ELIT 48C Class #3• Spelling Error #2: Don’t Misspell “bated breath.” – If you write baited breath, everyone will suspect fishing is your favorite hobby. The word should be spelled bated, which comes from abated, meaning held.
AGENDA• Modern Manifestos – Marinetti – Loy – Pound – Cather – Williams – Hughes• Author Introduction: – Susan Glaspell
Modernist Manifestos: In your groups,discuss the various manifestos you read forclass. Endeavor to find defining, exemplary text to share.
Modernist Manifestos“The modernist manifesto is a publicdeclaration of artistic convictions,relatively brief, often highly stylized orepigrammatic in the mode of other formsof modernist writing, and almost alwaysan aggressively self- conscious declarationof artistic independence” (NAAL 335).
F. T. Marinetti Marinetti was a relatively obscure Italian poet before publishing “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism,” which “attracted an international circle of artists and writers into Marinetti’s orbit, including painters, architects, poets, sculptors, playwrights, and film directors. Across all the arts, futurism scorned traditional standards of artistic beauty, celebrated modern technologies of speed, and aimed to shock audiences” (NAAL 336).
8. We stand on the lastpromontory of the While many modernist writerscenturies! . . . Why depicted the modern world asshould we look back, an experience of loss, Marinettiwhen what we want is to wholeheartedly embraced thebreak down the idea that modern technologymysterious doors of theImpossible? Time and has ushered in a secularSpace died yesterday. We millennium.already live in theabsolute, because we In this and other sections of hishave created eternal, manifesto, does Marinetti seemomnipresent speed. to be uncritically embracing the —from Manifesto of advances of modern Futurism technology? F. T. Marinetti
9. We will glorify war—the These two points from theworld’s only hygiene— Manifesto of Futurism representmilitarism, patriotism, the potentially troubling aspects ofdestructive gesture of Marinetti’s worldview: hisfreedom-bringers, beautiful celebration of war and hisideas worth dying for, and denigration of women (he glorifiesscorn for woman. “scorn for woman” and promises to “destroy . . .feminism”).10. We will destroy themuseums, libraries, academies How does this prowar, antiwomanof every kind, will fightmoralism, feminism, every stance relate to Marinetti’s futurist philosophy? Does it seem to be anopportunistic or utilitarian afterthought? Or are thecowardice. glorification of war and the — denigration of women integral to from Manifesto of Futurism Marinetti’s thinking?
Mina Loy Mina Loy was a self-described feminist poet and writer, and, oddly enough, the sexual partner of the apparently antifeminist F. T. Marinetti. She wrote (but did not publish) her “Feminist Manifesto” during her association with Marinetti. Does Loy’s manifesto read as a response to Marinetti’s? As a criticism of it? Are the two manifestos written in a similar form, or are there formal differences as well as differences in content?
Women . . . you are on One of most immediately noticeablethe eve of a devastating features of Loy’s manifesto is itspsychological upheaval— typography: She increases the font size atall your pet illusions must strategic moments, underlines text, putsbe unmasked—the lies of letters in boldface, and employs irregularcenturies have got to go— capitalization. What is the effect of this? Does Loy’s message of “Absoluteare you prepared for the Demolition” (rather than mere “Reform”)Wrench—? There is no require that she radically alter thehalf-measure—NO appearance of her text? That is, does thescratching on the surface message of her text determine the formof the rubbish heap of that it takes?tradition, will bring aboutReform, the only method Loy’s militaristic language of demolition and destruction recall Marinetti’s glorification ofis Absolute Demolition. war, but her profeminist message runs entirely counter to Marinetti’s. How might —from Feminist we account for this conflict? Manifesto
Ezra Pound Pound was an American expatriate living in Europe. He was hugely influential in the circle of other expatriate writers and artists not only for his own work as a poet but also for the advice that he offered to other writers. “A Retrospect” is Pound’s manifesto on Imagism, a school of poetry that argued for the central—if not defining—place of the image in modern poetry.
