Elit 48 c class 10  post qhq
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  • 1. ELIT 48C Class 10 Composed or Comprised The board is composed/ comprised of five members.
  • 2.  Composed means, more or less, “made up of” — and when you say something is composed of {these things} you may or may not be including all of the {things} of which it is made, opting for only the items most relevant to making your point.  To comprise means “to contain” and the correct usage will usually include ALL the parts making up the whole. Oh, and with comprise, the whole should come before the parts.  Thus, the board comprises five members, whereas five members compose (or make up) the board. It is also correct to say that the board is composed (not comprised) of five members.
  • 3. AGENDA  Lecture: Lesbian, Gay, and  Queer Criticism  Discussion:  The Great Gatsby  Author introduction: Susan Glaspell
  • 4. Lesbian criticism is concerned with issues of personal identity and politics analogous to those analyzed by feminists (see chapter 4). However, while feminism addresses issues related to sexism and the difficulties involved in carving out a space for personal identity and political action beyond the influence of sexist ideologies, lesbian critics address issues related to both sexism and heterosexism. In other words, lesbian critics must deal with the psychological, social, economic, and political oppression fostered not only by patriarchal male privilege, but by heterosexual privilege as well. (Tyson 322-23) Lesbian Criticism
  • 5. Gay Criticism The kinds of analyses that tend to engage the attention of gay critics often fall under the heading of gay sensibility. How does being gay influence the way one sees the world, sees oneself and others, creates and responds to art and music, creates and interprets literature, or experiences and expresses emotion? In a heterosexist culture such as the one we inhabit at the turn of the twenty-first century in America, gay sensibility includes an awareness of being different, at least in certain ways, from the members of the mainstream, dominant culture, and the complex feelings that result from an implicit, ongoing social oppression. In other words, part of seeing the world as a gay man includes the ways in which one deals with being oppressed as a gay man. Among others, three important domains of gay sensibility, all of which involve responses to heterosexist oppression, are drag, camp, and dealing with the issue of AIDS. (Tyson 330)
  • 6. Queer Theory For queer theory, categories of sexuality cannot be defined by such simple oppositions as homosexual/heterosexual. Building on deconstruction’s insights into human subjectivity (selfhood) as a fluid, fragmented, dynamic collectivity of possible “selves,” queer theory defines individual sexuality as a fluid, fragmented, dynamic collectivity of possible sexualities. Our sexuality may be different at different times over the course of our lives or even at different times over the course of a week because sexuality is a dynamic range of desire. Gay sexuality, lesbian sexuality, bisexuality, and heterosexuality are, for all of us, possibilities along a continuum of sexual possibilities. And what these categories mean to different individuals will be influenced by how they conceive their own racial and class identities as well. Thus, sexuality is completely controlled neither by our biological sex (male or female) nor by the way our culture translates biological sex into gender roles (masculine or feminine). Sexuality exceeds these definitions and has a will, a creativity, an expressive need of its own. (Tyson 335)
  • 7.  Finally, lesbian, gay, and queer criticism often rely on similar kinds of textual evidence. For example, in addition to the more obvious forms of textual cues— such as homoerotic imagery and erotic encounters between same-sex characters—there are rather subtle textual cues that can create a homoerotic atmosphere even in an otherwise heterosexual text, as we saw in the examples of lesbian, gay, and queer criticism provided earlier. No single textual cue can stand on its own as evidence of a homoerotic atmosphere in a text. Nor can a small number of such cues support a lesbian, gay, or queer reading. But a preponderance of these cues, especially if coupled with other kinds of textual or biographical evidence, can strengthen a lesbian, gay, or queer interpretation even of an apparently heterosexual text. (Tyson 339)
  • 8. Terms, Signs, and Definitions
  • 9.  Homosocial bonding—  The depiction of strong emotional ties between same-sex characters.  Gay or lesbian “signs”—  “feminine” male characters or “masculine” female characters.  coded signs created by the gay or lesbian subculture itself.  Same-sex “doubles”—  same-sex characters who look alike, act alike, or have parallel experiences.  Transgressive sexuality—  A text’s focus on transgressive sexuality, including transgressive heterosexuality (such as extramarital romance).
