Writing Workshop: Peer Review
•Get into pairs
•Read both essays aloud before you start to
write about or discuss the essays.
•On separate sheets of paper, answer all of the
questions from the handout for your partner’s
•When you finish, return your comments to the
Integrating Short Quotations
• To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of
prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the
quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the
author and specific page citation (in the case of
verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a
complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation
marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should
appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and
exclamation points should appear within the quotation
marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the
parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short
passages of prose, use the following
• Noye reveals to Jon what his new brothers think of him: “No.
They hate you because you act like you’re better than they
are. They look at you and see a castle-bred bastard who
thinks he’s a lordling” (126).
• Despite Jon’s sincere attempt to console Catelyn, she
responds by saying, “I need none of your
absolution, bastard” (67).
• “The direwolf graces the banners of the House Stark [...] I
am no Stark, Father” (19), explains Jon when there are not
enough pups for every single child.
• For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse
or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text
and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new
line, with the entire quote indented one inch (10 spaces)
from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent
the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch
if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical
citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You
should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
Throughout the book it is clear that Cersei and her twin Jamie
have an incestuous relationship. She is not ashamed and shows
no form of regret. In fact, she stands up for it with much pride
through her narration:
Since we were children together [we have had sex]. And
why not? The Targaryens wed brother to sister for three
hundred years, to keep the bloodlines pure. And Jamie
and I are more than brother and sister. We are one person
in two bodies. We shared a womb together. He came into
this world holding my foot, our old master said. When he
is in me, I feel… whole. (405)
Cersei seems to be in love with him. However, from her
description of how they are “one person in two bodies,” it also
seems as if she sees Jamie as a reflection of who she could have
been had she been born a man.
According to the St.
Martin's Guide, there
are three main ways to
set up a signaling
1. With a complete
sentence followed by a
2. With an incomplete
sentence, followed by
3. With a statement
that ends in that.
You can, however, build your
own signal phrases by mixing
these three basic styles with
admits agrees argues as
claims compares confirms co
ntends declares denies
emphasizes insists notes
out reasons refutes rejects
responds replies suggests t
MLA style: Integrating quotations
•Periods & Commas
•Colons & Semi-colons
Periods and Commas
They go inside the quotation marks even if there is no period or
comma at the end of the quoted material in the original text.
Exception: If there is a parenthetical citation immediately after
the quote, the period or comma goes after the parenthetical
Colons & Semi-colons
Colons and semi-colons always go outside the quotation, even
if the original quoted material ends with either form of
• If the original quote ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, we must
include it inside the quotation marks.
• ORIGINAL TEXT:
Will not a righteous God visit for these things?
• QUOTED TEXT:
When Douglass asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for these things?" he raises
the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian" slaveholders.
• Notice that we don't put a comma after the question mark, even though
normally we would if there were not a question mark. We omit the comma to
avoid double punctuation.
• If we want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation we
create, then the question mark or the exclamation mark goes outside the
• ORIGINAL TEXT:
The grave is at the door. (FD 38)
• QUOTED TEXT:
How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively
romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door"?
& Exclamation Points
Remembering just a few simple rules can help you use the correct
punctuation as you introduce quotations.
oRule 1: Complete sentence: "quotation." (If you use a
complete sentence to introduce a quotation, use a colon (:) just
before the quotation.)
o Rule 2: Someone says, "quotation." (If the word just before
the quotation is a verb indicating someone uttering the quoted
words, use a comma. Examples include the words "says," "said,"
"states," "asks," and "yells."
oRule 3: Ending with that “quotation.” (There is no
punctuation if the word "that" comes just before the
quotation, as in "the narrator says that.")
oAnd remember that a semicolon (;) never is used to
Avoiding Grammatical Tangles
•When you incorporate quotations into
your writing, and especially when you
omit words from quotations, you run
the risk of creating ungrammatical
sentences. Three common errors you
should try to avoid are verb
omissions, and sentence fragments.
• When this error occurs, the verb form in the introductory
statement is grammatically incompatible with the verb form in
the quotation. When your quotation has a verb form that does
not fit in with your text, it is usually possible to use just part of
the quotation, thus avoiding verb incompatibility.
As this sentence illustrates, use the present tense when you refer to events in a
• Sometimes omitting text from a quotation leaves you with an ungrammatical
sentence. Two ways of correcting the grammar are (1) adapting the
quotation (with brackets) so that its parts fit together grammatically and (2)
using only one part of the quotation.
• Sometimes when a quotation is a complete
sentence, writers neglect the sentence that
introduces the quote — for example, by forgetting
to include a verb. Make sure that the quotation is
introduced by a complete sentence.
Using Summarized Material.
• Summarizing involves putting an idea into your own
words. Summaries are significantly shorter than an
original text. It is a good idea to summarize material
when you want to briefly discuss the main idea(s) of a
longer piece. Summarizing allows you to discuss central
points without reproducing multiple quotation from a
single source. Remember, it is necessary to attribute
summarized ideas to the original source; that is, you
must cite even summarized material.
Citing Summarized Material
•The journey is long and
painful, especially for Daenerys since
she is not yet a strong rider. Her body
is sore and bleeding at the end of
each day (228).
MLA FORMATTING: NOT
A CHOICE: A WAY OF LIFE!
MLA format: on our website: “Writing Support” :
“MLA Formatting Video”
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write
papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.
MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the
English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system
for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays
and Works Cited pages.
Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating
accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA
style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the
purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers.
THE WORKS CITED
A Game of Points
1. For essays 2-5, we will use teams to earn
participation points. Your teams can be made up
of 3 or 4 people.
1. The teams will remain the same through the
discussion of material for one essay.
2. You must change at least half of your team after
3. You may never have a new team comprised of
more than 50% of any prior team.
The first essay consists of three class
discussions: Lao-Tzu, Machiavelli, and the
application of the two philosophers’ ideas to
A Game of Thrones.
•Points will be earned
for correct answers to
contributions to the
questions. Each team
will track their own
points, but cheating
leads to death (or loss
of 25 participation
and questions must
be posed in a manner
learning rather than a
fight. Those who
speak out of turn or
will not receive points
for their teams.
AT THE END OF EACH
CLASS, YOU WILL TURN IN A
POINT SHEET WITH THE
NAMES OF EVERYONE IN
YOUR GROUP AND YOUR
ACCUMULATED POINTS FOR
IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY
TO MAKE THE SHEET, TRACK
THE POINTS, AND TURN IT
Sit with your
Please make your teams now
If you can’t find a team, please raise
your hand and I will assist you.
From A World of Ideas: Government: Lao-
Tzu "Thoughts from the Tao-te Ching”
(19-31), divide up the Questions for
Critical Reading on page 31. Post your
response under your own username.
• Post #16: Revised essay 1
• Using the comments you received from your
readers, revise your draft. Consider carefully
what each person had to say. Improve your
• Read A World of Ideas: Government: Lao-Tzu
"Thoughts from the Tao-te Ching” (19-31).
• Post #17 Questions (TBD based on teams) for
Critical Reading: (page 31).
• Post #18 QHQ Lao-Tzu
• Remember, your essay is due Friday before