Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
1 b class 4
Class 4: EWRT 1B
AGENDAPresentation: TermsTeams and PointsAuthor Lecture: Langston HughesQHQ Discussion: Racial Passing: "Passing" and"Passing‖Lecture: Writing a Summary and Paraphrasing PoetryIn-class writing: Summary; paraphrase
Terms Exam #1: Class 6 19. Characterization: the creation of the image of imaginarypersons in drama, narrative poetry, the novel, and the shortstory. Characterization generates plot and is revealed byactions, speech, thoughts, physical appearance, and theother characters’ thoughts or words about him. 20. Dialogue: is a conversation, or a literary work in the formof a conversation, that is often used to reveal characters andto advance the plot. Also, it is the lines spoken by a characterin a play, essay, story, or novel. 21. Epistle: a letter, especially a formal or didactic one;written communication. Also (usually initial capital letter ) oneof the apostolic letters in the new testament or ( often initialcapital letter ) an extract, usually from one of the Epistles ofthe New Testament, forming part of the Eucharistic service incertain churches.
22. Irony: a dryly humorous or lightly sarcastic figure of speech in which theliteral meaning of a word or statement is the opposite of that intended. Inliterature, it is the technique of indicating an intention or attitude opposed towhat is actually stated. Often, only the context of the statement leads thereader to understand it is ironic. Irony makes use ofhyperbole, sarcasm, satire, and understatement.There are four types of irony:• Verbal irony as defined by Cicero: ―Irony is the saying of one thing andmeaning another,‖ or Socrates: ‖when one adopts another’s point of viewin order to reveal that person’s weaknesses and eventually to ridiculehim.‖• Situational irony, such as when a pickpocket gets his own pockets picked• Dramatic irony, such as when Oedipus unwittingly kills his own father• Rhetorical irony, such as that of the innocent narrator in Twain’sHuckleberry Finn
23. Literal: pertaining to a letter of the alphabet. More typically, itmeans ―based on what is actually written or expressed.‖ A literalinterpretation gives an exact rendering— word for word— takingwords in their usual or primary sense. It is also used to describethinking which is unimaginative or matter of fact.24. Literature: writings in which expression and form, inconnection with ideas and concerns of universal and apparentlypermanent interest, are essential features. While applied to anykind of printed material, such as circulars, leaflets, andhandbills, there are some who feel it is more correctly reserved forprose and verse of acknowledged excellence, such as GeorgeEliot’s works. The term connotes superior qualities.25. Paraphrase: (also called rewording) – the restatement of apassage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involvesexpanding the original text so as to make it clear.
2. The teams will remain the same throughthe discussion, reading, and workshops ofone essay.3. You must change at least 50% of your teamafter each essay is completed.4. You may never be on a team with the sameperson more than twice.5. You may never have a new team comprisedof more than 50% of any prior team.1. We will often use teams toearn participation points.Your teams can be madeup of 3 or 4 people.
Points will be earnedfor correct answers toquestions, meaningfulcontributions to thediscussion, and thewillingness to shareyour work. Each teamwill track their ownpoints, but cheatingleads to death (or lossof 25 participationpoints).Answers, comments,and questions mustbe posed in amanner thatpromotes learning.Those who speakout of turn or withmaliciousness willnot receive points fortheir teams.
At the end of each class,you will turn in a pointsheet with the names ofeveryone in your groupand your accumulatedpoints for the day.It is your responsibilityto make the sheet, trackthe points, and turn it in.Sit near your teammembers in class tofacilitate ease of groupdiscussions
Essay #2Teams Get into groups ofthree or four. (1-2minutes) If you can’t find agroup, please raiseyour hand. Once your group isestablished, chooseone person to be thekeeper of the points. Write down members’names Turn in your sheet atthe end of the classperiod.
In your groups: 5 minutesDiscuss the reading for today.Review the QHQs that youwrote.
LANGSTONHUGHES 1902-1967One of the founders of thecultural movement known asthe Harlem Renaissance.What do you know about Langston Hughes?
Few authors of the twentieth century are more significant thanLangston Hughes. He is assured his status by his manycontributions to literature.• The length of his career: 1921-1967• The variety of his output: articles, poems, shortstories, dramas, novels, and history texts.• His influence on three generations of African Americanwriters: from the Harlem Renaissance through the CivilRights Movement• His concern for the ―ordinary‖ African American: Thesubject of his work• His introduction of the jazz idiom: the quality of blackcolloquial speech and the rhythms of jazz and the blues.
During his long career Hughes was harshly criticizedby blacks and whites. Because he left no singlemasterwork, such as Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man(1952) or Richard Wright’s Native Son (1940), andbecause he consciously wrote in the common idiomof the people, academic interest in him grew onlyslowly. The importance of his influence on severalgenerations of African American authorsis, however, indisputable and widely acknowledged.
