THE REVIEW 18. English Sonnet 19. Italian Sonnet 20. Stanza 21. Couplet 22. Quatrain 23. Octave 24. Sestet
DISCUSSION SUBJECT: 10 MINUTESTHE VILLANELLE THE SESTINAShare your work. Identify bothform and general conventions.
TERMS24 SestinaA poem of thirty-nine lines and written in iambicpentameter. Its six-line stanzas repeat in an intricate andprescribed order the final word in each of the first six lines.After the sixth stanza, there is a three-line envoi, which usesthe six repeating words, two per line.25 VillanelleA nineteen-line lyric poem that relies heavily on repetition.The first and third lines alternate throughout thepoem, which is structured in six stanzas --five tercets and aconcluding quatrain. Examples include Bishops "One Art,"Roethkes "The Waking," and Thomass "Do Not Go Gentleinto That Good Night."
26. TercetA three-line stanza, as the stanzas in Frosts "Acquainted Withthe Night" and Shelleys "Ode to the West Wind." The three-linestanzas or sections that together constitute the sestet of aPetrarchan or Italian sonnet.27. ElisionThe omission of an unstressed vowel or syllable to preserve themeter of a line of poetry. Alexander uses elision in "Sound andSense": "Flies oer th unbending corn...." 28. PersonificationThe endowment of inanimate objects or abstract conceptswith animate or living qualities. An example: "The yellowleaves flaunted their color gaily in the breeze." Wordsworths "Iwandered lonely as a cloud" includes personification.
29. Free verse (Open form)Poetry without a regular pattern of meter or rhyme. The verse is "free" in notbeing bound by earlier poetic conventions requiring poems to adhere to anexplicit and identifiable meter and rhyme scheme in a form such as thesonnet or ballad. Modern and contemporary poets of the twentieth andtwenty-first centuries often employ free verse. Williamss "This Is Just to Say" isone of many examples.30. ImageA concrete representation of a sense impression, a feeling, or an idea.Imagery refers to the pattern of related details in a work. In some works oneimage predominates either by recurring throughout the work or byappearing at a critical point in the plot. Often writers use multiple imagesthroughout a work to suggest states of feeling and to convey implications ofthought and action. Some modern poets, such as Ezra Pound and WilliamCarlos Williams, write poems that lack discursive explanation entirely andinclude only images. Among the most famous examples is Pounds poem "Ina Station of the Metro":The apparition of these faces in the crowd;Petals on a wet, black bough.
In A Station Of The Metro Title is really aby Ezra Pound line in the poemThe apparition of these faces in the No extra wordscrowd:Petals on a wet, black bough. Imagery/ metaphor List of the "donts" that Pound laid down in his 1913 essay on imagism: "Use no superfluous word," "Go in fear of abstractions," "Dont be viewy."
The Snow Manby Wallace StevensOne must have a mind of winterTo regard the frost and the boughsOf the pine-trees crusted with snow;And have been cold a long timeTo behold the junipers shagged with ice,The spruces rough in the distant glitter What conventions make this a poemOf the January sun; and not to thinkOf any misery in the sound of the wind, rather than prose?In the sound of a few leaves,Which is the sound of the landFull of the same windThat is blowing in the same bare placeFor the listener, who listens in the snow,And, nothing himself, beholdsNothing that is not there and the nothing that is.
The Snow Man Metaphor: A snow man forby Wallace Stevens a man in the snowOne must have a mind of winter Assonance: one must:To regard the frost and the boughs metaphor/ mind of winterOf the pine-trees crusted with snow; ImageryAnd have been cold a long timeTo behold the junipers shagged with ice, imageryThe spruces rough in the distant glitter Assonance: distant glitterOf the January sun; and not to think Any misery inOf any misery in the sound of the wind, Sound/windIn the sound of a few leaves, SoundWhich is the sound of the land Sound/landFull of the same wind Same WindThat is blowing in the same bare place Same placeFor the listener, who listens in the snow, Listener/listensAnd, nothing himself, beholds Nothing x3Nothing that is not there and the nothing that is.
La Figlia Che Piange (The Weeping Girl)by T. S. EliotStand on the highest pavement of the stair —Lean on a garden urn —Weave, weave the sunlight in your hair —Clasp your flowers to you with a pained surprise — WhatFling them to the ground and turnWith a fugitive resentment in your eyes: conventionsBut weave, weave the sunlight in your hair. make this a poem ratherSo I would have had him leave,So I would have had her stand and grieve, than prose?So he would have leftAs the soul leaves the body torn and bruised,As the mind deserts the body it has used.I should findSome way incomparably light and deft,Some way we both should understand,Simple and faithless as a smile and a shake of the hand.
La Figlia Che Piange (The Weeping Girl)by T. S. EliotStand on the highest pavement of the stair — ALean on a garden urn — BWeave, weave the sunlight in your hair — AClasp your flowers to you with a pained surprise — CFling them to the ground and turn BWith a fugitive resentment in your eyes: DBut weave, weave the sunlight in your hair. A repetition of line threeSo I would have had him leave, A repetition of So ISo I would have had her stand and grieve, would have hadSo he would have left AAs the soul leaves the body torn and bruised, BAs the mind deserts the body it has used. C Repetition of AsI should find DSome way incomparably light and deft, ESome way we both should understand, B Rep of Some waySimple and faithless as a smile and a shake of the hand. F couplet F simile
Free verse, despite the seeming lack ofrestrictions, should be as carefully fashionedas any formal poem. It is as difficult to writea good free verse poem as one in atraditional form because you must not onlyinvent your own conventions but fulfill themas well.
