Class 8 1 a


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Class 8 1 a

  1. 1. Class 8 EWRT 1A
  2. 2. AGENDA Presentation: MLA Format Editing Strategies: compound sentences, dangling modifiers, homonyms Discussion: Open for questions In-Class Writing: Writing Workshop Editing
  3. 3. MLA Formatting Style Hapi Tobia Student
  4. 4. MLA format: on our website under “MLA Guidelines.” Download “Hapi Tobia Student”MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used towrite papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using theEnglish language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with asystem for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation intheir essays and Works Cited pages.Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility bydemonstrating accountability to their source material. Mostimportantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations ofplagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use ofsource material by other writers.
  5. 5. Paper Format
  6. 6. Margins and Header: Last NameFormatting 1 1” all around  Double Click in Header Area Go to “Layout” and adjust margins or use  Type your last name custom settings  Justify right Times New Roman  Go to “insert” and 12 click on “page Indent body number” paragraphs ½ inch from the margin
  7. 7. Heading: Double Title Spaced  Your Name  Original Title (not the title of the essay we  Dr. Kim Palmore read)  EWRT 1A  No  3 May 2012 italics, bold, underline, or quotation marks  Centered on the page  No extra spaces (just double spaced after your heading and before the body of your text)
  8. 8. Short Quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
  9. 9. For example, when quoting short passages of prose, usethe following examples: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. According to Foulkess study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations frompoetry, mark breaks in short quotations of verse with aslash, /, at the end of each line of verse (a space shouldprecede and follow the slash). Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / Thats all I remember" (11-12).
  10. 10. Long Quotations For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch (10 spaces) from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
  11. 11. Common Writing Errors Wordiness
  12. 12. Wordiness: using more words than necessaryto express thought.Many people write wordy papers because theyare trying to make their ideas sound importantby using long words and intricate sentences.They think that their writing must becomplicated to seem professional. Althoughthese writers are trying to impress theirreaders, they often end up confusing them. Thebest writing is clear, concise, and easy tounderstand. Your ideas are much moreimpressive when your reader does not have to
  13. 13. Often writers use several words for ideas that can be expressed inone. This leads to unnecessarily complex sentences and genuine redundancy as the following examples show: Redundant Not Redundant The printer is located  The printer is adjacent to the computer adjacent to the The printer is located in the computer immediate vicinity of the computer  The printer is near the The user can visibly see computer the image moving  The user can see the He wore a shirt that was blue in color image moving The input is suitably  He wore a blue shirt. processed  The input is
  14. 14. Now you try it. Write this sentence in as few words as possible without changing the meaning! The available receptacle, in any case, was of insufficient size to contain the total quantity of unnecessary waste.
  15. 15. How to reduce wordiness! 1. Reduce Long  2. Reduce Phrases Clauses  Likewise, try to reduce When editing, try to phrases to single words: reduce long clauses to shorter phrases:  Wordy: The clown at the end of the line tried to Wordy: The clown who sweep up the spotlight. was in the center ring was riding a tricycle.  Revised: The last clown tried to sweep up the Revised: The clown in spotlight. the center ring was riding a tricycle.
  16. 16. Eliminating Wordiness Strategies 3. Avoid Empty Openers  4. Don’t Overwork Modifiers Avoid There is, There are, and  Do not overwork There were as sentence very, really, totally, and other openers when There adds modifiers that add little or nothing to the meaning of a nothing to the meaning of a sentence: sentence. Wordy: There is a prize in every  Wordy: By the time she got box of Quacko cereal. home, Merdine was very tired. Revised: A prize is in every box  Revised: By the time she got of Quacko cereal. home, Merdine was exhausted Wordy: There are two security  Wordy: She was also really guards at the gate. hungry. Revised: Two security guards  Revised: She was also hungry stand at the gate. [or famished].
  17. 17. Eliminating Wordiness 5. Avoid Redundancies Replace redundant expressions (phrases that use more words than necessary to make a point) with precise words. Remember: needless words are those that add nothing (or nothing significant) to the meaning of our writing. They bore the reader and distract from our ideas. So cut them out! Wordy: At this point in time, we should edit our work. Revised: Now we should edit our work.
  18. 18. Try these!1. He dropped out of school on account of the fact that itwas necessary for him to help support his family.2. It is expected that the new schedule will be announcedby the bus company within the next few days.3. There are many ways in which a student who is interestedin meeting foreign students may come to know one.4. It is very unusual to find someone who has never told adeliberate lie on purpose.5. Trouble is caused when people disobey rules that havebeen established for the safety of all.
  19. 19. Possible Answers1. He dropped out of school to support his family.2. The bus company will probably announce its schedule during the next few days.3. Any student who wants to meet foreign students can do so in many ways.4. Rarely will you find someone who has never told a deliberate lie.5. Disobeying safety regulations causes trouble.
  20. 20. Find a Wordy Sentence Check your essay for wordiness. Look for a sentence that falls into one of the categories we just discussed. Edit it for clarity and conciseness.
  21. 21. Punctuation
  22. 22. Compound Sentence A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple sentences joined by one of the following:  A comma and a coordinating conjunction  I like to study grammar, and I love this class.  A semicolon  I like to study grammar; I love this class.  A semicolon and an adverbial conjunction  I like to study grammar; therefore, I love this class.