―Passing‖ The Short Story Q. Why does [Jack] want to pass as a white man? Q: Does Jack refute his ethnic identity out of fear or selfishness? Q: Is Jack a coward for accepting the white life and dissociating with his family inpublic? Q: What are the feelings that Hughes conveys during the writing of this letter? Q) Why does Jack starts off saying that he felt like a dog in his first sentence of theletter? Q] Is Jack really sorry for his family? Q: Has Jack’s progressive deception contributed to him to believing he’ssomething he’s actually not? Setting ambition aside, is being black somethinghe doesn’t want to embrace? Q) Hughes says ―why think about race any more? I’m glad I don’t have to.‖ Whatmade him come to this conclusion and why is he not even thinking about theoppression of his own people? Q: Why does Jack express his love of being white, yet is resentful to hisfather for giving his white family all the good things in life? Q: Why does Jack not realize that he is becoming like his father– rejecting hisfamily?
Q: How can Jack stand there and listen to his boss and other whitesmake fun of his race and abuse his own people?Q: given the circumstances his people are enduring at that given time,isn’t the rejection of blood necessary in pursuit of the money to besuccessful and live the American dream?Q. Why would [Jack] not want anything to do with his children if theywere born dark-skinned?Q: What will happen if Jack is caught with a ―colored‖ son or daughter of achild from his white girlfriend when he tries to deny it?Q: Since Jack is trying so hard to pass as a white person, would it bewrong for him to hide his true ethnicity from his girlfriend? If they wereto get married would it be morally wrong for him to lie to her and let herbelieve that he’s white?Q: If both important women in his life, his mother and his girl, are find withthe opposite race, then why does Jack feel the need to hide each womanfrom one another?Q: Is Jack really free?
Consequences Q. How does Jack not realize that he is turning exactly into what he might’vehad to deal with were his skin darker? Q: Does jack know he has become his own enemy? Q: Is Jack losing his identity by ignoring/pushing a part of who he is away? Q: Has Jack ever contemplated a scenario where his façade is exposed andpotentially loses all the goodies that his pretend racial identity achieved? Q; Is his job so important to him that he’s going to let them continue likethat, and is he going to ignore his mother and siblings and find an excuse notto talk to them? Q: why can’t jack see that by passing for white, he has neglected his ownsiblings? Q: Why doesn’t Jack understand why Gladys and Charlie are not happy about hispassing? Q: How might Jack respond to being if things were flipped and his brother was theone who passed as white? Q: What will happen if Jack’s secret is ever discovered?
Q. How does the mom actually feel with the decision that Jackhas made to ignore her and the family and what is shethinking/feeling when Jack describes his girl friend as blondeand blue-eyed?Q. Looking at it from the other side, how does his motherfeel, knowing she gave Jack her blessing, yet when she seeshim in the street, he doesn’t say a word to her?Did [Jack’s mother] tell him to pass so he could continue hiseducation and fight oppression from behind a desk, wherealmost all important decisions are made?Q: Can Jack’s mother handle all the pain that she caused forherself just to give her son a better life?Jack’s Poor Mother
What does this mean?Q. Jack makes the comment that he is going to―live white‖ in comparison to live life as a whiteman. What does Jack mean by the phrase ―livewhite‖?Q: What do you think Jack meant when he said―I’m free, Ma I’m free!‖?Q: Why does Jack call his girlfriend ―weakness‖ inthe last paragraph?
Q: Why does identity matter? How can people stop ―passing?‖ Q) I wonder if this situation ever truly arose? Q: Does this happen today in 2013? Are people today willing to deny theirbackground to be treated as a part of the majority race? Q Is it really worth being a part of the dominant culture if it meansgiving up your roots, who you are, your family, and your morals? Q: The weight of playing race charades is heavy, is it really worth to loseones identity in the process? Q. What must it feel like to deny one’s own family in order to succeed?Broader Inquiries about social policy,perspective, and choice.
On sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlemwhen the air is one interminable ball gameand grandma cannot get her gospel hymnsfrom the Saints of God in Christon account of the Dodgers on the radio,on sunny Sunday afternoonswhen the kids look all newand far too clean to stay that way,and Harlem has itswashed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out,the ones who’ve crossed the lineto live downtownmiss you,Harlem of the bitter dreamsince their dream hascome true.―Passing‖By Langston Hughes
Q. Who is writing the poem and what are they saying? Q: What does it mean when Harlem has people that are―washed-and-ironed-and cleaned-best out?‖ Q. What does Hughes mean by ―the ones who’ve crossed theline to live downtown‖ ? What is the line that people crossed when they moved downtown? What is it that people lost when they crossed the line that could notreplace in their current location? Q: Does Langston Hughes feel as though the people who’vecrossed are truly better off (now that they are living the―dream‖)? Q. Why are the dodgers an interruption of ―grandma’s‖ gospelhymns? Q: What does passing really mean in this poem?―Passing‖: The Poem
Paraphrase and SummaryWriting strategies that cannot be ignored
How to Paraphrase A Paraphrase is a restatement of a passage giving the meaning in anotherform. This usually involves expanding the original text so as to make it clear. A paraphrase will have none of the beauty or effectiveness of the original. Itmerely aims, in its prosy way, to spell out the literal meaning. It will notsubstitute for the original, then, but will help us appreciate the compactnessand complexity of many poems. Write in prose, not verse (in prose the lines go all the way to right margin).The line breaks of the original are irrelevant in paraphrasing. Write modern prose, rearranging word order and sentence structure asnecessary. As far as possible, within the limits of commonsense, avoid usingthe words of the original. Finding new words to express the meaning is a testof what you are understanding. Write coherent syntax, imitating that of the original if you can do so withease, otherwise breaking it down into easier sentence forms. Write in the same grammatical person and tense as the original. If the originalis in the first person, as many poems are, so must the paraphrase be.
