1 b class 9


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1 b class 9

  1. 1. AGENDA • Presentation: Terms • Lecture: • Counterarguments • Conclusions • MLA format; in-text citations; works cited page. • In-class writing: Essay #2
  2. 2. TERMS • Economic class: Power and position related to economic level. Can be associated with related cultural norms and values, education, occupation, life-style and where one lives. • Ethnocentrism: Assumptions that key cultural aspects of one’s culture are/should be universal, with devaluing of those discrepant from these. May include a belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group. • Gender: A cultural notion of what it is to be a woman or a man. A construct based on the social shaping of femininity and masculinity. It usually includes identification with males as a class or with females as a class. Gender includes subjective concepts about character traits and expected behaviors that vary from place to place and person to person.
  3. 3. • Gender Expression: Refers to the ways in which people externally communicate their gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, hairstyle, voice and emphasizing, deemphasizing, or changing their body’s characteristics. Gender expression is not necessarily an indication of sexual orientation. • Inclusiveness: To include everyone in a community rather than attempt to treat them all equally, when equality may not be as effective. • Internalized Oppression: The process by which a member of an oppressed group comes to accept and live out the inaccurate myths and stereotypes applied to the group.
  4. 4. • Queer: Used as an umbrella identity term encompassing lesbian, questioning people, gay men, bisexuals, non-labeling people, transgender folks, and anyone else who does not strictly identity as heterosexual. “Queer” originated as a derogatory word, but is being reclaimed and used as a statement of empowerment. Some people identify as “queer” to distance themselves from the rigid categorization of “straight” and “gay.” Some transgender, lesbian, gay, questioning, nonlabeling, and bisexual people, however, reject the use of this term due to its connotations of deviance and its tendency to gloss over and sometimes deny the differences between these groups. • Resistance: The action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with, possibly group action in opposition to those in power. • Sexism: Discrimination based on gender or sex, especially discrimination against women.
  5. 5. ESSAY #2: WORKING OUTLINE Introduction: Choose your strategy Thesis: This will likely be near the end of your introduction. This is your response to the question and the map to your essay. Body Body Paragraph 1: First reason supporting the thesis. Topic sentence; explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition. Body Paragraph 2: Second reason supporting the thesis. Topic sentence; explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition. Body Paragraph 3, 4, 5: Reasons supporting the thesis. Topic sentence; explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition. Counter Argument: Anticipate your readers questions or doubts: Acknowledge, Accommodate, or Refute Conclusion: Wrap it up: Choose your strategy
  6. 6. TRY ACKNOWLEDGING READERS’ CONCERNS I understand…. I understand….. I understand…. Nevertheless……..
  7. 7. TRY ACCOMMODATING READERS’ CONCERNS To be sure, passing…… Another supposed advantage/disadvantage to passing is…..
  8. 8. TRY REFUTING READERS’ OBJECTIONS Now, it may be argued…… This argument, however, …… Proponents/Opponents argue that….. But experience and evidence show….. But ……………… is not completely inaccurate. Consider ………………….
  9. 9. WORKING AT HOME: PRACTICE ALL THREE KINDS OF COUNTERARGUMENT: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, CONCESSION, AND REFUTATION. Think about the reasons someone might doubt your conclusions and respond to each of them. Remember, you did some of this work when you filled out your FREECASH chart. You might include a paragraph or two that addresses/acknowledges/expands upon any qualifications you made in your thesis.
  10. 10. STRATEGIES FOR WRITING A CONCLUSION Conclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say after having written the paper. A writer needs to keep in mind that the conclusion is often what a reader remembers best. Your conclusion should be the best part of your paper. A conclusion should • stress the importance of the thesis statement, • give the essay a sense of completeness, and • leave a final impression on the reader.
  11. 11. SUGGESTIONS ANSWER THE QUESTION "SO W H AT ? " Show your readers why this paper was important. Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful.
 SYNTHESIZE, DON'T SUMMARIZE Don't simply repeat information from your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together.
  12. 12. CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS CHALLENGE THE READER By issuing a challenge to your readers, you are helping them to redirect the information in the paper, and they may apply it to their own lives. C R E AT E A N E W MEANING You don't have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts.
  13. 13. PROPOSE A COURSE OF ACTION, A SOLUTION TO AN ISSUE, OR QUESTIONS F O R F U R T H E R S T U D Y. This can redirect your reader's thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications. ECHO THE INTRODUCTION: FRAMING Echoing your introduction can be a good strategy if it is meant to bring the reader full-circle. If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.
  14. 14. CONCLUSIONS TO AVOID 1. The "That's My Story and I'm Sticking to It” conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can't think of anything else to say. 2. The "Sherlock Holmes" Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don't want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then "wow" him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. 3. The "America the Beautiful"/"I Am Woman"/"We Shall Overcome" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on excessive emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. 4. The "Grab Bag" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn't integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion.
  15. 15. LET’S TRY A COUPLE OF CONCLUSIONS 1. Answer the question "So What?”: Show your readers why this paper was important. 2. Synthesize information: Show how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. 3. Challenge the reader: Help readers redirect the information in the paper, so they may apply it to their own lives. 4. Create a new meaning: demonstrating how your ideas work together can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts. 5. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study: Redirect your reader's thought process and help him or her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications. 6. Echo the introduction: If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.
