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Elit 48 c class 34

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  • 1. ELIT 48C Class 34Composed or ComprisedYou may never have a newteam comprised/composedof more than 50% of anyprior team.
  • 2. You may never have a new teamcomprised/composed of more than 50%of any prior team. Composed means, more or less, “made up of” — and when you saysomething is composed of {these things} you may or may notbe including all of the {things} of which it is made, opting for only theitems most relevant to making your point. To comprise means “to contain” and the correct usage will usuallyinclude ALL the parts making up the whole. Oh, and withcomprise, the whole should come before the parts. Thus, the board comprises five members, whereas five memberscompose (or make up) the board. It is also correct to say that the boardis composed (not comprised) of five members.
  • 3. Chair Poet?Writing free verseis like playingtennis with thenet down.Robert Frost
  • 4. AGENDALesbian, Gay, and Queer TheoryAuthor Introduction: Allen Ginsberg
  • 5. DiscussDiscuss: Five minutes!
  • 6. Lesbian criticism is concerned with issues of personalidentity and politics analogous to those analyzed byfeminists (see chapter 4). However, while feminismaddresses issues related to sexism and the difficultiesinvolved in carving out a space for personal identity andpolitical action beyond the influence of sexistideologies, lesbian critics address issues related to bothsexism and heterosexism. In other words, lesbian criticsmust deal with the psychological, social, economic, andpolitical oppression fostered not only by patriarchal maleprivilege, but by heterosexual privilege as well. (Tyson 322-23)Lesbian Criticism
  • 7. Gay CriticismThe kinds of analyses that tend to engage the attention of gaycritics often fall under the heading of gay sensibility. How doesbeing gay influence the way one sees the world, sees oneselfand others, creates and responds to art and music, creates andinterprets literature, or experiences and expresses emotion? Ina heterosexist culture such as the one we inhabit at the turn ofthe twenty-first century in America, gay sensibility includes anawareness of being different, at least in certain ways, from themembers of the mainstream, dominant culture, and thecomplex feelings that result from an implicit, ongoing socialoppression. In other words, part of seeing the world as a gayman includes the ways in which one deals with being oppressedas a gay man. Among others, three important domains of gaysensibility, all of which involve responses to heterosexistoppression, are drag, camp, and dealing with the issue of AIDS.(Tyson 330)
  • 8. Queer TheoryFor queer theory, categories of sexuality cannot be defined by suchsimple oppositions as homosexual/heterosexual. Building ondeconstruction’s insights into human subjectivity (selfhood) as afluid, fragmented, dynamic collectivity of possible “selves,” queertheory define individual sexuality as a fluid, fragmented, dynamiccollectivity of possible sexualities. Our sexuality may be differentat different times over the course of our lives or even at differenttimes over the course of a week because sexuality is a dynamicrange of desire. Gay sexuality, lesbian sexuality, bisexuality, andheterosexuality are, for all of us, possibilities along a continuum ofsexual possibilities. And what these categories mean to differentindividuals will be influenced by how they conceive their ownracial and class identities as well. Thus, sexuality is completelycontrolled neither by our biological sex (male or female) nor by theway our culture translates biological sex into gender roles(masculine or feminine). Sexuality exceeds these definitions andhas a will, a creativity, an expressive need of its own. (Tyson 335)
  • 9.  Finally, lesbian, gay, and queer criticism often rely onsimilar kinds of textual evidence. For example, inaddition to the more obvious forms of textual cues—suchas homoerotic imagery and erotic encounters betweensame-sex characters—there are rather subtle textual cuesthat can create a homoerotic atmosphere even in anotherwise heterosexual text, as we saw in the examplesof lesbian, gay, and queer criticism provided earlier. Nosingle textual cue can stand on its own as evidence of ahomoerotic atmosphere in a text. Nor can a small numberof such cues support a lesbian, gay, or queer reading. Buta preponderance of these cues, especially if coupled withother kinds of textual or biographical evidence, canstrengthen a lesbian, gay, or queer interpretation even ofan apparently heterosexual text. (Tyson 339)
  • 10.  Homosocial bonding— The depiction of strong emotional ties between same-sexcharacters. Gay or lesbian “signs”— “feminine” male characters or “masculine” female characters. coded signs created by the gay or lesbian subculture itself. Same-sex “doubles”— same-sex characters who look alike, act alike, or have parallelexperiences. Transgressive sexuality— A text’s focus on transgressive sexuality, including transgressiveheterosexuality (such as extramarital romance).
