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Ewrt 2 class 12 government and got
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  • 1. * EWRT 2
  • 2. *Vocabulary Exam #4: 15 minutes *Discussion Lao Tzu/Machiavelli: Examples and preparation *Group Preparation for discussion of Philosophy and A Game of Thrones. *Class Discussion *Essay #2 writing tips *Group Preparation for Cicero *Homework *AGENDA
  • 3. *You win or you die *
  • 4. * A strategy of using textual evidence
  • 5. *“He must, therefore, never raise his thought from this exercise of war, and in peacetime he must train himself more than in time of war; this can be done in two ways: one by action, the other by the mind,” says Machiavelli. * “Do you recall your history Bran” * “And that‟s Torrhen Stark, the King Who Knelt. He was the last King in the North and the first Lord of Winterfell, after he yielded to Aegon the Conqueror. Oh, there, he‟s Cregan Stark. He fought with Prince Aemon once, and the Dragonknight said he‟d never faced a finer swordsman.
  • 6. In teams, discuss your ideas about applying Lao-Tzu and Machiavelli to A Game of Thrones. You have about 10 minutes! Make sure you have textual support for your assertions! Eddard Stark Catelyn Stark Robert Baratheon Cersei Lannister Joffrey Baratheon Tyrion Lannister The Night‟s Watch Khal Drogo Daenerys Targaryen Viserys Targaryen Petyr Baelish Lord Stannis Syrio Forel
  • 7. *The Starks
  • 8. *“The Master is above the people, and no one feels oppressed” (30). * “[Arya‟s] father used to say that a lord needed to eat with his men, if he hoped to keep them. “Know the men who follow you,” she heard him tell Robb once, ” and let them know you. Don‟t ask your men to die for a stranger.” Eddard Stark
  • 9. Upon slaying Will in the beginning of the novel, [Eddard] explains to his son, “No man is more dangerous [than] the deserter [who] knows his life is forfeit if he is taken, so he will not flinch from any crime, no matter how vile.”(Martin 16) It is clear to the reader that there IS in fact a proper justification and a manifest cause for an execution to take place. Although we may not necessarily agree with the cause, there is a code of honor among knights and guards. Unfortunately there seems to be more honor in dying at the hands of the enemy, rather than at the hands of your kingdom. “And if he must take someone‟s life, he should do so when there is proper justification and manifest cause…”( Machiavelli 15)
  • 10. * “A great nation is like a great man: When he makes a mistake, he realizes it. Having realized it, he admits it” (LaoTzu 31). * “The Prince” is divided into different categorizes labeled the characteristics and ruling of men. There was only a small bit of information on the women of the government in which he describes the things that are important in a men‟s life. He relatively compares women to that of property as he advocates, “and this will always be so when he keeps his hands off the property and the women on his citizens and his subjects” Arya proclaims, „”I hate needlework! It‟s not fair!”‟ (75) As Arya would be better off as a knight than as a proper lady learning to sew, the government in Lao-Tzu, Machiavelli, and A Game of Thrones would never allow a female to perform the acts of a male. These philosophies show that a female was only effective as she cares and does everything she can to assist her husband or any elderly men. These sayings almost treat women and females as though they were objects and of a lower human being than that of a male.
  • 11. * “it would be good to be considered generous” (Machiavelli 43). * “You are far too generous, Lady Stark. The honor of carrying a great lady like yourself is all the reward they need” (Captain of the ship Catelyn took south; Martin 165).
  • 12. According to Machiavelli, a prince “must, therefore, never raise his thought from this exercise of war; and in peacetime he must train himself more that in time of war; this can be done in two ways: one by action, the other by the mind. And as far as actions are concerned, besides keeping his soldiers well disciplined and trained, he must always be out hunting, and must accustom his body to hardships in this manner” Robb Stark “He was Robb the Lord now, or trying to be. He wore a real sword and never smiled. His days were spent drilling the guard and practicing his swordplay, making the yard ring with the sound of steel as Bran watched forlornly from his window. At night he closeted himself with Maester Luwin, talking or going over account books. Sometimes he would ride out with Hallis Mollen and be gone for days at a time, visiting distant holdfasts. Whenever he was away more than a day, Rickon would cry and ask Bran if Robb was ever coming back.” (163)
  • 13. * “everyone sees what you seem to be, few perceive what you are, and those few do not dare to contradict the opinion of the many who have the majesty of the state to defend them [...] for ordinary people are always deceived by appearances and by the outcome of a thing; and in the world there is nothing but ordinary people; and there is no room for the few, while the many have a place to lean on” (Machiavelli 47). * “„My words lied. My eyes and my arm Syrio Forel shouted out the truth, but you were not seeing [...] Watching is not seeing, dead girl. The water dancer sees” (Syrio Forel; Martin 363).
