Elit 48 c class 2
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Elit 48 c class 2 Elit 48 c class 2 Presentation Transcript

  • ELIT 48C  Class 2
  • + Spelling Error #1 Don’tWrite “then” when you mean “than.” The first is a description of time—“I wrote the sales letter and then I wrote the advertisement”—while the other is used when making a comparison—“I am nicer than you are!”
  • + AGENDA Teams Introduction to American Literature 1914-1945
  • 2. The teams will change on or near exam dates. 3. You must change at least 50% of your team after each project is completed. 4. You may never be on a team with the same person more than twice. 5. You may never have a new team composed of more than 50% of any prior team. 1. We will often use teams to earn participation points. Your teams can be made up of 4 or 5 people.
  • + Points will be earned for correct answers to questions, meaningful contributions to the discussion, and the willingness to share your work. Each team will track their own points, but cheating leads to death (or loss of 25 participation points). Answers, comments, and questions must be posed in a manner that promotes learning. Those who speak out of turn or with maliciousness will not receive points for their teams.
  • At the end of each class, you will turn in a point sheet with the names of everyone in your group and your accumulated points for the day. It is your responsibility to make the sheet, track the points, and turn it in. Sit near your team members in class to facilitate ease of group discussions
  • + Your First Group!  Get into groups of three or four. (1-2 minutes)  If you can’t find a group, please raise your hand.  Once your groups is established, choose one person to be the keeper of the points.  Write down members’ names  Turn in your sheet at the end of the class period.
  • + Take 10 minutes to discuss the following: Historical events that took place between the wars Aspects of literary modernism Radical social changes that took place during the interwar period.
  • American Literature 1914–1945 An Introduction
  • + Historical events that took place between the wars
  • +  The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution (1920)  American women’s efforts to win the right to vote were “given a final push by women’s work as nurses and ambulance drivers during the war” (NAAL 4).  The Immigration Act of 1924  “prohibited all Asian immigration and set quotas for other countries on the basis of their existing U.S. immigrant populations, intending thereby to control the ethnic makeup of the United States” (NAAL 4).  The Great Migration (c. 1910–1930)  the American landscape was transformed by the internal migration of two million African Americans from the rural South to urban centers in the Northeast,West, and Midwest The Two Wars as Historical Markers During the period of literary history that falls between 1914 (the beginning of World War I) and 1945 (the end of World War II), the United States grew and changed in radical ways.
  • + The Two Wars as Historical Markers  The first Red scare (1919–1920)  Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the birth of the Soviet Union, American leftists looked to socialism and communism as models for the labor movement in the United States. Many Americans were intensely suspicious of European-style socialism, and the first Red scare of the twentieth century took place during this time, a generation earlier than the McCarthyism that took hold following World War II.  The stock market crash (1929)  The stock market crash of 1929 and the decade-long Great Depression that followed it were also events both international and domestic in scope  The Great Depression (c. 1929–1939)  Unemployment in the United States reached a high of twenty-five percent during the Depression years, international trade dropped off by fifty percent.
  • + Aspects of literary modernism
  • + Literary modernism  tradition vs. innovation:  “One conflict centered on the uses of literary tradition.To some, a work registering its allegiance to literary history—through allusion to canonical works of the past or by using traditional poetic forms and poetic language—seemed imitative and old-fashioned.To others, a work failing to honor literary tradition was bad or incompetent writing” (NAAL 6). “The two wars . . . bracket a period during which the United States became a fully modern nation” (NAAL 6). The aspects of social and political modernity that are laid out in the previous slides have their counterpart in literary modernism, which is better defined as a series of conflicts rather than as a homogeneous set of characteristics.
  • +Literary modernism  serious vs. popular literature:  “A related conflict involved the place of popular culture in serious literature.Throughout the era, popular culture gained momentum and influence. Some writers regarded it as crucial for the future of literature that popular forms, such as film and jazz, be embraced; to others, serious literature by definition had to reject what they saw as the cynical commercialism of popular culture” (NAAL 6).  politics vs. aesthetics  “Another issue was the question of how far literature should engage itself in political and social struggle. Should art be a domain unto itself, exploring aesthetic questions and enunciating transcendent truths, or should art participate in the politics of the times?” (NAAL 6).
