CLASS 8
EWRT 1B


AGENDA
 Presentation: Terms List 2


QHQ Discussion: "Recitatif"



Lecture: Thesis statements, outlining, using
eviden...
TERMS LIST 2
 Ableism: A pervasive system of discrimination and exclusion that

oppresses people who have mental, emotion...


Classism: Bias based on social or economic class.



Critical Consciousness: a process of continuous self-reflection a...
In Groups, Discuss “Recitatif”
Consider the questions below.
 What does the title “Recitatif” mean?
 How does the title ...
QHQ Discussion: "Recitatif"

Where do you think the author came up with the idea to name this story “Recitatif”?


St. Bonny’s
 Why would Twyla say “my mother won’t like

you putting me in here” when Roberta was
assigned as her roommate...
Racial Ambiguity: Class Difference?
 Who was the black girl and who was the white?
 Why did Toni Morrison not reveal Twy...
Reunions
 Why did Roberta act different when she saw

Twyla at her job?
 What did Roberta gain from being so shallow

an...
Mental Illness?
 Why does Roberta seem so mentally messed up?
 The story hints at the fact that Twyla may have

some for...
Maggie


Q: Why is there such confusion about what really happened to Maggie?



Q: Why do the girls argue constantly ov...
Comparing Works We Have Read
 What does” Morrison’s “Recitatif” have in common with

Hughes’s “Who’s Passing for Who?
 W...
Discussion: Does Passing
Reinforce the social
construct?

Disrupt the social
construct?
Reinforcement of Social Construct
 Passing scholar, Leo Spitzer writes that passing was “by and large

a personal solutio...
Disruption of Social Construct
 “Passing, however, does pose at least some challenge to racist

regimes. That is why they...
Writing Essay #2


The Prompt:
If passing for white will get a fellow better accommodations on the train, better seats
in the theatre, immuni...
Your Thesis
Your refined thesis will be your position on
William Pickens’s Statement: Do you agree
with him or not? Why or...
Write a Working Thesis
You can use these as models or examples
Racial passing is a personal decision, and people should se...
Refer to your FREECASH chart. What are your “reasons” for agreeing or
disagreeing with the act of passing? Your reasons sh...
Building Body Paragraphs


Topic Sentence: This is reason #1 that you agree or disagree. This sentence
should clearly sup...
Introductions
You never get a second chance to make a first impression. The
opening paragraph of your paper will provide y...
Start by thinking about the
question you are trying to answer:
Write an essay of four to six pages arguing for or against ...
Open with an attention grabber. Consider
these options:
• A provocative quotation: Consider a line or two from one of the ...


Avoid statements like "In this paper, I will argue
that racial passing destabilizes the social
construction of race and...
Introductions to Avoid
1. The restated question introduction: Twists the question to take up space in the
introduction.
2....
Let’s Try to Write an Introduction or Two
 An intriguing example of

passing: Provide a situation
or two in which a perso...
Possible Outline
Introduction:
Thesis: This will likely be near the end of your introduction
Multiple Body Paragraphs supp...
Writing
Sketch out a rough outline.
Intro: What kind?
Thesis: Write out a working thesis or your refined thesis
Body 1: On...
HOMEWORK
 Reading: Begin Stone Butch Blues (1-65)
 Post #12: Post partial draft:

Introduction, Thesis, Minimum three bo...
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1 b class 8

