1. Vocabulary Test 4: Chapters 19-23
• Describing the problem
• The solution: the thesis
• Outlining the plan
3. Planning for objections: the counterargument
4. Evaluating Alternative Solutions
Exam # 4 You have 20 minutes
Looking at the parts of the essay
Presentation of the problem: Look at
what you have. Add the following:
A few sentences that argue that the
A few sentences that argue that this
problem is serious.
A few sentences that outline the causes of
What are the consequences of failing to solve
Make a list of the
consequences of failing to
solve this problem.
Put the list into paragraph
Thesis Statement: Review
You have probably written your thesis statement already. If
so, refine it, and copy it into your draft here.
If you have not yet written it, write one or more sentences
to serve as your tentative thesis statement. In most essays
proposing solutions to problems, the thesis statement is a
concise announcement of the solution. Think about how
emphatic you should make the thesis and whether you
should forecast your reasons.
Description of the proposed solution
Read your first draft of your
Explain why it would solve the
Show why or how it is possible.
List of steps for implementing the
You should have written out these steps for
Now, put your steps into paragraph form.
Make sure to use transitions and connecting
words so the paragraph does not read like a
list. Explain what you mean as you go
through the steps.
Write a few sentences responding to the following objections you
think are most likely:
We can’t afford it.
It would take too long.
People would not do it.
Too few would benefit.
You would benefit personally.
We already tried that, with unsatisfactory results.
Consider Alternative Solutions
This requires thinking! Remember, ultimately, you are going to show why your
solution is better than these alternatives!
Considering Alternative Solutions
List two or three alternative solutions that others
have proposed or tried. You may have
discovered these alternatives while you were
looking for a good solution. You may find other
alternative solutions when you start your
research. You do not have to list every solution
that has been mentioned, but you should
include the most popular or serious alternatives.
If you include only obviously weak solutions in
your argument, your credibility will be harmed
and you could be accused of committing the
straw man fallacy, which involves directing your
counterargument against an alternative that
nobody takes seriously anyway.
Developing your evaluation of alternative
Write a paragraph for each alternative solution you think you should include
in your argument. Describe the alternative solution fairly, quoting supporters
if possible. Then work out the reasons you believe the alternative solution
would not be feasible,
would not solve the problem,
would not be approved,
would be hard to implement, or
would be too costly, disruptive, or time-consuming to put into effect.
Plan Follow-Up Research.
Add notes to those you took
yesterday about the kinds of
information you think would help
make your counterargument
convincing for your readers and
where you think you can find this
Notes and brainstorming for your counterargument
Your consideration of alternative solutions
Make notes about what kind of information you need to support your
arguments. We will meet in the library tomorrow to do research.
The 7:30 class will meet in the lobby at 7:55. Plan to work until 9:45.
The 10:00 class will meet in the lobby at 9:55. Plan to work until 11:30.
Study Vocabulary from chapters 24-25