There is no standard, of course, for how longa free verse poem line should be. Usually aline will have at least three beats to it if its tohave any substance to it. A single word asan entire line is to be used sparingly as itgives one word inordinate emphasis.
Even though the lines of a free verse poem dont haveto have a fixed meter, they should still have cadencesand patterns and repetitions of sounds, which give thewords their music. These rhythms help carry the readeralong or slow the reader down. Natural stresses of thelanguage will call attention to certain words. In a freeverse poem, you have the freedom to place thesewords so they draw extra attention to create tension.Likewise, while lines of rhymed poetry are more regularlyend stopped, the syntax of free verse allows forenjambment. These pauses are part of the meter andrhythm of the line.
A big challenge is avoiding the abstract and focusing onthe concrete to create images.An abstraction is anything that is not tangible, a noun thatdoes not bring a picture to mind. Love, hate, grief, justice,and time are all abstractions. Images are nouns that areuniversally seen similarly in our minds. Tables, canyons andtrees are all images. People imagine them in similar ways.Concrete images give us the ability to understand anotherviewpoint.Abstractions are often unavoidable, and that’s wheremetaphor, simile, and personification come in handy. Youcan use this figurative language to help connect anabstraction with an image: My love is a rose
Formatting a poem can make an essential difference in rhythm andmeaning. Short lines, emphasis, and indentations create pauses inthe reader’s mind. Try indenting to break up ideas or isolate lines yousee as important. Experiment with formatting; use it to changerhythm and speed.Formatting also includes italicization, bolding, quotation marks, andparentheses. These devices can be used to identify different voices.Use italics to suggest a whisper and bold as a shout or clear-ringingvoice. Parentheses will likely be read as an aside. Quotation marksemphasize words. Use these techniques to make the voices moreexciting and dynamic.
Grammatical Errors: Do not disregard common grammatical rulesunless there is substantial need for it. Use punctuation that fits thepurpose: capitalize and use correct spelling.Clichés: Don’t write something you’ve heard. Analyze images andideas for originality. Abstractions are far more overused thanimages, so think of something fresh and new to describe.Alliteration: Forms of alliteration can make a poem taste good. Justdon’t overdo it. Assonance is less noticeable but often more effectivethan consonance or alliteration.Repetition: Repetition works sometimes, but it is often overused. Don’trepeat the same exact lines just to take up space. Repetition informatting and theme is often necessary and very effective.
Know what you are writing about. If you can’tcompletely dissect your poem and tell a reader whatevery single word’s purpose is, then you can improveyour verse. Be aware of how every symbol andmetaphor complements your poem as you write it.Later you can edit it, but if there isn’t a strong basethere will not be a strong finished piece.The more you read and write poetry, the better you’llread and write poetry.
This Is Just To Sayby William CarlosWilliams Think about something that you did or said to someone that you regret.I have eatenthe plums Write a poem of apology, comprisingthat were in three to five four-line stanzas, with thethe icebox same number of stressed syllables in each line.and which Avoid sentimentality. Rely on images,you were probably rhythm, and structure to convey yoursaving regret.for breakfastForgive methey were deliciousso sweetand so cold
Make a list of ten Languor Lithewords. Incorporate Ratatouille A spicy Listlessness, Slender French stew.these words into a inactivity. andpoem made up of flexible. Furtive Harbinger resist Shifty, sneaky.three stanzas Messenger resonatecomposed of five with news of Propinquity Anlines each. the future Umbrella inclination. Brood Protection from think alone.. To Mellifluous Sweet Opulent sun or rain. sounding. Lush, luxuriant. Dalliance A brief willowy love affair. Flowers, panther, cinnamon, sunset, rain, cookies desolate Fetching mundane Susquehanna A isolate Ephemeral Short- Pretty river in justify lived. Gossamer Pennsylvania. Epiphany A sudden The finest Penumbra A half- envision revelation. piece of shadow. drab thread, a evaluate deepen tarnished spiders silk Ingénue A naïve define Bungalow A young woman. Bucolic In a lovely rural setting small, cozy cottage.
Choose an aphorism and "The first rule of Fight Club is--write a poem that you do not talk about Fightincorporates the words or Club."meaning into it. (Brad Pitt as TylerThe three grand Durden, Fight Club)essentials ofhappiness are:something to do,someone to love,and something tohope for. --AlexanderChalmers "The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing." -Edmunde Burke"When you have nothing to say, saynothing."- Charles Caleb Colto
Make a list of Write a poem thatthings youre addresses a past orgrateful for. future version ofBeneath each yourself. Write in theitem, free- second-personassociate a list of singular. Reassure aobjects. Pick ten younger self, sendfrom your lists of warnings to a futureobjects and use self, or ask questions tothem to write a which you don’t knowpoem. the answers.
HOMEWORK• Post # 5: Free Verse• Choose two or three different-style poems to revise for project 1.• Bring four copies of your proposed project to our next class meeting.• Study Terms: 1-30
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