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  • 1. AGENDA  Vocabulary Test #3: 10-18  Change Teams  Presentation: Vocabulary 19-21  Discussion: Problem Solution Essays - Patrick O Malley, More Testing, More Learning - ]Karen Kornbluh, Win-Win Flexibility  Introduction to Essay #4  In-Class Writing
  • 2. Chapter 18 Impotence Despondency
  • 3. Vocabulary Test #3: 15 Minutes New Vocabulary
  • 4. NEW TEAMS TODAY! Here comes your footer  Page 5
  • 5. Vocabulary 19-21 Basic Features of a Proposing Solutions Essay Chapter 19 Pariah Incapacitated Ruse Peruse Chapter 21Arduous Emanating Ominous Poised Sadistic Futile Dappled Chapter 20 Stalemate
  • 6. Basic Features The essays we read for today propose a solution to a problem. Here we will see how different authors incorporate the basic features of the genre. A Well-Defined Problem
  • 7. A Well-Argued Solution
  • 8. An Effective Counterargument
  • 9. An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
  • 10. A Readable Plan An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions •The writer arguing for a proposal must anticipate objections or reservations that readers may have about the proposed solution. • This works in much the same way as a counterargument. Identify other ways to solve the problem. Then show why or how your solution is superior.
  • 11. Group Discussion: Look for these basic features in Patrick O’Malley’s Essay “More Testing, More Learning” A Well-Defined Problem A Clearly Described Solution A Convincing Argument An Effective Counterargument An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
  • 12. What is this essay about? What is O’Malley’s Problem? Where does he tell the reader? A Well-Defined Problem
  • 13. A Well-Defined Problem Although this last-minute anxiety about midterm and final exams is only too familiar to most college students, many professors may not realize how such major, infrequent, high-stakes exams work against the best interests of students both psychologically and intellectually. A Clearly Described Solution
  • 14. A Clearly Described Solution: The Thesis If professors gave additional brief exams at frequent intervals, students would be spurred to study more regularly, learn more, worry less, and perform better on midterms, finals, and other papers and projects. If professors gave additional brief exams at frequent intervals, students would be spurred to study more regularly, learn more, worry less, and perform better on midterms, finals, and other papers and projects. A Convincing Argument
  • 15. A Convincing Argument: Support for the Thesis  A 2006 study reported in Psychological Science journal concluded that “taking repeated tests on material leads to better long- term retention than repeated studying,” according to the study’s coauthors, Henry L. Roediger and Jeff Karpicke.  A Harvard study notes students’ “strong preference for frequent evaluation in a course.”  In a review of a number of studies of student learning, Frederiksen (1984) reports that students who take weekly quizzes achieve higher scores on final exams than students who take only a midterm exam and that testing increases retention of material tested.  Researchers at the University of Vermont found a strong relationship among procrastination, anxiety, and achievement. An Effective Counterargument
  • 16. An Effective Counterargument: An Anticipation of Readers’ Objections and Questions Some believe that such exams take up too much of the limited class time available to cover the material in the course. Another objection professors have to frequent exams is that they take too much time to read and grade. An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
  • 17. An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions  It is reasonable to consider alternative ways to achieve the same goals. One alternative solution is to implement a program that would improve study skills.  Still another solution might be to provide frequent study questions for students to answer.  Another possible solution would be to help students prepare for midterm and final exams by providing sets of questions from which the exam questions will be selected or announcing possible exam topics at the beginning of the course.
  • 18. Consider Kornbluh’s “Win Win Flexibility” in terms of the Basic Features. A Well-Defined Problem A Clearly Described Solution A Convincing Argument An Effective Counterargument An Evaluation of Alternative Solutions What is Kornbluh‘s Issue?