Expand what is condensed.Spell out explicitly what the original implies or conveys byhints. It follows that a paraphrase will normally be longer thanthe original.Spell out explicitly all the possible meanings if the original isambiguous (saying two or more things at once), as manypoems are.Use square brackets to mark off any additional elements youfind it necessary to insert for the coherence of the meaning.The brackets will show that these bits are editorial --contributed by you for the sake of clarity but not strictly "said"in the original. An example might be some implied transitionalphrase or even an implied thought that occurs to the speakercausing a change in tone or feeling.
I, Too, Sing Americaby Langston HughesI, too, sing America.I am the darker brother.They send me to eat in the kitchenWhen company comes,But I laugh,And eat well,And grow strong.Tomorrow,Ill be at the tableWhen company comes.Nobodyll dareSay to me,"Eat in the kitchen,"Then.Besides,Theyll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed--I, too, am America. Paraphrased TextI am an American.Although the color of my skin may bedifferent from yours, I am like the rest ofmy fellowmen. Now I am separated fromwhites, but I [and my people] are gainingstrength.Soon, I [we] will join the rest ofAmerica, and my [our] rights will assure usthat we are not excluded from the fruits ofthe country.My darker complexion makes me no lessbeautiful than everybody else, which shouldmake whites feel sorry for treating me likeless than the average individual.I am like the rest of you.
On sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlem when the air is one interminable ball game and grandma cannot get her gospel hymns from the Saints of God in Christ on account of the Dodgers on the radio, on sunny Sunday afternoons when the kids look all new and far too clean to stay that way, and Harlem has its washed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out, the ones who’ve crossed the line to live downtown miss you, Harlem of the bitter dream since their dream has come true.―Passing‖By Langston HughesTake a few minutesto paraphrase thispoem
The SummaryA summary is condensed version of a largerreading. A summary is not a rewrite of theoriginal piece and does not have to be longnor should it be long. To write a summary, useyour own words to briefly express the mainidea and relevant details of the piece you haveread. Your purpose in writing the summary isto give the basic ideas of the originalreading. What was it about and what did theauthor want to communicate?
While reading the original work, take note of what orwho is the focus and ask the usual questions thatreporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why?How? Using these questions to examine what you arereading can help you to write the summary.Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfullyand look for a thesis statement. Finding the thesisstatement is like finding a key to a lockeddoor. Frequently, however, the thesis, or central idea, isimplied or suggested. Thus, you will have to workharder to figure out what the author wants readers tounderstand. Use any hints that may shed light on themeaning of the piece: pay attention to the title and anyheadings and to the opening and closing lines ofparagraphs.
In writing the summary, let your reader know the piece that you aresummarizing. Identify the title, author and source of the piece. You may wantto use this formula:In "Title of the Piece" (source and date of piece), author shows/offers/suggeststhat: central idea of the piece.Remember:• Do not rewrite the original piece.• Keep your summary short.• Use your own wording.• Refer to the central and main ideas of theoriginal piece.• Read with who, what, when, where, why andhow questions in mind.
In the short story ―The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,‖ authorJames Thurber humorously presents a character whofantasizes about himself as a hero enduring incrediblychallenging circumstances. In his real life, Walter Mitty lives anordinary, plain life; he is a husband under the control of anoverbearing, critical wife. Thurber uses lively dialogue to givereaders an understanding of Mittys character. The story takesplace over a period of about twenty minutes; during this brieftime, Mitty drives his wife to the hairdresser and runs errandsthat his wife has given him while he waits for her. In betweenhis worrying that he is not doing what she wants him to do, hedaydreams about himself as a great surgeon, brilliant repairtechnician, expert marksman, and brave military captain. Thisstory shows that fantasy is often a good alternative to reality.Here is a sample summary:
―Passing‖the Short StoryBy Langston HughesStart your summary of the story
1. Reading: Kennedy "Racial Passing" Posted under"Secondary Sources.‖2. Studying: Terms: Exam in Class 63. Post #5: Post summary of "Passing" andparaphrase of "Passing."4. Post #6: Discuss one story from Kennedys articlethat particularly spoke to you. How did it influenceyou in your thinking about passing?HOMEWORK