  • 11. Typical questions:1. What are the politics (ideological agendas) of specificgay, lesbian, or queer works, and how are those politics revealedin...the works thematic content or portrayals of its characters?2. What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specificlesbian, gay, or queer works?3. What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer, gay, orlesbian experience and history, including literary history?4. How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are bywriters who are apparently homosexual?5. How might the works of heterosexual writers be reread to reveal anunspoken or unconscious lesbian, gay or queer presence? Thatis, does the work have an unconscious lesbian, gay or queer desireor conflict that it submerges?
  • 12. More Questions6. What does the work reveal about the operations(socially, politically, psychologically) homophobic?7. How does the literary text illustrate the problematics of sexualityand sexual "identity," that is the ways in which human sexualitydoes not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by thewords homosexual and heterosexual?8. What elements in the text exist in the middle, between theperceived masculine/feminine binary? In other words, whatelements exhibit traits of both (bisexual)?9. What elements of the text can be perceived as being masculine(active, powerful) and feminine (passive, marginalized) and howdo the characters support these traditional roles?10. What sort of support (if any) is given to elements or characterswho question the masculine/feminine binary? What happens tothose elements/characters?
  • 13. Queer Reading of Gatsby Specifically, I will argue that the novel’s treatment of sexualtransgression and its proliferation of gay and lesbian signswork together to create a homoerotic subtext that disrupts anddestabilizes the heterosexual narrative, creating, in theprocess, a sexually ambiguous novel. And as we shallsee, this homoerotic subtext finds its most completeembodiment in the characterization of narrator NickCarraway, who is, I believe, unaware of his gay orientation.Put another way, The Great Gatsby’s sexual ambiguity resultsfrom the delivery of a heterosexual plot through the medium ofa closeted gay sensibility. In addition, I will suggest that thenovel’s sexual ambiguity mirrors the conflicts Fitzgeraldapparently experienced concerning his own sexuality. (Tyson342-43)
  • 14. Discussion
  • 15. Applications1. Do gay or lesbian “signs” appear in The Great Gatsby?2. It is quite easy to apply queer theory to Jordan.3. “I, Too, Sing America” by Langston Hughes: there areunderlying tones of homosexuality, and the homosexualexperience found throughout the poem.4. In Jack Kerouac’s Big Sur, there is a quality ofhomoeroticism.5. On the topic of Nick’s relationship with Gatsby, instead ofit being a one sided, hidden homosexual love of Gatsby byNick, I believe it to be a mutual homosocial relationshipbetween the two.
  • 16. Allen Ginsberg Born in New Jersey in 1926 to a poet/schoolteacherfather and a Russian émigré mother Educated at Columbia University Unofficially educated by William Burroughs Experienced a mystical vision of the poet William Blake Moved to San Francisco in 1954
  • 17.  The story of Allen Ginsberg’s early life is ascolorful and as interesting as Ginsberg’s poetry.From his humble beginnings in the shadow ofNew York City in Newark, New Jersey, to his off-and-on education at Columbia, Ginsberg’sjourney as a social outsider who ultimatelyfinds a place for himself is a quintessentiallyAmerican story.
  • 18. HOMEWORKRead Allen Ginsberg pp. 490-492 Howl and “A Footnote to Howl” pp.492-500Post #32 QHQ Or paraphrase 8-10 lines from Howl.

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