  1. 1. CLASS 8 EWRT 1B 
  2. 2. AGENDA  Presentation: Terms List 2  QHQ Discussion: "Recitatif"  Lecture: Thesis statements, outlining, using evidence, introductions.  In-Class Writing: Essay #2
  3. 3. TERMS LIST 2  Ableism: A pervasive system of discrimination and exclusion that oppresses people who have mental, emotional, and physical disabilities.  Ally: A person who supports marginalized, silenced, or less privileged groups without actually being a member of those groups. This person will often directly confront and challenge biphobia, homophobia, heterosexism, racism, transphobia and other systems of oppression.  Binary Gender: A system that defines and makes room for two and only two distinct, natural and opposite genders (i.e. male and female). These two genders are defined in opposition to each other, such that masculinity and femininity are seen as mutually exclusive. In this system, there is no room for any ambiguity or intermingling of gender traits.
  4. 4.  Classism: Bias based on social or economic class.  Critical Consciousness: a process of continuous self-reflection and action to discover and uncover how we continue to be shaped by societal assumptions and power dynamics: an essential tool to help us to recognize, understand and work to change the social forces that shape our societies an ourselves.  Cultural Appropriation: The adoption of cultural elements not in one’s own culture, without full knowledge of or respect for its value within the original culture.  Cultural Oppression: Social norms, roles, rituals, language, music, and art that reflect and reinforce the belief that one social group is superior to anther.  Dominance: The systematic attitudes and actions of prejudice, superiority, and self- righteousness of one group (a non-target group) in relation to another (a target group). Internalized dominance includes the inability of a group or individual to see privilege as a member of the non-target group.
  5. 5. In Groups, Discuss “Recitatif” Consider the questions below.  What does the title “Recitatif” mean?  How does the title fit the story?  What does” Morrison’s “Recitatif” have in common with Hughes’s “Who’s Passing for Who?  What do they share with other works? How are they different?     “Passing” the poem “Passing” the short story “The Passing of Grandison” The Human Stain  Discuss any other insights into “passing” that you have realized through our readings or discussions.
  6. 6. QHQ Discussion: "Recitatif" Where do you think the author came up with the idea to name this story “Recitatif”? 
  7. 7. St. Bonny’s  Why would Twyla say “my mother won’t like you putting me in here” when Roberta was assigned as her roommate?  Why didn’t Roberta’s mother want to shake hands with Twyla’s mother?  Why didn’t Roberta, being Twyla’s best friend, hang out with her on day both of their mothers went to visit them?
  8. 8. Racial Ambiguity: Class Difference?  Who was the black girl and who was the white?  Why did Toni Morrison not reveal Twyla or Roberta’s race?  Did the racial differences between the two girls affect their friendship at all?  Why do we choose to construct race?  What was the bigger conflict, class difference or racism?
  9. 9. Reunions  Why did Roberta act different when she saw Twyla at her job?  What did Roberta gain from being so shallow and mean to Twyla?  Why doesn’t Roberta help Twyla when the crowd rocks her car?
  10. 10. Mental Illness?  Why does Roberta seem so mentally messed up?  The story hints at the fact that Twyla may have some form of mental problems, due to her suppression of certain memories, lack of somewhat basic knowledge (poor grammar in her story as well), and irrational behavior at times. What is the author’s purpose for this?  Does Twyla or Roberta have a memory problem or is something more complex than that?
  11. 11. Maggie  Q: Why is there such confusion about what really happened to Maggie?  Q: Why do the girls argue constantly over the details of the events of Maggie?  Q: Was Maggie attacked by Twyla or not, who is telling the truth(fact)?  Q: Why did Roberta want Twyla to believe that they had kicked Maggie?  Q. Why do Twyla and Roberta remember a similar story but the key detail they both forget is the color of Maggie’s skin?  Q: What race was Maggie?  Q: Does the last line of the story where finally, the truth of Maggie is questioned, indicate that they’re suddenly realizing the impact of one memory?  Q. Was Maggie a metaphor for something?
  12. 12. Comparing Works We Have Read  What does” Morrison’s “Recitatif” have in common with Hughes’s “Who’s Passing for Who?  What do they share with other works? How are they different?     “Passing” the poem “Passing” the short story “The Passing of Grandison” The Human Stain  Do you have any other insights into “passing” that you have realized through our readings or discussions.
  13. 13. Discussion: Does Passing Reinforce the social construct? Disrupt the social construct?