  • 14. * “If you let restlessness move you you lose touch with who you are.” (LaoTzu Verse 26) * [Robert] isn‟t the same King he was when he first took over. Robert has always been a man who knew what he liked. But Ned noticed changes as soon as he visited Winterfell, “those pleasures were taking a toll on the king.” (Martin 42) Ned also remembered, “Robert as he was the day he took the throne, every inch a king.” (Martin 486) * Robert Baratheon
  • 15. *“Ned was aghast. *“For governing a country well there is nothing better than moderation.” (Lao Tzu 28) „Aerys Targaryen left a treasury flowing with gold. How could you let this happen?‟” Littlefinger gave a shrug. „The master of coin finds the money. The king and the Hand spend it.‟” (Martin 133134)
  • 16. “For a prince must have two fears: one, internal, concerning his subjects; the other, external, concerning foreign powers” (Machiavelli 50). “This child will soon enough spread her legs and start breeding more dragonspawn to plague me” (Martin 112). “They all want something, money or land or justice. The lies they tell…and my lords and ladies are no better. I am surrounded by flatterers and fools. It can drive a man to madness, Ned. Half of them don‟t dare tell me the truth, and the other half can‟t find it” (Martin 47).
  • 17. * He is the “the fox [that] cannot protect itself from wolves […] Those who play only the part of the lion do not understand matters. A wise ruler, therefore, cannot and should not keep his word when such an observance of faith would be to his disadvantage and when the reasons which made him promise are removed. And if men were all good, this rule would not be good; but since men are a sorry lot and will not keep their promises to you, you likewise need not keep yours to them.” (Machiavelli 46) Petyr Baelish * “‟Is there a man in your service that you trust utterly and completely?‟ […] „Distrusting me was the wisest thing you‟ve done since you climbed down off your horse‟” (Petyr to Ned; Martin 258).
  • 18. * “A wise ruler, therefore, cannot and should not keep his word when such observance of faith would be to his disadvantage and when the reasons which made him promise are removed” (Machiavelli 46).  “Everyone sees what you seem to be, few perceive what you are” (Machiavelli 47). *“I did warn you not to trust me, you know” (Petyr Baelish: Martin 442).  “I am desperately sentimental, sweet lady. Best not tell anyone. I have spent years convincing the court that I am wicked and cruel” (Baelish: Martin 169).
  • 19. * “The queen stood. „And what of * 80 (36) “When you wish to contract something, You must momentarily expand it; When you wish to weaken something, You must momentarily strengthen it; When you wish to reject something, You must momentarily join with it; When you wish to seize something, You must momentarily give it up. This is called “subtle insight.” my wrath, Lord Stark?‟ she asked softly. Her eyes searched his face. “You should have taken the realm for yourself. It was there for the taking. Jaime told me how you found him on the Iron Throne the day King‟s Landing fell, and made him yield it up. That was your moment. All you needed to do was climb those steps, and sit. Such a sad mistake.‟ […] „Oh, but it was, my lord,‟ Cersei insisted. „When you play the game of thrones, you win or you die. There is no middle ground.‟” (334)
  • 20. *Machiavelli says to be, “careful never to let anything slip from his lips which is not full of the five qualities mentioned above: he should appear, upon seeing and hearing him, to be all mercy, all faithfulness, all integrity, all kindness, all religion”(49). Cersei [lays] a soft hand on her wrist “Such a beautiful child. I do hope you know how much Joffrey and I love you”(457; Cersei to Sansa).
  • 21. * “it is much safer to be feared than to be loved” (Machiavelli 44). As long as the ruler “makes himself feared in such a manner that he will avoid hatred,” being feared is better than being loved (44). * “My mother bids me let Lord Eddard take the black, and Lady Sansa has begged mercy for her father…But they have the soft hearts of women. So long as I am your king, treason shall never go unpunished. Ser Illyn, bring me his head!” (Martin 726).
  • 22. * One of the philosophies of Machiavelli is the idea of being feared rather than being loved. Machiavelli says, ”it is much safer to be feared than to be loved” (46) because of the matter of betrayal and loyalty. In A Game of Thrones by George R.R. Martin, Prince Joffrey takes the throne after his father‟s death. As a result of being a new King, King Joffrey, who wants others to understand the extent of power he has, beheads Eddard Stark. Instead of sending Eddard Stark to the wall as most criminals have the option to, he chooses to kill Eddard Stark to use as an example to those who would betray him. Even as his council urged him to change his mind, “Joffrey shook his head” (607) and “a million people had let out their breath at once” (608) to the death of Eddard Stark. Here, Machiavelli's advice was followed thoroughly as Joffrey shows his power as king in order to have others fear him. If people valued their own lives over everything else, they would not oppose Joffrey, despite his cruel and unreasonable actions. As Machivelli says “fear is held together by a dread of a punishment which will never abandon you” (46). * When King Joffrey sees Sansa Stark after the beheading of her father, we can see that Sansa is fearful of losing her life as she pleads “I won‟t do any treason, I‟ll be good, I swear it” (622). Sansa‟s fear and pleading gives the reaction and loyalty King Joffrey expected after using her father as an example to those who betrayed him. As Ser Meryn says,”[King Joffrey] wants [Sansa] to love him…and fear him” (622) following Machivelli‟s advice, perfectly.
