2. TERMS• Economic class: Power and position related to economic level. Can be associated with related cultural norms and values, education, occupation, life-style and where one lives.• Ethnocentrism: Assumptions that key cultural aspects of one’s culture are/should be universal, with devaluing of those discrepant from these. May include a belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group.• Gender: A cultural notion of what it is to be a woman or a man. A construct based on the social shaping of femininity and masculinity. It usually includes identification with males as a class or with females as a class. Gender includes subjective concepts about character traits and expected behaviors that vary from place to place and person to person.
3. • Gender Expression: Refers to the ways in which people externally communicate their gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, hairstyle, voice and emphasizing, de-emphasizing, or changing their body’s characteristics. Gender expression is not necessarily an indication of sexual orientation.• Inclusiveness: To include everyone in a community rather than attempt to treat them all equally, when equality may not be as effective.• Internalized Oppression: The process by which a member of an oppressed group comes to accept and live out the inaccurate myths and stereotypes applied to the group.
4. • Queer: Used as an umbrella identity term encompassing lesbian, questioning people, gay men, bisexuals, non-labeling people, transgender folks, and anyone else who does not strictly identity as heterosexual. “Queer” originated as a derogatory word, but is being reclaimed and used as a statement of empowerment. Some people identify as “queer” to distance themselves from the rigid categorization of “straight” and “gay.” Some transgender, lesbian, gay, questioning, non-labeling, and bisexual people, however, reject the use of this term due to its connotations of deviance and its tendency to gloss over and sometimes deny the differences between these groups.• Resistance: The action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with, possibly group action in opposition to those in power.• Sexism: Discrimination based on gender or sex, especially discrimination against women.
5. ESSAY #2: WORKING OUTLINEIntroduction: Choose your strategyThesis: This will likely be near the end of your introduction. This is your responseto the question and the map to your essay.BodyBody Paragraph 1: First reason supporting the thesis. Topic sentence;explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition.Body Paragraph 2: Second reason supporting the thesis. Topic sentence;explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition.Body Paragraph 3, 4, 5: Reasons supporting the thesis. Topic sentence;explanation; example; explanation; analysis; conclusion/transition.Counter Argument: Anticipate your readers questions or doubts: Acknowledge,Accommodate, or RefuteConclusion: Wrap it up: Choose your strategy
7. TRY ACCOMMODATING READERS’ CONCERNSTo be sure, passing……Another supposed advantage/disadvantage to passing is…..
8. A Sentence Strategy: Concession Followed by Refutation As you draft, you will need to move back and forth smoothly between arguments for your position and counterarguments against your readers’ likely objections and preferred positions. One useful strategy for making this move is to concede the value of a likely criticism and then to refute it immediately, either in the same sentence or in the next one.The following sentences from Jessica Statsky’s essay illustrate several ways to make this move (the concessions are in italics, the refutations in bold):The primary goal of a professional athlete—winning—is not appropriate for children. Their goals should be having fun, learning, and being with friends. Although winning does add to the fun, too many adults lose sight of what matters and make winning the most important goal. (par. 5)And it is perfectly obvious how important competitive skills are in finding a job. Yet the ability to cooperate is also important for success in life. (par. 10)
9. TRY REFUTING READERS’ OBJECTIONSNow, it may be argued……Still……..The very act of passing……..Though passing/ refusing to pass does……People must not lose sight of………..It is perfectly obvious that there are advantages/disadvantages to passing ….Yet, _______________ is important because………….
10. CONSIDERING THE OPPOSING ARGUMENT Think about the reasons someone might doubt your conclusions and respond to each of them. Remember, you did some of this work when you filled out your FREECASH chart. You might include a paragraph or two that addresses/acknowledges/expands upon any qualifications you made in your thesis.
11. STRATEGIES FOR WRITING A CONCLUSIONConclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write,and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say afterhaving written the paper. A writer needs to keep in mind that theconclusion is often what a reader remembers best. Yourconclusion should be the best part of your paper.A conclusion should• stress the importance of the thesis statement,• give the essay a sense of completeness, and• leave a final impression on the reader.
12. SUGGESTIONS ANSWER THE QUESTION SYNTHESIZE, DONT SUMMARIZE "S O W HAT ?"Show your readers why Dont simply repeatthis paper was important. information from your paper.Show them that your They have read it. Show thempaper was meaningful how the points you made andand useful. the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together.
13. CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS CHALLENGE THE READER C R E AT E A N E W M E A N IN GBy issuing a challenge to You dont have to giveyour readers, you are new information to createhelping them to redirect a new meaning. Bythe information in the demonstrating how your ideas work together, youpaper, and they may apply can create a new picture.it to their own lives. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts.
14. PROPOSE A COURSE OF ACTION, A SOLUTION TO ECHO THE INTRODUCTION: AN ISSUE, OR FRAMING QUESTIONS FOR FU RT HE R ST U DY.This can redirect your Echoing your introduction canreaders thought process be a good strategy if it is meant to bring the readerand help her to apply your full-circle. If you begin byinfo and ideas to her own describing a scenario, youlife or to see the broader can end with the sameimplications. scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.
15. CONCLUSIONS TO AVOID1. The "Thats My Story and Im Sticking to It” conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they cant think of anything else to say.2. The "Sherlock Holmes" Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you dont want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then "wow" him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front.3. The "America the Beautiful"/"I Am Woman"/"We Shall Overcome" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on excessive emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic.4. The "Grab Bag" Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldnt integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion.