  • 10. Discuss Discuss in your groups: Five minutes!
  • 11. Discussion: QHQ 1. Q: Why is it important to read literary texts with marginalized theory and perspectives? 2. Q: Why is queer theory an important and necessary addition to both gay and lesbian theories? 3. Q: Is it okay to assert that someone may or not be LGBT using queer theory? [. . .] If the goal is to assess where LGBT are being repressed, oppressed and their contribution to literature, is it really fair to be hypothesizing the author’s sexuality in accordance with the text? 4. Q: Is patriarchy and heterosexuality inseparable? In other words, can a person who is heterosexual exist outside of a patriarchal society? 5. Q: Is there a hierarchy in LGBT culture?
  • 12. QHQ: similarities and intersections 1. Q: Why is queer theory an important and necessary addition to both gay and lesbian theories? 2. Q. Are there any similarities between the oppression of blacks and the oppression of gays? 3. Q: Does queer (as an umbrella term for the LGBTQXI community) criticism pertain to the heterosexual? 4. Q: Now that we have covered all these theories, I ask: Do critics that view literature through these various lenses ever praise works by white, straight male writers? Or will they always just see the inherent bias in their works? 5. Q: At what point does diversity within a type of criticism stop being helpful and start causing discord?
  • 13. QHQ: Bromance in The Great Gatsby 1. If we consider Nick’s life after the events of the novel, and we allow that those events precipitated his recognition of his gay desires, might the book itself be his last protestation against his homo/bisexuality? 2. Why do we call close friendships between two same- sex characters “bromances” when, if they were of different sexes, we would assume there is a romantic undertone to their relationship?
  • 14. Typical questions: 1. What are the politics (ideological agendas) of specific gay, lesbian, or queer works, and how are those politics revealed in...the work's thematic content or portrayals of its characters? 2. What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specific lesbian, gay, or queer works? 3. What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer, gay, or lesbian experience and history, including literary history? 4. How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are by writers who are apparently homosexual? 5. How might the works of heterosexual writers be reread to reveal an unspoken or unconscious lesbian, gay or queer presence? That is, does the work have an unconscious lesbian, gay or queer desire or conflict that it submerges?
  • 15. More Questions 6. What does the work reveal about the operations (socially, politically, psychologically) homophobic? 7. How does the literary text illustrate the problematics of sexuality and sexual "identity," that is the ways in which human sexuality does not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual? 8. What elements in the text exist in the middle, between the perceived masculine/feminine binary? In other words, what elements exhibit traits of both (bisexual)? 9. What elements of the text can be perceived as being masculine (active, powerful) and feminine (passive, marginalized) and how do the characters support these traditional roles? 10. What sort of support (if any) is given to elements or characters who question the masculine/feminine binary? What happens to those elements/characters?
  • 16. Author: Susan Glaspell On July 1, 1882, Susan Glaspell was born in Davenport, Iowa. She excelled in academics as a student, studying Latin and journalism. After graduation from high school, she worked as a newspaper reporter for the Davenport Morning Republican, then as the society editor for the Weekly Outlook. From 1897-1899 she attended Drake University and received a Ph.D. in Philosophy.
  • 17. At the time of her death in 1948, she had written fifty short stories, nine novels, and fourteen plays; most of these works feature strong female protagonists and stories that focus on the experiences of women. Perhaps not surprisingly, her work faded from public interest during the conservative1950s, and practically disappeared from bookshelves and the stages of amateur theatres. Yet in the past few decades, her work is being reexamined and celebrated by a new group of critics and audiences.
  • 18. HOMEWORK  Read Trifles (1916) pp. 252-262  Post # 10 In literature, a symbol is something that represents something else, and is often used to communicate deeper levels of meaning. What is one important symbol in Trifles? How does Glaspell use it to propel the plot and convey deeper levels of meaning about her characters or themes?  Or QHQ Trifles  Consider its articulation with one of the Modern Manifestos, if you can.