  16. 16. MLA STYLE: INTEGRATING QUOTATIONS According to the St. Martin's Guide, there are three main ways to set up a signaling phrase: 1. With a complete sentence followed by a colon. Jack writes to his mother: “When I look at the colored boy porter who sweeps out the office, I think that‟s what I might be doing if I wasn‟t light-skinned enough to get by. No matter how smart that boy‟d get to be, they wouldn‟t hire him for a clerk in the office, not if they knew it. Only for a porter” (Hughes 52). 2. With an incomplete sentence, followed by a comma. In his short story “Passing,” Langston Hughes describes the life of a man named Jack, who passes as white at his mother‟s encouragement. However, in the process, he disowns his family, going as far as to proclaim, “I‟m going to marry white and live white, and if any of my kids are born dark I‟ll swear they‟re not mine. I won‟t get caught in the mire of color again!” (53-54). 3. With a statement that ends in that. In his essay "Racial Segregation" by William Pickens, he says that "If passing for white will get a fellow better accommodations on the train, better seats in the theatre, immunity from insults in public places, and may even save his life from a mob, only idiots would fail to seize the advantages of passing, at least occasionally if not permanently" (Pickens 3).
  17. 17. You can, however, build your own signal phrases by mixing these three basic styles with verbs that describe your source's attitude towards the subject of the quote. Here is a list of such verbs, as well as other phrases you can use: admits agrees argues asserts believes claims compares confirms contends declares denies emphasizes insists notes observes points out reasons refutes rejects reports replies suggests thinks writes In _____'s words, “ According to ____'s (notes, study, narrative, novel, etc.)
  18. 18. USING THE SOURCE'S NAME Generally, the first time we use a source in a paper, whether it be through a paraphrase or a quote, it's a good idea to use the author(s) full name(s) and the title of the source we are using in the actual sentence so that readers feel that we have introduced the source to them. After we have introduced the source, it's perfectly acceptable to refer to the author by his or her last name or even to leave the name out of the body of our text and simply include it in the citation. First use: In his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself, Frederick Douglass argues that "Slavery proved as injurious [to slave holders] as it did to me" (31). Second use: Douglass earlier argues that slavery was "a fatal poison of irresponsible power" to slave holders (29). Third use: The use of the word "hypocrites!" suggests that even the religious faith of the slave holders was tainted by their ownership of other humans (Douglass 77).
  19. 19. PUNCTUATING QUOTES CAN BE FRUSTRATING BECAUSE WE OFTEN GET CONFUSED ABOUT WHERE TO PUT PUNCTUATION. THE FOLLOWING CHART OFFERS A STRAIGHTFORWARD VIEW ON HOW TO PUNCTUATE THE END OF A QUOTE: QUESTION MARKS & E X C L A M AT I O N PERIODS & COMMAS POINTS They go inside the quotation marks even if there is no period or comma at the end of the quoted material in the original text. Exception: If there is a parenthetical citation immediately after the quote, the period or comma goes after the parenthetical citation. COLONS & SEMI-COLONS Colons and semi-colons always go outside the quotation, even if the original quoted material ends with either form of punctuation. If the original quote ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, we must include it inside the quotation marks. ORIGINAL TEXT: Will not a righteous God visit for these things? QUOTED TEXT: When Douglass asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for these things?" he raises the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian" slaveholders. Notice that we don't put a comma after the question mark, even though normally we would if there was not a question mark. We omit the comma to avoid double punctuation. If we want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation we create, then the question mark or the exclamation mark goes outside the quotation marks. ORIGINAL TEXT: The grave is at the door. (FD 38) QUOTED TEXT: How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door"?
  20. 20. MLA FORMAT: ON OUR WEBSITE UNDER “MLA GUIDELINES” MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
  21. 21. PAPER FORMAT
  22. 22. MARGINS AND F O R M AT T I N G  1” all around  Go to “Layout” and adjust margins or use custom settings  Times New Roman 12  Indent body paragraphs ½ inch from the margin HEADER: LAST NAME 1  Double Click in Header Area  Type your last name  Justify right  Go to “insert” and click on “page number”
  23. 23. HEADING: DOUBLE S PAC E D Your Name Dr. Kim Palmore EWRT 1B 15 February 2013 TITLE  Original Title (not the title of the essay we read)  No italics, bold, underline, or quotation marks  Centered on the page  No extra spaces (just double spaced after your heading and before the body of your text)
  24. 24. SHORT QUOTATIONS To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
  25. 25. For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)? When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, /, at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).
  26. 26. LONG QUOTATIONS For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch (10 spaces) from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
  27. 27. There was an incident when a man of mixed race with the appearance of a white person was injured and taken to the hospital: Walter White‟s father was struck by an automobile driven by a white physician who practiced at Atlanta‟s Grady Hospital [...] The white section was clean and renovated; the black section, dirty and dilapidated. The physician took White‟s father to the white section of the hospital. Before long, though, a visit by a son-in-law apprized the hospital staff of their „error.‟ [...] Walter White wrote that his father „was snatched from the examination table [...] and taken hurriedly across the street in a driving downpour [...] to the „Negro‟ ward‟ where he died sixteen days later. (Kennedy 1)
  28. 28. CITING SUMMARIZED MATERIAL  In Randall Kennedy’s article “Racial Passing” in the Ohio State Law Journal, he discusses such a case in the journey of Ellen Craft, a black woman who passed not only as white but as a white man in order to smuggle her husband north to avoid slavery (1).
  29. 29. Note that the works cited page is in alpha order and that there are no numbers next to the entries. You may underline or italicize your titles, but pick one and be consistent. This, like all of your papers should be done in Times New Roman 12.
  30. 30. HOMEWORK Reading: Stone Butch Blues (66-130) Post #13: Best 250 words of your complete draft. Bring: three complete, clean copies to our next meeting. Studying: Vocab/Terms