Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
1. Class 4EWRT 1B
2. AGENDAPresentation: TermsTeams and PointsAuthor Lecture: Langston HughesQHQ Discussion: Racial Passing: "Passing" and "Passing‖Lecture: Writing a Summary and Paraphrasing PoetryIn-class writing: Summary; paraphrase
3. Terms 19. Characterization: the creation of the image of imaginary persons in drama, narrative poetry, the novel, and the short story. Characterization generates plot and is revealed by actions, speech, thoughts, physical appearance, and the other characters‘ thoughts or words about him. 20. Dialogue: is a conversation, or a literary work in the form of a conversation, that is often used to reveal characters and to advance the plot. Also, it is the lines spoken by a character in a play, essay, story, or novel. 21. Epistle: a letter, especially a formal or didactic one; written communication. Also (usually initial capital letter ) one of the apostolic letters in the new testament or ( often initial capital letter ) an extract, usually from one of the Epistles of the New Testament, forming part of the Eucharistic service in certain churches.
4. 22. Irony: a dryly humorous or lightly sarcastic figure of speech in which theliteral meaning of a word or statement is the opposite of that intended. Inliterature, it is the technique of indicating an intention or attitude opposed towhat is actually stated. Often, only the context of the statement leads thereader to understand it is ironic. Irony makes use ofhyperbole, sarcasm, satire, and understatement.There are four types of irony:• Verbal irony as defined by Cicero: ―Irony is the saying of one thing and meaning another,‖ or Socrates: ‖when one adopts another‘s point of view in order to reveal that person‘s weaknesses and eventually to ridicule him.‖• Situational irony, such as when a pickpocket gets his own pockets picked• Dramatic irony, such as when Oedipus unwittingly kills his own father• Rhetorical irony, such as that of the innocent narrator in Twain‘s Huckleberry Finn
5. 23. Literal: pertaining to a letter of the alphabet. More typically, itmeans ―based on what is actually written or expressed.‖ A literalinterpretation gives an exact rendering— word for word— takingwords in their usual or primary sense. It is also used to describethinking which is unimaginative or matter of fact.24. Literature: writings in which expression and form, inconnection with ideas and concerns of universal and apparentlypermanent interest, are essential features. While applied to anykind of printed material, such as circulars, leaflets, andhandbills, there are some who feel it is more correctly reserved forprose and verse of acknowledged excellence, such as GeorgeEliot‘s works. The term connotes superior qualities.25. Paraphrase: (also called rewording) – the restatement of apassage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involvesexpanding the original text so as to make it clear.
6. 1. We will often use teams to earn participation points. Your teams can be made up of 3 or 4 people.2. The teams will remain the same through the discussion, reading, and workshops of one essay.3. You must change at least 50% of your team after each essay is completed.4. You may never be on a team with the same person more than twice.5. You may never have a new team comprised of more than 50% of any prior team.
7. Points will be earned Answers, comments, for correct answers to and questions must questions, meaningful be posed in a contributions to the manner that discussion, and the promotes learning. willingness to share Those who speak your work. Each team out of turn or with will track their own maliciousness will points, but cheating leads to death (or loss not receive points for of 25 participation their teams. points).
8. At the end of each class, you will turn in a point sheet with the names of everyone inSit near your teammembers in class to your group and yourfacilitate ease of groupdiscussions accumulated points for the day. It is your responsibility to make the sheet, track the points, and turn it in.
9.  Get into groups of three or four. (1-2 Essay #2 minutes) If you can‘t find a Teams group, please raise your hand. Once your group is established, choose one person to be the keeper of the points.  Write down members‘ names  Turn in your sheet at the end of the class period.
10. In your groups: 5 minutes Discuss the reading for today. Review the QHQs that you wrote.
11. LANGSTONHUGHES 1902-1967One of the founders of thecultural movement known asthe Harlem Renaissance.
12. Few authors of the twentieth century are more significant thanLangston Hughes. He is assured his status by his manycontributions to literature.• The length of his career: 1921-1967• The variety of his output: articles, poems, short stories, dramas, novels, and history texts.• His influence on three generations of African American writers: from the Harlem Renaissance through the Civil Rights Movement• His concern for the ―ordinary‖ African American: The subject of his work• His introduction of the jazz idiom: the quality of black colloquial speech and the rhythms of jazz and the blues.
