The adjective accidentalmeans unintentional orhappening by chance. The adjective incidentalmeans secondary ornonessential. It oftenrefers to something thatoccurs in connection witha more important activityor event.
AGENDAChoose new teams The Harlem Renaissance Historical Context The Poems of Langston Hughes Author Introduction: Zora Neale Hurston
2. You must change at least 50% of your team.3. You may never be on a team with the same personmore than twice.4. You may never have a new team comprised of morethan 50% of any prior team.1. Your teamscan be madeup of 4 or 5people.
LectureThe Harlem Renaissance
The Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was a period between World War Iand the Great Depression when black artists and writersflourished in the United States. Most critics and historians agree that 1917 marks the firstcomprehensive signs of increased cultural activity amongblack artists in the Harlem section of New York City and thatby the mid-1930s the movement had lost much of its originalvigor. While Harlem was the epicenter of black culture during thisperiod, and home to more blacks than any other urban area inthe nation in the years after World War I, other cities, such asChicago, Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia, also fosteredsimilar but smaller communities of black artists.What Are We Talking About?
Between 1890 and 1920, the near collapse of the southernagricultural economy, coupled with a labor shortage in thenorth, prompted about two million blacks to migrate tonorthern cities in search of work. In addition, World War I had left an entire generation ofAfrican Americans asking why, when they had fought andmany had died for their country, they were still affordedsecond-class status.Why This Movement?
Harlem had become an entertainment capital. Musical performers moved toHarlem, drawn by the hundreds of nightclubs and other venues where the jazzsound was wildly popular. Performers Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong,Fats Waller, and others played at nightspots like Smalls’s Inn and the SavoyBallroom. Whites from other parts of New York City “discovered”Harlem and made it the place to be on a Saturday night. Ironically, some ofthe nightclubs were off-limits to blacks, including the famous CottonClub, until 1928. Instead, they catered to a wealthy white clientele intent onexperiencing the “exotic” Harlem atmosphere.How did Harlem Change?
A number of black intellectuals, for example W. E. B. Du Bois,made it clear that the time had come for white America toacknowledge the achievements of African-American artistsand thinkers. The idea that whites might come to accept blacksif they were exposed to their artistic endeavors became apopular one.To this end, magazines such as the Crisis and Opportunityfeatured the prose and poetry of Harlem Renaissance starsLangston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay, NellaLarsen, and Zora Neale Hurston. Major New York-basedpublishing houses began to search for new black voices andprint their poems, short stories, and novels.What Happened Next?
White intellectual societyembraced these writers andsupported— financially andthrough social contacts—theirefforts to educate Americansabout their race, culture, andheritage through their art.Ultimately, however, thefinancial backing began to rundry in the early 1930s with thecollapse of the New York stockmarket and the ensuingworldwide economic depression.The Renaissance had run itscourse.How did it turn out?
DiscussionThe Poetry of Langston Hughes
“The NegroSpeaks ofRivers”What do you think it means to have a soul that isdeep as rivers?
“I, too, singAmerica”How does “I, too, singAmerica” make you thinkabout what it means to bean American?How is "America"presented in this poem,and how does it make youfeel about America?
“The Weary Blues”What connections can be made between race and bluesmusic in "The Weary Blues"?
Author IntroductionZora Neale HurstonA novelist, folklorist, and anthropologist, Zora Neale Hurstonwas the prototypical authority on black culture from theHarlem Renaissance.
Zora Neale Hurston combined literature with anthropology. She first gainedattention with her short stories such as "John Redding Goes to Sea.” After severalyears of anthropological research financed through grants and fellowships, ZoraNeale Hurstons first novel Jonahs Gourd Vine was published in 1934 to criticalsuccess. In 1935, her book Mules and Men, which investigated voodoo practices inblack communities in Florida and New Orleans, also brought her success.Hurstons greatest novel, Their Eyes Watching God, was published in 1937.Zora Neale Hurston was a utopian, who held that black Americans could attainsovereignty from white American society and all its bigotry, as proven by herhometown of Eatonville.Her work did not address the issue of racism of whites, and as this became aemerging theme among black writers in the post World War II era of civil rights,Hurstons literary influence faded.She further damaged her own reputation by criticizing the civil rights movement andsupporting ultraconservative politicians. She died in poverty and obscurity.
HOMEWORK Read Zora Neale Hurston: “The Eatonville Anthology”530-38 and “How it Feels to Be Colored Me” 538-541 Post #21 Choose one Community is a consistent theme in the works of ZoraNeale Hurston and the primary bond among the smallerstories contained in "The Eatonville Anthology." How doesthe image of a front porch act as a symbol of the socialconcept of community? Cite specific incidents from thestory that prove this connection. How does the narrators viewpoint direct the readersunderstanding and approval of the citizens presented in "TheEatonville Anthology"? Discuss specific examples.