16. LET’S TRY A COUPLE OF CONCLUSIONS1. Answer the question "So What?”: Show your readers why this paper was important.2. Synthesize information: Show how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together.3. Challenge the reader: Help readers redirect the information in the paper, so they may apply it to their own lives.4. Create a new meaning: demonstrating how your ideas work together can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts.5. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study: Redirect your readers thought process and help him or her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.6. Echo the introduction: If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.
17. MLA STYLE: INTEGRATING QUOTATIONSAccording to the St. Martins Guide, there are three You can, however, build your own signal phrases main ways to set up a signaling phrase: by mixing these three basic styles with verbs that1. With a complete sentence followed by a colon. describe your sources attitude towards theThe effects of Aulds prohibition against teaching subject of the quote. Here is a list of such verbs, Douglass to read were quite profound for as well as other phrases you can use: Douglass: "It was a new and special revelation" (29).2. With an incomplete sentence, followed by a comma. admits agrees argues asserts believeDouglass argues that Aulds prohibition against literacy s for him was a profound experience, saying, "It was claims compares confirms contends declare a new and special revelation" (29). s denies3. With a statement that ends in that. emphasizes insists notes observes poinThe importance of Aulds prohibition to Douglass is ts clear when he states that "It was a new and out reasons refutes rejects reports special revelation" (29). replies suggests thinks writes In _____s words According to ____s (notes, study, narrative, novel, etc.)
18. USING THE SOURCES NAMEGenerally, the first time we use a source in a paper, whether it be through a paraphrase or a quote, its a good idea to use the author(s) full name(s) and the title of the source we are using in the actual sentence so that readers feel that we have introduced the source to them. After we have introduced the source, its perfectly acceptable to refer to the author by his or her last name or even to leave the name out of the body of our text and simply include it in the citation.First use:In his Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself, Frederick Douglass argues that "Slavery proved as injurious [to slave holders] as it did to me" (31).Second use:Douglass earlier argues that slavery was "a fatal poison of irresponsible power" to slave holders (29).Third use:The use of the word "hypocrites!" suggests that even the religious faith of the slave holders was tainted by their ownership of other humans (Douglass 77).
19. PUNCTUATING QUOTES CAN BE FRUSTRATING BECAUSE WE OFTEN GET CONFUSED ABOUT WHERE TO PUT PUNCTUATION. THE FOLLOWING CHART OFFERS A STRAIGHTFORWARD VIEW ON HOW TO PUNCTUATE THE END OF A QUOTE: QUESTION MARKSPERIODS & COMMAS & E XC L A M AT IO N P O I N T S If the original quote ends with an exclamation mark or a question mark, we mustThey go inside the quotation marks even include it inside the quotation marks. if there is no period or comma at the ORIGINAL TEXT: Will not a righteous God visit for these things? end of the quoted material in the QUOTED TEXT: original text. When Douglass asks, "Will not a righteous God visit for these things?" he raises the question of doubt about the future salvation of the "Christian"Exception: If there is a parenthetical slaveholders. citation immediately after the quote, Notice that we dont put a comma after the question mark, even though normally the period or comma goes after the we would if there was not a question mark. We omit the comma to avoid double punctuation. parenthetical citation. If we want to use a quoted statement in a question or exclamation we create, thenCOLONS & SEMI-COLONS the question mark or the exclamation mark goes outside the quotation marks.Colons and semi-colons always go ORIGINAL TEXT: outside the quotation, even if the The grave is at the door. (FD 38) original quoted material ends with QUOTED TEXT: either form of punctuation. How can we take Douglass seriously when he indulges in excessively romanticized language such as "The grave is at the door"?
20. MLA FORMAT: ON OUR WEBSITE: “MLA GUIDELINES”DOWNLOAD “MLA EXAMPLE AND DIRECTIONS”MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to writepapers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities.MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using theEnglish language in writing. MLA style also provides writers with a system forreferencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays andWorks Cited pages.Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstratingaccountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLAstyle can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is thepurposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers.http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
21. PAPER FORMAT
22. M A RG INS A ND FOR M ATTING HEADER: LAST NAME 1 1” all around Double Click in Header Go to “Layout” and adjust Area margins or use custom Type your last name settings Justify right Times New Roman 12 Go to “insert” and click on Indent body paragraphs ½ “page number” inch from the margin
23. HEADING: DOUBLE SPACED TITLE Your Name Original Title (not the title Dr. Kim Palmore of the essay we read) EWRT 1B No italics, bold, underline, 15 February 2013 or quotation marks Centered on the page No extra spaces (just double spaced after your heading and before the body of your text)
24. SHORT QUOTATIONSTo indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
25. For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use thefollowing examples:According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.According to Foulkess study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?When short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry,mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, /, at the end ofeach line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash).Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / Thats all I remember" (11-12).
26. LONG QUOTATIONSFor quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch (10 spaces) from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
27. Note that the works cited page is in alpha order and that there are no numbers next to the entries. You may underline or italicize your titles, but pick one and be consistent. This, like all of your papers should be done in Times New Roman 12.
28. HOMEWORKReading: Stone Butch Blues (66-130)Post #13: Finish and post complete draft.Bring: three complete, clean copies to our next meeting.Studying: Vocab/Terms