“The Celebrated Jumping Frog ofCalaveras County” By Mark Twain S
EWRT 30 Class 9 S
AGENDATerms 9-17ReviewDiscussionLecture: Setting, ToneGuided Writing: Adventure Story
TERMS 9-17In medias resFlashbackExpositionConflictSuspenseForeshadowingRising actionClimaxFalling action S
9. In medias res: Latin for "in the midst of things." We enter the story on the verge of some important moment.10. Flashback: a device that informs us about events that happened before the opening scene of a work; often a scene relived in a characters memory.11. Exposition: the opening portion that sets the scene, introduces the main characters, tells us what happened before the story opened, and provides any other background information that we need in order to understand and care about the events to follow.
12. A conflict is a complication that moves to a climax. Conflict is the opposition presented to the main character of a story by another character, by events or situations, by fate, or by some act of the main characters own personality or nature. More loosely defined for contemporary fiction, it is the problem or tension that must somehow be addressed (if not perfectly resolved) by the end of the story.13. Suspense: the pleasurable anxiety we feel that heightens our attention to the story.14. Foreshadowing: indication of events to come—the introduction of specific words, images, or events into a story to suggest or anticipate later events that are central the action and its resolution.
15. Rising action A set of conflicts and crises that constitute the part of a play or storys plot leading up to the climax.16. Climax: the moment of greatest tension in the story, at which the outcome is to be decided17. Falling action In the plot of a story or play, the action following the climax of the work that moves it towards its denouement or resolution.
The Group Review“The Celebrated 1. CharacterJumping Frog of 2. Flat charactersCalaveras County” 3. Round characters1. PLOT 4. Protagonist 5. Antagonist2. POV 6. Motivation3. CHARACTER 7. Plot 8. Chronological4. SETTING Order
Climax: A stranger fills Smiley’s frog with quail shot and the frog loses Rising Action: Smiley Falling Action: gets a frog and trains Smiley finds out that the it to win jumping stranger cheated him so he contests. Bets with a chases after him, but the stranger. stranger is gone with his money. Wheeler is interrupted in a Conflict: Smiley bets on old unfriendly way by the narrator animals and thinks he can always win Resolution: The narratorExposition: The narrator enters the leaves, bitter that his quest wastavern in Angel’s mining camp and asksSimon Wheeler about Leonidas W. worthless.Smiley. Simon tells a yarn about JimSmiley—a betting man.
The Celebrated Jumping Frog of CalaverasCounty: POVWho is the narrator, and, more importantly, can we trust her orhim?First PersonThrough a frame narrative, the narrator (clearly an educated personfrom the East) presents the story of Jim Smiley, told in SimonWheeler’s uneducated dialect. This is the main device that Twainuses to present the contrast between East and West: educated vs.uneducated, refined vs. coarse.
The Characterizationof Simon Wheeler
Simon Wheeler: CharacterizationMethod: Directly Describing: “I found Simon Wheeler dozing comfortably by the bar-room stove of the old, dilapidated tavern in the ancient mining camp of Angel’s”Method: The Character’s Own Words : "And he had a little small bull pup, that tolook at him youd think he wans worth a cent, but to set around and look ornery, andlay for a chance to steal something. But as soon as money was up on him, he was adifferent dog; his underjawd begin to stick out like the focastle of a steamboat, and histeeth would uncover, and shine savage like the furnaces.”Method: The Character’s Own Actions: “Simon Wheeler backed me into a corner andblockaded me there with his chair, and then sat me down and reeled off themonotonous narrative which follows this paragraph.”Method: Detailing Physical Appearance: “I noticed that he was fat and bald-headed,and had an expression of winning gentleness and simplicity upon his tranquilcountenance.”Method: Through the Reaction of Others: “To me, the spectacle of a man driftingserenely along through such a queer yarn without ever smiling, was exquisitely absurd.”