  • 23. * “it is essential to understand this: that a prince , and especially a new prince, cannot observe all those things by which men are considered good, for in order to maintain the state he is often obliged to act against his promises, against charity, against humanity, and against religion.[…] He should know how to enter into evil when necessity commands” (Machiavelli 23) * “Let a prince therefore act to seize and to maintain the state” (Machiavelli 24) * “He was a traitor. I never promised to spare him, only that I‟d be merciful, and I was. If he hadn‟t been your father, I would have had him torn or flayed, but I gave him a clean death. (Joffrey; Martin 743)”
  • 24. *Tyrion Lannister
  • 25. Lao-Tzu and Tyrion Lannister
  • 26. * Lao-Tzu says, “Whoever can see through all fear / will always be safe,” (Jacobus 26). * “The inspiration came to Tyrion Lannister suddenly. „…tell her that I wish to confess my crimes” (Martin 417) Though Tyrion previously encountered writing on his cellar wall: “Gods save me,” he knows he is in a place where no man should be. In a cell where people rot and perish and the only escape is either to fly away or walk through the gate, Tyrion knows he‟s in a troubling predicament. However, overcoming the fear of where is he, Tyrion is still able to craftily think to get out of his cell and soon be released from imprisonment.
  • 27. *One of Machiavelli‟s principal philosophies is on keeping promises. While alluding to Alexander VI, Machiavelli says that “there never was a man who had more forcefulness in his oaths…and who honored his word less; nevertheless, his tricks always succeeded perfectly” (47). *This quotation can be connected to Tyrion Lannister, who is known for his cunning and clever mouth. While imprisoned in one of The Eyrie‟s infamous sky cells, Tyrion promises to give Mord all the gold he is carrying in exchange for delivering a message. Tyrion carried out his promise, but not before taking all the silver out of his pouch and leaving only the gold, which is what he promised. He snidely said, “„I kept the silver,…but you were promised the gold, and there it is” (456).
  • 28. If a nation is centered in the Tao, and it nourishes its own people and doesn’t meddle in the affairs of others, it will be a light to all nations of the world” (Lao-Tzu 29). The Night‟s Watch “the Night’s Watch would take no part in the battles of the realms it guarded” (Maester Aemon; 553).
  • 29. * Machiavelli writes that “a prince, therefore, must not have any other object nor any other thought, nor must he take anything as his profession but war, its institutions, and its discipline; . . . A prince who does not understand military matters . . . cannot be esteemed by his own soldiers, nor can he trust them” (38). The Dothraki agree in that they “follow only the strong” (Martin 519). [. . .] “Khal Drogo was a head taller than the tallest man in the room, yet somehow light on his feet, as graceful as the panther in Illyrio‟s menagerie.” [. . .] “Drogo had never lost a fight” (Martin 27).
  • 30. “A prince either spends his own money and that of his subjects or that of others; in the first case he must be economical; in the second he must not restrain any part of his generosity. And for that prince who goes out with his soldiers and lives by looting, sacking, and ransoms, who controls the property of others, such generosity is necessary; otherwise he would not be followed by his troops” (Machiavelli 44).
  • 31. * “a prince, therefore, must not have any other object nor any other thought, nor must he take anything as his profession but war, its institutions, and its discipline [. . .] not only does it maintain those who were born to that position, but many times it enables men of private station to rise to that position” (Machiavelli 40). *“I‟d let his whole khalasar fuck Viserys Targaryen you if need be, sweet sister, all forty thousand men, and their horses too if that was what it took to get my army. (Viserys to Daenerys about wedding Khal Drogo)
  • 32. *Machiavelli argues that “a prince who does not understand military matters… cannot be esteemed by his own soldiers, nor can he trust them”(Machiavelli 40). *“My brother will never take back the Seven Kingdoms… He could not lead an army even if my lord husband gave him one” (Daenerys; Martin 233).
  • 33. * Do you agree with Machiavelli’s thesis that stability and power are the only qualities that matter in the evaluation of governments? If not, what else matters? * Can we have Lao-Tzu’s peace, even though there is ambition, materialism, war, and famine on earth? How is it possible? *
  • 34. *
  • 35. * Write about literature in the present tense. * Write in third person (avoid “I” and “you”) * Be specific: Avoid “thing” and words with “thing” in them: something, anything, everything. For And Nor But Or Yet So Coordinating Conjunctions Remember, you need a comma and a coordinating conjunction to connect two complete sentences: Machiavelli holds that the skill of war making is what a prince must *necessarily* make his career on, for war making is the primary means by which he can advance his state. Use a comma after an introductory clause: As the Lord of Winterfell, he carries out the execution of the deserter himself rather than assigning the dreadful task to one of his subordinates.
  • 36. Form new teams for this unit. Remember, 50% of your team must be new to you! THEN, DISCUSS THE DIVISION OF LABOR FOR CICERO Questions for Critical Reading (page 129) We will come back together to go over the homework before we leave!
  • 37.  Read A World of Ideas: Marcus Tullius Cicero "The Defense of Injustice" (119-129)  Post #23 Questions for Critical Reading: (page 129)  Post #24 QHQ Cicero  Essay #2 is due by noon on Friday: palmoreessaysubmission@gmail.com *HOMEWORK