• An “Image” is that which presents an intellectual and Is Ezra Pound offering a emotional complex in an radical new vision of instant of time. poetry, or are his• It is better to present one comments simply good Image in a lifetime than to advice for writers of any produce voluminous works. kind?• Use no superfluous word, no adjective which does What do you find radical in not reveal something. Pound’s approach as laid — out in “A Retrospect”? from “A Retrospect”
In a Station of the Metro The apparition of these faces in the crowd; Petals on a wet, black bough.One of Pound’s most famous Imagist poems is “In a Station of theMetro.” Does he practice what he preaches in “A Retrospect” inthis poem?After reading this poem, are you inclined to think differently aboutthe advice Pound offers in “A Retrospect”?After reading an Imagist poem, do you think that “A Retrospect” isoffering something more than just general advice for writers?
Willa Cather Willa Cather was born in the Midwest but spent most of her career as a novelist in cosmopolitan cities such as London and New York. In “The Novel Démeublé,” Cather implicitly asks what nineteenth-century novelists can teach twentieth-century writers. In so doing, she rejects realist novels as mere “amusement” and looks to “American romances” such as Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter for inspiration.
There are hopeful signs that The realist literature of ansome of the younger writers earlier tradition was committedare trying to break away to the “verisimilitude” thatfrom mere verisimilitude, Cather here rejects. What isand, following the Cather offering in the place ofdevelopment of modernpainting, to interpret verisimilitude?imaginatively the materialand social investiture of their What does it mean “tocharacters; to present their interpret imaginatively” andscene by suggestion rather “to present . . . by suggestionthan by enumeration. rather than by enumeration”? —from “The Novel Démeublé”
William Carlos Williams So far, all of the manifestos that we have read are serious invectives. Yet, here we encounter the playfulness in Williams’s Spring and All. Given the playful, ironic, and humorous tone of Williams’s manifesto, it may be difficult to tell how deadly serious he is about his vision for modern poetry.
It is spring! but miracle ofmiracles a miraculous The language from Spring andmiracle has gradually All invokes both the creationtaken place during these story in the book of Genesisseemingly wasted eons. and the theory of evolution.Through the orderly Why does Williams do this?sequences ofunmentionable time And how does he make bothEVOLUTION HAS religion and science serve “theREPEATED ITSELF FROM meaning of ‘art’”?THE BEGINNING. —from Spring and All
Langston Hughes Many modernist writers supported the idea that artists and writers should be fiercely committed to their personal vision regardless of what the market, critics, or other writers said. In “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” Langston Hughes argues that an artist’s racial identity complicates this commitment to personal vision in ways that white writers had not fully appreciated.
There’s a tension in the statementI am ashamed for the between individual choice (“An artist mustblack poet who says, “I be free to choose what he does”) and awant to be a poet, not a manifesto-like prescription of whatNegro poet,” as though African-American poets must do (“I amhis own racial worldwere not as interesting ashamed for the black poet who says . . .”).as any other world . . .An artist must be free How does Hughes encourage black writersto choose what he to embrace their heritage without tellingdoes, certainly, but he the that they must write in a certain waymust also never beafraid to do what he to be considered successful writers?might choose. In what way is this essay not about art at —from “The Negro all, but about racism and the self-hatred Artist and that it breeds in an oppressed population? the Racial Mountain”
Author: Susan GlaspellOn July 1, 1882, Susan Glaspellwas born in Davenport, Iowa. Sheexcelled in academics as astudent, studying Latin andjournalism. After graduation fromhigh school, she worked as anewspaper reporter for theDavenport Morning Republican,then as the society editor for theWeekly Outlook. From 1897-1899she attended Drake University andreceived a Ph.D. in Philosophy.
At the time of her death in 1948,she had written fifty short stories,nine novels, and fourteen plays;most of these works feature strongfemale protagonists and storiesthat focus on the experiences ofwomen. Perhaps not surprisingly,her work faded from public interestduring the conservative1950s, andpractically disappeared frombookshelves and the stages ofamateur theatres. Yet in the pastfew decades, her work is beingreexamined and celebrated by anew group of critics andaudiences.
HomeworkRead Trifles (1916) pp. 252-262Post # 3 In literature, a symbol is something thatrepresents something else, and is often used tocommunicate deeper levels of meaning. What isone important symbol in Trifles? How does Glaspelluse it to propel the plot and convey deeper levels ofmeaning about her characters or themes??Or QHQ Trifles
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