The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County SettingWhere It All Goes DownAngel’s Camp, California, mid-19th centuryAngels Camp is a gold mining community in the mid-19thcentury that the narrator claims to have visited to find SimonWheeler. Like any mining town in the West, it was populatedprimarily by men, many of them looking for their fortune. Assomething of a frontier town, it would probably seem to be fullof loud, uncouth, and uneducated people compared to themore genteel East.
Lecture SubjectMood and Tone
Basic Elements of a Story1. PLOT - the story line; a unified, progressive pattern of action or events in a story2. POINT OF VIEW (POV) - the position from which the story is told3. CHARACTER - person portraying himself or another in a narrative or drama4. SETTING - the time and place of the action in a story5. TONE - the attitude of the author toward his subject or toward the reader6. MOOD - the feeling or state of mind that predominates in a story creating a certain atmosphere
TONETONE is simply the author’s attitude toward the subject.You can recognize the tone/attitude by the language/word choices the author uses. His or her language will reveal his/her positive or negative perspective or opinion about the subject.Tone must be inferred through the use of descriptive words.
Tone Example The girls were playing in the pond, splashing each other and trying to catch fish with their hands. They were having fun, but kept looking over their shoulders at the looming forest. The long grass of the field kept moving, and they sort of felt like they were being watched… About a half hour passed and still the girls kept checking the field for movements. It seemed like a pair of dark eyes was on them. They even considered going back inside, but that would mean homework time. So they continued splashing but with caution now. Their eyes hardly left the field.The tone of this passage is ominous, suggesting a little bit of fear or foreboding. Words like "caution, dark, and looming“ lead readers to the tone.
TONE EXAMPLEFinally, one of the girls pointed to the grass and giggled. "Meow!" A cat sat on the edge of the field and licked its paw. They did indeed have company. The girls ran over to the cat and pet his belly. They laughed and the cat sauntered back to the field.The tone of this passage is happy/contentment as there was a successful, happy resolution to the problem.
TONEIdentifying and writing TONE is all about using descriptive vocabulary words. Without an extended writing vocabulary, it’s difficult to describe outside of “good” and“bad.”
Tone in “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”S I have a lurking suspicion that Leonidas W. Smiley is a myth; that my friend never knew such a personage; and that he only conjectured that, if I asked old Wheeler about him, it would remind him of his infamous Jim Smiley, and he would go to work and bore me nearly to death with some infernal reminiscence of him as long and tedious as it should be useless to me. If that was the design, it certainly succeeded.S Which words give the reader a clue about tone?
Tone: “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”S Disparaging, disbelievingS The attitude of the narrator toward the subject matter is one of disbelief that his time has been wasted in such a way. He’s annoyed that he has had to listen to such a stupid tale (about Danl Webster) from a man who seems to take it so seriously. His effort to reproduce Wheeler’s ungrammatical dialect feels slightly mocking.
MOODMOOD is the overall feeling or emotion that is created IN THE READER.Authors “move” their readers’ moods through their choice of words and level of detail.
MOOD EXAMPLEDuring the holidays, my mothers house glittered with decorations and hummed with preparations. We ate cookies and drank cider while we helped her wrap bright packages and trim the tree. We felt warm and excited, listening to Christmas carols and even singing along sometimes. We would tease each other about our terrible voices and then sing even louder.Mood: Content, happy. How do we know? Words like "warm, excited, glittered” are used by the author.
