Comma sense

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Comma sense

  1. 1. Understanding & Using Commas
  2. 2. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  3. 3. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to separate elements ina series or list.
  4. 4. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list.List of thingsthat happened:He hit the ball.He dropped the bat.He ran to first base.
  5. 5. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list.List of things He hit the ball, dropped the bat, andthat happened: ran to first base.He hit the ball.He dropped the bat.He ran to first base.
  6. 6. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list.List of things He hit the ball, dropped the bat, andthat happened: ran to first base.He hit the ball.He dropped the bat.He ran to first base.
  7. 7. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. comma commaList of things He hit the ball, dropped the bat, andthat happened: ran to first base.He hit the ball.He dropped the bat.He ran to first base. The controversial “Oxford” or “Serial” comma I say: Use it! Others say: Don’t!
  8. 8. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list. comma commaList of things He hit the ball, dropped the bat, andthat happened: ran to first base.He hit the ball.He dropped the bat.He ran to first base.
  9. 9. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to separate elements in a series or list.List of things He hit the ball, dropped the bat, andthat happened: ran to first base.He hit the ball.He dropped the bat.He ran to first base.
  10. 10. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to separate elements ina series or list. List of things to buy: Bread Milk Cheese
  11. 11. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to separate elements ina series or list. List of Buy me some bread, milk, and things cheese. to buy: Bread Milk Cheese
  12. 12. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to separate elements ina series or list. List of Buy me some bread, milk, and things cheese. to buy: comma comma Bread Milk Cheese
  13. 13. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  14. 14. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma before (and not after)a FANBOYS conjunction when twoindependent clauses are beingconnected. Exceptions Alert!
  15. 15. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma before (and not after)a FANBOYS conjunction when twoindependent clauses are beingconnected. Two Independent Clauses: He hit the ball well. He ran toward third base. Exceptions Alert!
  16. 16. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Exceptions Alert!
  17. 17. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Independent clause Exceptions Alert!
  18. 18. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Independent clause Independent clause Exceptions Alert!
  19. 19. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Independent clause Independent clause FANBOYS Conjunction Exceptions Alert!
  20. 20. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. comma Independent clause Independent clause Coordinating Conjunction (one of the FANBOYS) Exceptions Alert!
  21. 21. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.He hit the ball well, but he ran toward third base. Exceptions Alert!
  22. 22. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.Exception Alert: If the two independentclauses are short and well balanced, thecomma may be dropped if no confusion iscreated. Exceptions Alert!
  23. 23. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.Our team is good but their team is better. Exceptions Alert!
  24. 24. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. Our team is good but their team is better.Independent clause Independent clause Exceptions Alert!
  25. 25. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected. Our team is good but their team is better. No commaIndependent clause Independent clause FANBOYS conjunction Exceptions Alert!
  26. 26. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma before (and not after) a FANBOYS conjunction when two independent clauses are being connected.Our team is good but their team is better. Exceptions Alert!
  27. 27. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  28. 28. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. Exceptions Alert!
  29. 29. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material.Introductory phrase Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. Exceptions Alert!
  30. 30. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material.Introductory phrase comma Running toward third base, he suddenly realized how stupid he looked. Exceptions Alert!
  31. 31. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material.Exception Alert: If the introductory materialconsists of one word or is very, very short,then the comma may be dropped, if noconfusion or difficulty in reading is created. Exceptions Alert!
  32. 32. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material.After his short nap in the clubhouse beforethe game, the pitcher felt better. Exceptions Alert!
  33. 33. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material.After his short nap in the clubhouse beforethe game, the pitcher felt better. comma Introductory phrase (kind of a long one, actually) Exceptions Alert!
  34. 34. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. After his nap, the pitcher felt better. commaIntroductory phrase (andthis one is much shorter!) Exceptions Alert!
  35. 35. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. After his nap the pitcher felt better. Okay to omit this commaIntroductory clause (andthis one is much shorter!) Exceptions Alert!
  36. 36. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. After his nap the pitcher felt better. Exceptions Alert!
  37. 37. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. Inside the gym was warm and comfortable. Exceptions Alert!
  38. 38. Understanding & Using Commas Use a comma to set off introductory material. Inside the gym was warm and comfortable.This is confusing and awkward to read because the writerdid not use a comma to set off the introductory material. Exceptions Alert!
  39. 39. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. Exceptions Alert!
  40. 40. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. Introductory word Exceptions Alert!
  41. 41. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. comma Introductory word Exceptions Alert!
  42. 42. Understanding & Using CommasUse a comma to set off introductorymaterial. Inside, the gym was warm and comfortable. That’s much better. Exceptions Alert!
  43. 43. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  44. 44. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text.
  45. 45. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. Fine. But what’s“parenthetical” mean?
  46. 46. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off parenthetical elements in text. Fine. But what’s“parenthetical” mean? That’s a good question. Let’s take a look.
  47. 47. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text.Parentheticalmeans extrainformationnot needed tounderstand thesentence.
  48. 48. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text.Parentheticalmeans extrainformation The stadium, built in 1953, stadiumnot needed to was small but comfortable.understand thesentence.
  49. 49. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text.Parentheticalmeans extrainformation The stadium, built in 1953,not needed to was small but comfortable.understand thesentence.
  50. 50. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text. Parenthetical (extra) informationParentheticalmeans extrainformation The stadium, built in 1953,not needed to was small but comfortable.understand thesentence.
