Rising Action: Falling Action: 2. The narrator makes 1.The police show up and he shows a noise and wakes the them the house. They settle in man up: he opens the the old man’s bedroom. eye. 2.The noise gets louder and louder 1. He goes to the room until the narrator tells the cops to every night for a week, look under the floorboards. but the eye is closed Conflict: The narrator wants to kill the old man Resolution: The narratorExposition: The narrator offers a identifies the source of thestory as proof he is not insane. Hedescribes the situation with old man “sound” as “the beating of [theand his eye. man’s] hideous heart.”
Climax: The turning point. The most“A Very Short intense moment (either mentally or inStory” action). The conflict is generally“Dr. Chevalier’s addressed here.Lie” Rising Action: the series of conflicts Falling Action: all of the and crisis in the action that follows the Climax. story that lead to the climax. Conflict: Struggle between opposing forces Resolution: The conclusion; the tying together of all of theExposition: The start of the threads.story. The way things are beforethe action starts.
Review:Three Common Points of View Omniscient: The narrator knows everything, including what each character is thinking, feeling, and doing throughout the story. 3rd Person Limited: The narrator knows only the thoughts and feelings of a single character, while other characters are presented only externally. 1st Person: The narrator participates in action but sometimes has limited knowledge about both events outside of those in which he or she is directly involved and motivations that are not his or her own.
Point of View “The Tell Tale Heart” What kind of narrator by Edgar Allan Poe tells this story?
Point of View “The Tell Tale Heart” 1st person narrator by Edgar Allan Poe Unreliable: he is trying to prove he is sane, which he obviously is not! The narrator admits that "he can hear all things in the heaven and in the earth [and] many things in hell" He occasionally pretends to be an omniscient narrator. When he says, "Presently I heard a slight groan, and I knew it was the groan of mortal terror. […] I knew the sound well. Many a night […] it has welled up from my own bosom,” he is telling us how the hold man feels and what he thinks.
Point of View “A Very Short Story” What kind of narrator tells by Ernest Hemingway this story?
Point of View “A Very Short Story” Omniscient or 3rd person limited narrator? by Ernest The narrator seems to be external, yet he Hemingway generally speaks from the point of view of the man. Note that he neither names him nor identifies him. Furthermore, the last sentences are like the description of the scene that this man sees. But, the narrator doesnt obviously enter the man’s mind, so he appears to be an objective narrator in that he leaves the interpretation of the actions of the characters to the reader. Yet, there are signs of anger in the text, which suggests that the narrator is manipulating the reader into seeing the story from his point of view. This would conflict with the objective narrator POV.
Point of View “Dr. Chevalier’s Lie” What kind of narrator by Kate Chopin tells this story?
Point of View “Dr. Chevalier’s Lie” The (objective) omniscient by Kate Chopin narrator The story includes details about both the doctor’s and the townspeople’s behavior. The neutral tone in the conclusion shows that the narrator does not editorialize about society’s thoughts about the girl or Chevalier’s lie.
In Groups, discuss POV. Prepare to read a paragraph or twodemonstrating each of the following perspectives:1st person Wolf1st person little Pig1st person Mother Pig or another minor character3rd person Wolf3rd person little Pig3rd person Mother Pig or another minor characterOmniscient Objective: Just tells factsOmniscient Subjective: Enters the minds and shares feelings ofmultiple characters
Lecture SubjectCharacter and Setting
Basic Elements of a Story1.PLOT - the story line; a unified, progressive pattern of action or eventsin a story2.POINT OF VIEW (POV) - the position from which the story is told3.CHARACTER - person portraying himself or anotherin a narrative or drama4.SETTING - the time and place of the action in a story5.TONE - the attitude of the author toward his subject or toward the reader6.MOOD - the feeling or state of mind that predominates in a story creating acertain atmosphere
Types of Characters: Round Character: convincing, true to life; fully developed and described. Not all good or all bad. Dynamic Character: undergoes some type of change in story, generally after a conflict. Flat Character: stereotyped, shallow, often symbolic. Static Character: does not change in the course of the story.