  23. 23. Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions are used to join together two independent clauses. For And Nor But Or Yet So
  25. 25. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBSThomas is cool; moreover, he is fashionable Clause 1 . Clause 2 Independent Independent Luke’s grandmother buys him sweaters; however, he does not wear them.
  26. 26. Look for Run-On SentencesLook for compound sentences in your essay. Makesure you are using both a comma and a conjunction.Example: , andLook for adverbial conjunctions; make sure youhave punctuated those sentences correctly.Example ; however,
  27. 27. Common Writing Errors Dangling modifiers
  28. 28. Dangling ModifiersA dangling modifier is a word or phrase that modifiesa word not clearly stated in the sentence. A modifierdescribes, clarifies, or gives more detail about aconcept.Having finished the assignment, Jill turned on the TV."Having finished" states an action but does not namethe doer of that action. In English sentences, the doermust be the subject of the main clause that follows. Inthis sentence, it is Jill. She seems logically to be theone doing the action ("having finished"), and this
  29. 29. The following sentence has an incorrect usage:Having finished the assignment, the TV wasturned on."Having finished" is a participle expressingaction, but the doer is not the TV set (thesubject of the main clause): TV sets dont finishassignments. Since the doer of the actionexpressed in the participle has not been clearlystated, the participial phrase is said to be adangling modifier.
  30. 30. Strategies for revising dangling modifiers:1. Name the appropriate or logical doer of the action as the subject of the main clause:Having arrived late for practice, a written excuse wasneeded.Who arrived late? This sentence says that the writtenexcuse arrived late. To revise, decide who actuallyarrived late. The possible revision might look like this:Having arrived late for practice, the team captainneeded a written excuse.
  31. 31. 2. Change the phrase that dangles into a completeintroductory clause by naming the doer of the action in thatclause:Without knowing his name, it was difficult to introduce him.Who didnt know his name? This sentence says that "it"didnt know his name. To revise, decide who was trying tointroduce him. The revision might look something like this:Because Maria did not know his name, it was difficult tointroduce him.The phrase is now a complete introductory clause; it doesnot modify any other part of the sentence, so is notconsidered "dangling."
  32. 32. 3. Combine the phrase and main clause into one:To improve his results, the experiment was done again.Who wanted to improve results? This sentence says thatthe experiment was trying to improve its own results. Torevise, combine the phrase and the main clause into onesentence. The revision might look something like this:He improved his results by doing the experiment again.
  33. 33. Are these correct?1. After reading the original study, the article remains unconvincing.2. Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, your home should be a place to relax.1. The experiment was a failure, not having studied the lab manual carefully.
  34. 34. Incorrect: After reading the original study, the article remainsunconvincing.Revised: After reading the original study, I find the articleunconvincing.Incorrect: Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, your homeshould be a place to relax.Revised: Relieved of your responsibilities at your job, you shouldbe able to relax at home.Incorrect: The experiment was a failure, not having studied the labmanual carefully.Revised: They failed the experiment, not having studied the labmanual carefully.
  35. 35. Look for Dangling ModifiersCheck your introductory clauses tomake sure that the doer is thesubject of the main clause thatfollows it.
  36. 36. Misused Words
  37. 37. Homonyms Than and thenI am tanner than she.We were both on the beach, but then she went inside. There, their, and theyreYou can put your shoes over there.Their shoes were dirty, so they left them outside.They’re just walking around barefoot right now. To, too, and twoI am going to the mall.Jesse said she wants to go too.We are each looking for two new outfits.
  38. 38. Homonyms Weather and whetherThe weather tomorrow is supposed to be beautiful.I don’t know whether to go for a hike or a swim. Whose and whosWhose scarf is this?Who’s going to the movie with us? Your and youreYour dog is bigger than my dog.You’re going to have to keep him on a leash.
  39. 39. Check for Misused Words Than and then There, their, and theyre To, too, and two Weather and whether Whose and whos Your and youre
  40. 40. Writing Tips Write about literature in present tense Write about your experience in past tense Avoid using “thing,” “something,” “everything,” and “anything.” Avoid writing in second person. (Don’t use “you” unless it is in dialogue.
  41. 41. Surface Revision Strategies Isolate Specific Read Aloud Problems Reading the paper aloud slowly  Isolating specific problems can often bring to attention large can help give objectivity to and small mistakes missed in ones personal work. One the writing and typing process. way to isolate specific issues Read each sentence and ask does it make sense? Is it is to circle them on a paper awkward? Am I including words draft and look at them one by that are not actually written on one. For example: circle all the paper? Sometimes reading commas and then go back the paper out of order can help and look at each comma isolate problems. Try reading asking if it is in the the paragraphs starting with the appropriate place with the last sentence and then reading correct usage. Another the previous sentence and so example would be to circle on; this can reveal problems in the sentences. all verbs and then go back one by one and identify the tense and verify subject verb agreement.
  42. 42. HOMEWORK MAY 2/3 Read: HG through chapter 16; SMG 134- 148 Write: Edit Essay #2 Journal #7: What is the appeal of reality TV? Do you enjoy reality TV? If so, which ones and why? How do our reality shows compare to the hunger games? What do the similarities say about our culture? Study: Vocabulary (1-16) Bring: Final draft of Essay #2; SMG