  51. 51. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text. Parenthetical (extra) informationParenthetical comma commameans extrainformation The stadium, built in 1953,not needed to was small but comfortable.understand thesentence.
  52. 52. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off parentheticalelements in text. Parenthetical (extra) informationParenthetical comma commameans extrainformation The stadium, built in 1953,not needed to was small but comfortable.understand thesentence. That’s the way you handle it.
  53. 53. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  54. 54. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives.
  55. 55. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives.
  56. 56. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. versus
  57. 57. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. versus
  58. 58. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. comma versus No comma
  59. 59. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives.
  60. 60. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. Lots of times, we make phrases like this:
  61. 61. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. Lots of times, we make phrases like this:Adjective noun…
  62. 62. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. Lots of times, we make phrases like this:Adjective noun…Adjective adjective noun…
  63. 63. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. Lots of times, we make phrases like this:Adjective noun…Adjective adjective noun…Adjective adjective adjective noun…
  64. 64. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to separate coordinateadjectives. Lots of times, we make phrases like this:Adjective noun…Adjective adjective noun…Adjective adjective adjective noun… That question is, when do you use commas between the adjectives?
  65. 65. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.Here’s a easy way to tell if you need commasbetween all those adjectives:If you can put the word and or but between theadjectives, then you (almost certainly) needcommas between them.
  66. 66. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.He is a tall and distinguished gentleman.
  67. 67. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.He is a tall and distinguished gentleman.
  68. 68. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.He is a tall and distinguished gentleman.
  69. 69. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.He is a tall and distinguished gentleman. He is a tall, distinguished gentleman. comma
  70. 70. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.He is a tall and distinguished gentleman. He is a tall, distinguished gentleman. comma
  71. 71. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.She is a little and old lady.
  72. 72. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.She is a little and old lady.
  73. 73. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.She is a little and old lady.
  74. 74. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.She is a little and old lady. She is a little, old lady comma
  75. 75. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.She is a little and old lady. She is a little, old lady comma
  76. 76. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.She is a little and old lady. She is a little, old lady comma She is a little old lady No comma
  77. 77. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.I live in an old, run-down house.
  78. 78. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.I live in an old, run-down house.I live in a little, purple house.
  79. 79. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives.I live in an old, run-down house.I live in a little, purple house.I live in a little purple house.
  80. 80. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  81. 81. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off quoted material.“I want you to stop at second base this time,”the coach said. comma This comma separates the quote from the rest of the sentence.
  82. 82. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off quoted material. First comma Second comma“I’ll stop at second,” the batter said, “but I cankeep going if you want me to.” If the “split” is in the middle of the sentence, then two commas are needed.
  83. 83. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  84. 84. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off contrastingwords or phrases.
  85. 85. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to set off contrastingwords or phrases.The puppies were cute, but messy.
  86. 86. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases.The puppies were cute, but messy.Cute and messy contrast with each other.
  87. 87. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases.The puppies were cute, but messy.Cute and messy contrast with each other.
  88. 88. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to set off contrasting words or phrases.The puppies were cute, but messy. commaCute and messy contrast with each other.
  89. 89. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  90. 90. Understanding & Using CommasUse commas to avoid potentialconfusion.
  91. 91. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion.For most the year was already finished.
  92. 92. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion.For most the year was already finished. What? It’s not clear what this is supposed to mean.
  93. 93. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion.For most, the year was already finished. Make it clear by using a comma to set off the introductory material.
  94. 94. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion. For most, the year was already finished. commaIntroductory phrase Make it clear by using a comma to set off the introductory material.
  95. 95. Understanding & Using Commas Use commas to avoid potential confusion.For most, the year was already finished. That’s much better!
  96. 96. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion
  97. 97. Understanding & Using CommasTypographicalReasons for Commas.
  98. 98. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:On June 14, 1845, the first baseball game wasplayed.
  99. 99. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:On June 14, 1845, the first baseball game wasplayed. comma comma
  100. 100. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:In June 1845, the first baseball game wasplayed.
  101. 101. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:In June 1845, the first baseball game wasplayed. comma
  102. 102. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:I lived in Dallas, Texas, for many years.
  103. 103. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:I lived in Dallas, Texas, for many years. comma comma
  104. 104. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:About $15,600 was spent on the highway thisyear.
  105. 105. Understanding & Using Commas Typographical Reasons for Commas.There is an understanding and agreement to usecommas in certain ways for certain constructions:About $15,600 was spent on the highway thisyear. comma
  106. 106. Understanding & Using Commas Summary of Comma Use Rules● Use a comma to separate elements in a list● Use a comma+FANBOYS to connect two independent clauses● Use a comma to set off introductory material● Use commas to set off parenthetical information● Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives● Use commas to set off quoted material● Use commas to set off contrasting phrases● Use commas to avoid potential confusion

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