  • + Radical social changes that took place during the interwar period.
  • + Changing Times: How does Thomas Hart Benton’s 1931 painting City Activities with Subway reflect the radical social changes that took place during the interwar period.
  • + Changing Times:The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution officially gave women the right to vote. Unofficially, the amendment also opened up new arenas for women to explore—politically, sexually, artistically, and socially. Suffragists Audre Osborne and Mrs. James Stevens.
  • + Changing Times:These two women illustrate the era's penchant for both fun and recklessness by doing the Charleston on a rooftop ledge.Their playful posturing also reflects the risks that women were taking in an era of greater opportunity. December 11, 1926, Chicago, Illinois.
  • + Changing Times:The increasing mainstream popularity of African American artists, writers, and performers in cities like Chicago and NewYork during the interwar period is a complex phenomenon to account for, stemming from a movement toward racial equality on the one hand and an escalation in racially motivated violence that contributed to the Great Migration of two million African Americans from the South on the other. An audience at Harlem's Cotton Club, a popular nightclub, watches a performance. April 18, 1934.
  • + Changing Times:“Class inequality, as well as American racial divisions, continued to generate intellectual and artistic debate in the interwar years.The nineteenth-century United States had been host to many radical movements—labor activism, utopianism, socialism, anarchism—inspired by diverse sources. In the twentieth century, especially following the rise of the Soviet Union, the American left increasingly drew its intellectual and political program from the Marxist tradition” (NAAL 8). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,The Bement Miles Pond Company. A general view of the plant and some of its workers.
  • + Changing Times:The Industrial Workers of the World attracted working- class men and women frustrated with low wages and long hours. It also attracted writers, artists, and intellectuals who were sympathetic to socialist movements across the world.
  • +Changing Times: Gastonia, North Carolina, April 5, 1929. This photo shows a group of female textile strikers attempting to disarm a National Guard trooper, who had been ordered to the Loray Mills in an effort to stop the serious rioting that took place following the strike. As evidenced in this photograph, labor struggles often turned violent, with strikebreakers (both military and civilian) brought in to end labor protests and return disgruntled workers to their jobs.
  • +Science and Technology “Technology played a vital, although often invisible, role in all these events, because it linked places and spaces, contributing to the shaping of culture as a national phenomenon rather than a series of local manifestations . . .The most powerful technological innovation [was] the automobile (NAAL 10). Ford Adds to Your Pleasure. Poster ca. 1920.
  • + Automobiles put Americans on the road, dramatically reshaped the structure of American industry and occupations, and altered the national topography as well. Along with work in automobile factories themselves, millions of other jobs— in steel mills, parts factories, highway construction and maintenance, gas stations, machine shops, roadside restaurants, motels—depended on the industry”  The road itself became—and has remained—a key powerful symbol of the United States and of modernity as well. Cities grew, suburbs came into being, small towns died, new towns arose according to the placement of highways, which rapidly supplanted the railroad in shaping the patterns of twentieth- century American urban expansion.The United States had become a nation of migrants as much as or more than it was a nation of immigrants” (NAAL 10).
  • + The 1930s Brokers line up to throw themselves out of the window after the stock market crash of October 1929. Contemporary American cartoon. One of the defining features of the interwar period is the stock market crash of 1929 and the resulting depression. “The suicides of millionaire bankers and stockbrokers”— parodied in this cartoon— “made the headlines, but more compelling was the enormous toll among ordinary people who lost homes, jobs, farms, and life savings in the stock market crash. Conservatives advised waiting until things got better; radicals espoused immediate social revolution” (NAAL 11).
  • + The 1930s
  • + The 1930s A man walks past a farmhouse in a dust storm at the height of the Dust Bowl. Ca. 1937.
  • + The 1930s Migrant family walking on the highway from Idabel, Oklahoma to Krebs, Oklahoma. Photo by Dorothea Lange, 1938.
  • + Homework Read “Modernist Manifestos” pp. 335-350 Post #2 QHQ from one of the sections/authors listed:  Intro  Marinetti  Loy