AGENDA Thoughts on Machiavelli or Lao-Tzu Introduce Essay #3: Justice: Due Nov 13 Discussion: Marcus Tullius Cicero "The Defense of Injustice" Bio Rhetorical Strategies Questions for Critical Reading QHQs Suggestions for Reading: Thoreau Student Evaluations: Dr. Carol Cini: 11:40-12:00
FOR DISCUSSION Do you agree with Machiavelli’s thesis that stability and power are the only qualities that matter in the evaluation of governments? If not, what else matters? Can we have Lao-Tzu’s peace, even though there is ambition, materialism, war, and famine on earth? How is it possible?
ESSAY #3: JUSTICE Essay #3 will be in response to either the excerpt from Cicero, Thoreau, or both. Choose your topic from "Suggestions for Writing" on pages 129-30, prompts 1-9 or on pages 157-58 prompts 1-6. The prompts are also listed on the website.It should be a least one page long but not longer than two pages (excluding a works cited page).It should be formatted MLA style.It is due November 13 (a week from today)
MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO: A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) was one of the most important orators, intellectuals, and philosophers in the Roman Republic. He was highly educated and served as Quaestor (a financial administrator) in Sicily, Aedile (an official) in Rome, and as Praetor (Lawyer). He was eventually elected Consul in 63. In 44, when Caesar was murdered, Cicero championed the Republic. He tried to win over Octavian, but failed. He also gave his greatest speech, the Philipics, aimed at Marc Antony. However, this backfired, as the Second Triumvirate was formed, and Ciceros name was on the list of enemies. He fled Rome, but he was captured and executed. Ciceros oration, philosophy, rhetoric, poetry, and letters create a vast collection of works that are matched by few in the modern world.
RHETORICAL STRATEGIESArgument Dialogue Compares (Between Philus and Laelius) (Justice to policies ofDefinition/interpretation Rome) (What is Justice?) ContrastsOffers Alternatives (Wisdom with Justice) (perform injustice/not suffer it; perform and suffer; neither perform Analogy or suffer it) (virtuous man vs. ruffian)Evaluation Counterargument (perform injustice and not (by Laelius at the end to suffer it) make his point)
WHY DOES LAELIUS CHOOSE PHILUS TOARGUE AGAINST JUSTICE?
DOES ARGUING AGAINST A POSITIVEVALUE HELP OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THAT VALUE’S IMPORTANCE?
WHAT IS PHILUS’S REPUTATION AND HOW DOES ITAFFECT HIS ARGUMENT?
HOW DO IDEAS OFJUSTICE DIFFER IN THEDIFFERENT LANDSPHILUS MENTIONS?
ON WHICH SIDE OF THIS ARGUMENT IS CICERO HIMSELF?
WHICH OF LAELIUS’S STATEMENTS IN THE FINAL PARAGRAPHS OF THE SELECTION SEEMWEAKEST TO YOU? WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS?
1. Why does Cicero choose to present his persuasive argument in a manner that appears to advocate the opposing side of his argument? Was the point for justice made?2. Does Philus make injustice more appealing by the use of his words? Is it possible to argue against a positive value and then change your mind about that positive value?3. Does the concept of “natural law” belong in the context of justice within any given society? If natural law is inseparable from justice than how necessary are laws that are man made (positive law)?
1. Why does the idea of justice vary so much?2. How is justice formed if the nature of it differs from one place to another?3. Does true justice exist at all?4. What is the difference between wisdom and justice?
1. Can some of Philus’ statements be related to Lao-Tzu’s teachings?2. Would Philus be considered as extreme as Lao-Tzu and Machiavelli or in between?3. Why is Philus so focused on governments in chaos and those with wisdom? How does this idea intersect with the ideas of Machiavelli and Lao-Tzu
• Get into your teams • Divide up the questions for critical reading the Thoreau piece.JUSTICE Suggestions for Critical Reading Page 157
Read A World of Ideas: Henry David Thoreau "Civil Disobedience" (133-157) Post #25 Questions (TBD) for Critical Reading: (page 157) Post #26 PassHOMEWORK