  • 19. What is Kornbluh’s Essay about? What is the problem? Which of these strategies does Kornbluh use to define her problem? 1. giving examples to make the problem specific 2. using scenarios or anecdotes to dramatize the problem 3. quoting testimony from those affected by the problem 4. citing statistics to show the severity of the problem 5. vividly describing the problem’s negative consequences 1. giving examples to make the problem specific 2. using scenarios or anecdotes to dramatize the problem 3. quoting testimony from those affected by the problem 4. citing statistics to show the severity of the problem 5. vividly describing the problem’s negative consequences Offering a solution
  • 20. What is Kornbluh’s Solution? Which Strategies does Kornbluh use to Describe or Demonstrate her Solution? 1. the proposed solution would reduce or eliminate a major cause of the problem. 2. a similar solution has worked elsewhere. 3. the necessary steps to put the solution into practice can be taken without excessive cost or inconvenience. 4. stakeholders could come together behind the proposal. 1. the proposed solution would reduce or eliminate a major cause of the problem. 2. a similar solution has worked elsewhere. 3. the necessary steps to put the solution into practice can be taken without excessive cost or inconvenience. 4. stakeholders could come together behind the proposal. An Effective Counterargument: Addressing Questions and Concerns
  • 21. Which Questions or Concerns does Kornbluh Address? How Does Kornbluh Address Questions and Concerns? 1. by acknowledging an objection 2. by conceding the point and modifying the proposal to accommodate it 3. by refuting criticism—for example, by arguing that an alternative solution would be more costly or less likely to solve the problem than the proposed solution. 1. by acknowledging an objection 2. by conceding the point and modifying the proposal to accommodate it 3. by refuting criticism—for example, by arguing that an alternative solution would be more costly or less likely to solve the problem than the proposed solution. Alternative Solutions
  • 22. Alternative Solutions How does Kornbluh present her solution as preferable to other possible solutions? How does Kornbluh present her solution as preferable to other possible solutions? A Readable Plan
  • 23. Which of the following does Kornbluh include to make her essay easy to read: 1. a forecast of the argument 2. key words introduced in the thesis and forecasting statement 3. topic sentences introducing paragraphs or groups of paragraphs 4. repeated use of key words and synonyms throughout the essay, particularly in topic sentences 5. clear transitional words and phrases 6. headings that explicitly identify different sections of the essay 7. visuals, including charts that present information in an easy-to- read format 1. a forecast of the argument 2. key words introduced in the thesis and forecasting statement 3. topic sentences introducing paragraphs or groups of paragraphs 4. repeated use of key words and synonyms throughout the essay, particularly in topic sentences 5. clear transitional words and phrases 6. headings that explicitly identify different sections of the essay 7. visuals, including charts that present information in an easy-to- read format Essay #4
  • 24. Essay #4: Proposing a Solution Essay #4 Assignment: (175 points) Write an essay from 4-6 pages in length, that addresses the topic below. Use a minimum of two credible secondary sources to support your argument. These are in addition to The Hunger Games or other primary texts you might use. Prompt : Write an essay proposing a solution to a well-defined problem faced by a community or group to which you may belong. Alternatively, you may address a well-defined problem faced by one of the districts or communities in The Hunger Games. Address your proposal to your audience: one or more members of the group, its leadership, or to outsiders who may be able to contribute to solving the problem. In Class Writing
  • 25. Choosing a Topic for your Essay! My Community, Club, or Group My Community, Club, or Group
  • 26. Your Chart Groups and organizations 1.The Hunger Games 2.De Anza College 3.Your Neighborhood 4.Your Club 5.Community Problems 1. Problem 2. Problem 3. Problem 4. Problem 5. Problem
  • 27. Your Chart Groups and organizations 1.The Hunger Games 2.De Anza College 3.Willow Glen 4.Karate Club 5.Community Recreation Centers Problems 1. Not enough food 2. Not enough parking 3. Employee parking on our street 4. Lack of commitment 5. Not enough safe places for kids to play
  • 28. Fill in your chart with problems and solutions for each group Groups and organizations 1. The Hunger Games 2. De Anza College 3. Your Neighborhood 4. Karate Club 5. Community Recreation Center Problems 1. Not Enough Food 2. Lack of Parking 3. Commercial parking problem 4. No commitment 5. Not enough safe places for kids to play Solutions 1. ? 2. Reorganize lots 3. ? 4. ? 5. Start a volunteer parents group to offer after school activities at local schools.
  • 29. Problem  Not enough parking at De Anza College  Not enough safe place for kids to play Solution  Redesign the current lots to increase capacity.  Start a volunteer parents group to offer after school activities at local schools.
  • 30. Homework  Finish your Chart  Post #14 Use your Chart to begin to brainstorm ideas for your essay. Choose two problems: one from De Anza and one from your community or club. Write one paragraph explaining each problem in detail. Write another explaining a tentative solution for each problem.  Study: Vocabulary 19-23  Bring: Your chart and paragraphs with you to class.