Methods of Characterization By directly describing: Luz sat on the bed. She was cool and fresh in the hot night. Through the reaction of other characters. Luz stayed on night duty for three months. They were glad to let her.
Through the character’s own words and actions: “The following day he wrote a letter. One, doubtless, to carry sorrow, but no shame to the cabin down there in the forest. It told that the girl had sickened and died. A lock of hair was sent and other trifles with it. Tender last words were even invented”
By detailing physical appearance, particularlyfeatures that symbolize character. It was open --wide, wide open --and I grew furious as I gazed upon it. I saw it with perfect distinctness --all a dull blue, with a hideous veil over it that chilled the very marrow in my bones; but I could see nothing else of the old mans face or person: for I had directed the ray as if by instinct, precisely upon the damned spot.
By sharing the characters own thoughts. Was it possible they heard not? Almighty God! --no, no! They heard! --they suspected! --they knew! --they were making a mockery of my horror!-this I thought, and this I think.
Setting: the time, place, and period in which the action occurs.The Catcher in the Lord of the Flies: The Bean Trees:Rye: New York, deserted island, the Arizona/Oklahoma1940s future. 1980s.
Setting can help in the portrayal of character. “it was so quiet and lonesome out, even though it was Saturday night. I didn’t see hardly anybody on the street. Now and then you just saw a man and a girl crossing the street with their arms around each other’s waists and all, or a bunch of hoodlumy-looking guys and their dates, all of them laughing like hyenas at something you could bet wasn’t funny. New York’s terrible when somebody laughs on the street very late at night. You can hear it for miles. It makes you feel so lonesome and depressed” (Salinger 81). The Catcher in the Rye
In some works of fiction, the action is so closely related to setting that the plot is directed by it.“The new man stands, looking a minute, to get theset-up of the day room. One side of the roomyounger patients, known as Acutes because thedoctors figure them still sick enough to be fixed,practice arm wrestling and card tricks…Across theroom from the Acutes are the culls of the Combine’sproduct, the Chronics. Not in the hospital, these toget fixed, but just to keep them from walkingaround the street giving the product a bad name”(Kesey 19). One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest
Setting can establish the atmosphere “During the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country” (Poe) “The Fall of the House of Usher”
Creative Writing PromptWrite the following four words on your paper: Character Place Time Situation Now chose four numbers between 1 and10. Write one number next to each of the four words. You may chose any numbers that you want. They can be the same or different for each category.
Character1. a new mother2. a photographer3. a recent high school graduate4. a restaurant owner or manager5. an alien from outer space6. a homeless child7. a 93-year-old woman8. an environmentalist9. a college student10.a jazz musician
Setting: Place1. near a National Forest2. a wedding reception3. a celebration party4. an expensive restaurant5. a shopping mall6. a city park7. the porch of an old farmhouse8. a polluted stream9. a college library10.a concert hall
Setting: Time1. during a forest fire2. after a fight3. the night of high school graduation4. after a big meal5. sometime in December6. late at night7. after a big thunderstorm has passed8. in early spring9. first week of the school year10.during a concert
Situation/Challenge1. an important decision needs to be made2. a secret needs to be confessed to someone else3. someones pride has been injured4. a death has occurred5. someone has found or lost something6. someone has accused someone else of doing something wrong7. reminiscing on how things have changed8. someone feels like giving up9. something embarrassing has just happened10.someone has just reached an important goal
Establish the basics Choose a POV Outline a basic Plot Omniscient: The narrator knows Exposition: This will include everything, including what each your setting: time and place character is thinking, feeling, and Conflict: This will depend on doing throughout the story. your situation or challenge 3rd Person Limited: The narrator Rising action: Events that knows only the thoughts and feelings happen on the way to the of a single character, while other climax characters are presented only Climax: the most intense externally. moment in your story 1st Person: The narrator participates Falling action: What in action but sometimes has limited happened after the climax knowledge about both events Resolution: The information outside of those in which he or she is with which you leave your directly involved and motivations that reader are not his or her own.
Homework Post #8: Guided Writing Reading: “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” Study Terms: 1-8