Stationary vs. Stationery• Stationary means "fixed in place, unable to move;"stationery is letterhead or other special writing paper.(Hint: Stationery with an e comes with an envelope.)Examples: Evan worked out on his stationary bike. Thedukes initials and crest appeared atop his personalstationery.• http://www.huffingtonpost.com/sue-sommer/common-grammarmistakes_b_935609.html#s338543&title=stationarystationery
AGENDA• Imagist Poetry• “The Red Wheelbarrow”• “To Elsie”• “In a Station of the Metro.”• Author Introduction:• Wallace Stevens
LECTUREImagismCrooked, crawling tide with long wet fingersClutching at the gritty beach in the roar and spurt of spray,Tide of gales, drunken tide, lava-burst of breakers,Black ships plunge upon you from sea to sea away.From “Tide of Storms” by John Gould Fletcher
Imagism flourished in Britain and in the United States for a briefperiod between 1909 and 1917. In an effort to move away fromthe sentimentality and moralizing tone of nineteenth-centuryVictorian poetry, imagist poets looked to many sources stimulatenew ideas:• They studied the French symbolists, who wereexperimenting with free verse, a form of poetry thatshunned the accustomed rhythm of metrical feet, or lines.Rules of rhyming were also considered nonessential.• The ancient form of Japanese haiku poetry influenced theimagists to focus on one simple image.• Greek and Roman classical poetry inspired some of theimagists to strive for a high quality of writing that wouldendure.
T. E. Hulme (an English Poet who lived from 1883–1917) wasinstrumental in formulating and cultivating the ideas andconcepts that characterized imagism. Hulme proposed apoetry based on absolutely accurate presentation of itssubject with no excess verbiage.Imagist poetry aimed to replace muddy abstractions withexactness of observed detail, apt metaphors, and economyof language.The first tenet of the Imagist manifesto was "To use thelanguage of common speech, but to employ always theexact word, not the nearly-exact, nor the merelydecorative word." While he wrote only a modest amount ofpoetry, his ideas inspired Ezra Pound.
Pounds definition of the image was "that which presents anintellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time."Pound defined the tenets of Imagist poetry as follows:I. Direct treatment of the "thing," whether subjective orobjective.II. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute tothe presentation.I. As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of themusical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome.http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/5658#sthash.D8754249.dpuf
Amy Lowell on ImagismWhen Ezra Pound left the imagists, Amy Lowell led the movement. Inher book Tendencies in Modern American Poetry (New York: MacmillanCompany, 1917), she outlines what she sees as the major points ofimagism. She set them down “in order.”1. To use the language of common speech, but to employ always theexact word, not the nearly-exact, nor the merely decorative word.2. To create new rhythms -as the expression of new moods -- and notto copy old rhythms, which merely echo old moods. We do not insistupon "free-verse" as the only method of writing poetry. We fight for itas for a principle of liberty. We believe that the individuality of a poetmay often be better expressed in free-verse than in conventional forms.In poetry a new cadence means a new idea.
3. To allow absolute freedom in the choice of subject. It is not good art towrite badly of aeroplanes and automobiles, nor is it necessarily bad art towrite well about the past. We believe passionately in the artistic value ofmodem life, but we wish to point out that there is nothing so uninspiring norso old-fashioned as an aeroplane of the year 19 11.4. To present an image (hence the name: "Imagist"). We are not a school ofpainters, but we believe that poetry should render particulars exactly and notdeal in vague generalities, however magnificent and sonorous. It is for thisreason that we oppose the cosmic poet, who seems to us to shirk the realdifficulties of his art.5. To produce poetry that is hard and clear, never blurred nor indefinite.6. Finally, most of us believe that concentration is of the very essence ofpoetry.http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/amylowell/imagism.htm
American ImagistsEzra PoundH.DAmy LowellJohn Gould FletcherWilliam Carlos WilliamsEnglish ImagistsRichard AldingtonJames JoyceF. S. FlintD. H. LawrenceIt is almost impossible to discussthe imagist movement in terms ofonly Americans. Pound, whospearheaded much of it, hadconnections in both America andBritain, and the ideas influenced allof those poets in the same decade.Though the Imagism movementwas over by 1917, the doctrineprofoundly influenced the freeverse style of the twentiethcentury.
DISCUSSION“In a Station of the Metro”“The Red Wheelbarrow”“To Elsie”
Ezra Pound“Makeit new”In a Station of the MetroThe apparition of these faces in the crowd;Petals on a wet, black bough.
William Carlos Williams“No ideas but in things”The Red Wheelbarrowso much dependsupona red wheelbarrowglazed with rainwaterbeside the whitechickens
• Wallace Stevens was born on October 2, 1879• He lived a relatively privileged life• He went to Harvard, trying to satisfy his father’s wish for him tobecome a lawyer while at the same time satisfying his own needto write.• In 1900, he defied his parents and moved to NY to become aJournalist for The New York Tribune, though eventually he didreturn to law school and become a lawyer.• He worked to make himself financially stable, but still he wrote.• In 1923, he published his first collection of poetry.Although Steven’s work is powerful in its use of images, he is notclassified as an imagist. Instead he writes in a number of styles—often three line stanzas. His early poems sometimes rhymed, someare in blank verse, and some a melodic free verse. The poems weare reading are lyric poems
HOMEWORK• Read: Wallace Stevens• “The Snow Man” 283 1923• “The Emperor of Ice Cream” 284 1923• Post #13: Paraphrase either poem.• Or discuss the modernist aspects of one or bothof these poems. Or do a brief “new critical”reading of one poem.