  14. 14. Reinforcement of Social Construct  Passing scholar, Leo Spitzer writes that passing was “by and large a personal solution to discrimination and exclusion. It was an action that, when accomplished successfully, generally divorced its individual practitioners from others in the subordinated group, and in no way challenged the ideology of racism or the system in which it was rooted. Indeed, because individuals responding to marginality through . . . passing could be viewed as either conscious or unwitting accomplices in their own victimization—as persons consenting to the continuing maintenance of existing inequalities and exclusionary ideologies— it is certainly understandable why they often elicited such scathing criticism from their contemporaries” (Qtd. in Kennedy 11-12)
  15. 15. Disruption of Social Construct  “Passing, however, does pose at least some challenge to racist regimes. That is why they typically try to prevent it. Fleeing bondage by passing may have been an individualistic response to the tyranny of slavery but it did free human beings and helped to belie the canard that slaves were actually content with their lot. The successful performance of “white man’s work” by a passing Negro upset racist claims that blacks are categorically incapable of doing such work. The extent of the disturbance is severely limited by the practical necessity of keeping the passing secret. But under some circumstances a limited disturbance is about all that can be accomplished” (Kennedy 12).
  16. 16. Writing Essay #2 
  17. 17. The Prompt: If passing for white will get a fellow better accommodations on the train, better seats in the theatre, immunity from insults in public places, and may even save his life from a mob,” only idiots would fail to seize the advantages of passing, at least occasionally if not permanently.” Write an essay of four to six pages arguing for or against William Pickens’s statement. Use support from the texts you have read so far, our discussions, and your own insights. Do you agree with Pickens's statement? If yes, why? If no, why not?
  18. 18. Your Thesis Your refined thesis will be your position on William Pickens’s Statement: Do you agree with him or not? Why or why not? You may refer to Pickens or not in your thesis. You may forecast your reasons in your thesis, or you may refer to a broader theme and provide your reasons in the body of your essay.
  19. 19. Write a Working Thesis You can use these as models or examples Racial passing is a personal decision, and people should seize the opportunity if they can in order to defeat racism and discrimination. Passing is a selfish act that reinforces hierarchy in society, and it should be avoided despite the opportunities it offers the individual. While racial passing for personal safety is a necessary and acceptable passing in behavior, general violates community norms and reinforces the social construct of racism. While full time passing violates familial and community connections and should be avoided, the wise person will pass part time to take advantage of the benefits it can reap, including the opportunities to escape racism and oppression.
  20. 20. Refer to your FREECASH chart. What are your “reasons” for agreeing or disagreeing with the act of passing? Your reasons should connect to your thesis. Each one should be a topic for at least one body paragraph. Some reasons will require multiple paragraph explanations.  Consider your best support for your assertion. This will likely be from your brainstorming using FREECASH.  Find textual evidence to support your position.  Explain how your examples support your thesis.  You can also use outside sources if you would like to, but they are not necessary for this paper.
  21. 21. Building Body Paragraphs  Topic Sentence: This is reason #1 that you agree or disagree. This sentence should clearly support your thesis.  Textual Evidence: This is an example from one of the texts that we read.  Explanation/Analysis: This is where you explain how your example supports your topic sentence. You can also draw conclusion from inferences.  Other Evidence: This could be from another primary text, a secondary text, or from your personal experience.  Explanation/Analysis: This is where you explain how your example supports your topic sentence. You can also draw conclusion from inferences.  Transition: This section moves your reader from your first body paragraph to your second body paragraph.
  22. 22. Introductions You never get a second chance to make a first impression. The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, and the overall quality of your work. A vague, disorganized, errorfilled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of you, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper.