MOOD EXAMPLEAfter New Years, the time came to put all the decorations away and settle in for the long, cold winter. The house seemed to sigh as we boxed up its finery. The tree was dry and brittle and now waited forlornly by the side of the road to be picked up.Mood: Dreary, depressed. How do we know? "cold, sigh, brittle, forlornly"
Mood in “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”He was the curiousest man about always betting on anything thatturned up you ever see, if he could get anybody to bet on the otherside; and if he couldnt hed change sides. Any way that suited theother man would suit him--any way just sos he got a bet, he wassatisfied. But still he was lucky, uncommon lucky; he most alwayscome out winner. He was always ready and laying for a chance; therecouldnt be no solitry thing mentioned but that fellerd offer to bet onit, and take any side you please, as I was just telling you. If there wasa horse-race, youd find him flush or youd find him busted at the endof it; if there was a dog-fight, hed bet on it; if there was a cat-fight, hed bet on it; if there was a chicken-fight, hed bet on it; why, ifthere was two birds setting on a fence, he would bet you which onewould fly first; or if there was a camp-meeting, he would be therereglar to bet on Parson Walker, which he judged to be the bestexhorter about here, and he was, too, and a good man. If he even seea straddle-bug start to go anywheres, he would bet you how long itwould take him to get to--to wherever he was going to, and if youtook him up, he would foller that straddle-bug to Mexico but what hewould find out where he was bound for and how long he was on theroad.Which words establish the mood?
MOOD WORDSS Cheerful S FuriousS Relieved S DisappointedS Gloomy S Dreamy, foggyS Bleak S ContentS Uncertain S SatisfiedS Bittersweet S AngryS Relaxed S MotivatedS Lazy S InspiredS Hopeless S ConfidentS Tense S Eerie
Guided WritingGuided Writing
An Adventure StoryS One morning, you get out of bed, slide into clothes, pick up your backpack, put ____________ into it, and go down the stairs, skipping one because _________.S __________ smells good, but you have plans with your friends, so you pass kitchen. You overhear ___________ talking, but they don’t notice you go by. So you walk ____________ quietly, open the side door, and sneak into the garage.
It is pitch black inside. You run your hand up thewall, searching for the light switch, and you touch____________, which feels ____________. You try towipe it on your __________. Then, you find the lightswitch with other hand and turn it on. You look at your_______ hand and see _________. You find ________toclean it with.Finally, you secure your mode of transportation, open thegarage door, and head for __________ house.
You travel down _________street, past__________ (landmark), to (A’s) house. You___________ to get his or her attention. He/shelooks out a window and you say, “___________.”(Blank) comes downstairs and you hear him/herin garage. Then you hear a __________. Whenthe door opens, you find out what caused thenoise. The two of you take off, to go to B’s house.
You and A travel down __________ street, past (landmark)on the way to meet B. On the way, (A) calls (B), and says“meet us at the corner of (blank and blank) and bring (C)with you.”You all four meet at the corner. You travel together down_______ Avenue/Drive/Boulevard and past (a landmark).You see somebody you want to avoid, so you___________.You arrive at _______ (store) on the corner of (blank andblank), and you go in and you buy _________ for your day.Finally, you get back on the road, traveling about five milesout of town, to the edge of the forest.
You pull over and sit there for a minute, discussing the benefitsof entering the forest. Some people say the forest is____________, but you don’t worry because you’re invincible.One friend is resistant.One is enthusiastic.And one is apathetic.Pick who is who and begin your characterization of each ofyour companions. (Give them qualities that make themindividual. Consider looks, behavior, attitude, and speechpatterns, for example)Finally, you decide you’re all going in.
As you make your way into the forest, even though it’snow late morning, it gets ______ and _________ and_________ and _________ because _______________.The forest gets so ___________ that it is difficult tomake your way. You stop at a ___________to haveconversation about how far you’re going in. Describethe forest here. (include the five senses here. What doyou see, hear, smell, taste, touch)Take off again and walk for _________. All of thesudden, the forest gets deathly quiet and very _______.
You soon come into a clearing of sorts. It is still quiet. Thefour of you express varying emotions.You look around, trying to assess your location. To yourright, you see a cave hidden behind thick bushes. To theleft, in the top of this big _____ tree, there’s a___________tree house. Straight ahead of you, in thedistance, sits a mansion/castle.All of a sudden, you hear _________. And you say, “hey,that came from the (cave, mansion/castle, or tree house)!
-convince your companions to enterthe ____________-develop your characters-figure out what made the noise-determine your plot, conflict andclimax-establish setting, mood, and tone-tell your story
HomeworkS Post # 9: Guided writing (draft)S Read: “The Chrysanthemums”S Study Terms