  23. 23. Start by thinking about the question you are trying to answer: Write an essay of four to six pages arguing for or against William Pickens’s statement: "If passing for white will get a fellow better accommodations on the train, better seats in the theatre, immunity from insults in public places, and may even save his life from a mob," wrote William Pickens, "only idiots would fail to seize the advantages of passing, at least occasionally if not permanently" Your entire essay will be a response to this question, and your introduction is the first step toward that end. Your direct answer to the assigned question will be your thesis, and your thesis will be included in your introduction, so it is a good idea to use the question as a jumping off point.
  24. 24. Open with an attention grabber. Consider these options: • A provocative quotation: Consider a line or two from one of the texts we read. Then give some background about passing. • An intriguing example of passing: Provide a situation or two in which a person might be inclined to pass. • A puzzling scenario: Imagine a scene that makes a reader consider the consequences or benefits of passing. • A vivid and perhaps unexpected anecdote: Open with a short story about a successful or failed passing attempt. • Find common ground with your reader: Offer a contemporary example of passing (maybe a humorous one, even) and then explain the more reasons for passing in this earlier time period.
  25. 25.  Avoid statements like "In this paper, I will argue that racial passing destabilizes the social construction of race and is therefore beneficial to society."  While this sentence points toward your main argument, it isn't especially interesting. It might be more effective to say what you mean in a declarative sentence: “Racial passing destabilizes the social construction of race and is therefore beneficial to society."  It is much more convincing to tell your readers that than to tell them that you are going to say that it does. Assert your main argument confidently. After all, you can't expect your reader to believe it if it doesn't sound like you believe it!
  26. 26. Introductions to Avoid 1. The restated question introduction: Twists the question to take up space in the introduction. 2. The place holder introduction: Offers several vague sentences that don’t really say much. 3. The Webster's Dictionary introduction. This introduction begins by giving the dictionary definition of one or more of the words in the assigned question. 4. The "dawn of man" introduction. This kind of introduction generally makes broad, sweeping statements about the relevance of this topic since the beginning of time. 5. The book report introduction. This introduction gives the name and author of the book you are writing about, tells what the book is about, and offers other basic facts about the book.
  27. 27. Let’s Try to Write an Introduction or Two  An intriguing example of passing: Provide a situation or two in which a person might be inclined to pass.  A provocative quotation: Consider a line or two from one of the texts we read.  A puzzling scenario: Imagine a scene that makes a reader consider the consequences or benefits of passing.  A vivid and perhaps unexpected anecdote: Open with a short story about a successful or failed passing attempt.  Find common ground with your reader: Offer a contemporary example of passing (maybe a humorous one, even) and then explain the more reasons for passing in this earlier time period.
  28. 28. Possible Outline Introduction: Thesis: This will likely be near the end of your introduction Multiple Body Paragraphs supporting your thesis: The topic sentences of your body paragraphs (probably situated fairly early in the paragraph) should connect directly to your thesis. You should use the following rhetorical strategies to support your topic sentence: define (describe and/or characterize unfamiliar terms, situations, or events) classify (briefly distinguish between types: full time versus part time or kinds of passing) exemplify (provide examples from primary or secondary texts) analyze (explore and/or evaluate, particularly in terms of the connections of the examples to your reasons or thesis) explain (give details about) the connection between your example and your assertions. conclude (provide a logical conclusion for your readers) Transition (prepare your reader for the next paragraph. Counter Argument: Anticipate your readers questions or doubts. Will will discuss this in our next class. Conclusion: We will discuss this in our next class.
  29. 29. Writing Sketch out a rough outline. Intro: What kind? Thesis: Write out a working thesis or your refined thesis Body 1: One of your strongest arguments supporting your thesis. support/example Body 2: A second paragraph explaining your first reason. Body 3: Another reason support/example Body 3: Another reason support/example Body 4:One of your strongest arguments supporting your thesis. support/example Counterargument: Conclusion:
  30. 30. HOMEWORK  Reading: Begin Stone Butch Blues (1-65)  Post #12: Post partial draft: Introduction, Thesis, Minimum three body paragraphs (with topic sentences, evidence, explanation, and analysis)  Studying: Vocab/Terms

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