13. During his long career Hughes was harshly criticizedby blacks and whites. Because he left no singlemasterwork, such as Ralph Ellison‘s Invisible Man(1952) or Richard Wright‘s Native Son (1940), andbecause he consciously wrote in the common idiomof the people, academic interest in him grew onlyslowly. The importance of his influence on severalgenerations of African American authorsis, however, indisputable and widely acknowledged.
15. ―Passing‖ The Short Story Q. Why doesn‘t Jack mind being ―white‖? Q. Why do people who pass as white believe that the ―white world‖ is a good place to be? Q. Will the passers begin to believe they are white as well and agree to the judgments of people [of color], ―their own people‖? Q. Now that Jack has managed to cross the racial line on a regular basis, is he actually ashamed of his black parentage? Q. Is living the passing life really worth giving up your customs and family? Q: Is Jack really happy for passing as a white person, or does it bother him that he can‘t tell others he‘s mixed Q: Does Jack understand what his mother did for him by pushing him away and does he understand how much pain she must be going through? Q. Would this mean Jack is ashamed of his mother and siblings? Q:Is Jack losing his identity by denying his African American side? Q. Is [Jack] really a free man? Q. Is Jack happy living a life of lies?
16. Consequences Q. Does Jack regret passing as a white man? Q: What is going to happen when people (his girlfriend, work, etc.) actually find out Jack‘s true ―identity‖? Q: How has being a privileged white man changed [Jack‘s] viewpoint about his siblings? Q. Why are Charlie and Gladys angry at Jack for passing?  Do Charlie and Gladys see Jack as white like society does? Why would Jack disown his children if they were [black]? Q. Has passing as a white man made Jack just as bad as those he deceives? Q. How are people who pass able to stay sane and live a comfortable life knowing it‘s a lie? Q. Is losing part of your identity worth it?
17. Jack‘s Poor Mother Q. What is the purpose for Jack to write this letter to his mother? Q: Is there any regret in the way Jack wrote to his mother? Q: Despite receiving the privileges and ―passing,‖ would Jack reconsider changing his life for his mother Q: What would his mother have to say about this? Q. How would Jack‘s mother would respond to this letter? Q: Did she avoid him because of the shame he would get or indifference towards her son leaving the family? Q: How can Jack‘s mother approve/encourage of him ―passing‖ as a white person? Q: Should the mother be mad for being stuck in Harlem?
18. What does this mean? Q: What did his girl mean when she [said] ―darkies are so graceful and gay?‖ Q. Jack makes the comment that he is going to ―live white‖ in comparison to live life as a white man. What does Jack mean by the phrase ―live white‖? Q: What do you think Jack meant when he said ―I‘m free, Ma I‘m free!‖? Q: Why does the author call his girlfriend ―weakness‖ in the last paragraph?
19. Broader Inquiries about social policy, perspective, and choice. Q. What must it feel like to deny one‘s own family in order to succeed? Q :Does this happen today in 2013? Are people today willing to deny there background to be treated as a part of the majority race? Q: The weight of playing race charades is heavy, is it really worth to lose ones identity in the process? Q: Why do we [care] about where [other people‘s] ancestors came from? Q. Why is passing for being white consider so great and not showing your true colors of who you really are can degrade you as a person? Q. Is the want to not be discriminated against or to be treated as an equal enough to cause one to push their family away just to be accepted by the rest of society? Q: If Jack were around today, given the civil rights changes, would he still try to pass as white for preferential treatment or embrace his ―darker‖ heritage.
20. ―Passing‖ By Langston HughesOn sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlemwhen the air is one interminable ball gameand grandma cannot get her gospel hymnsfrom the Saints of God in Christon account of the Dodgers on the radio,on sunny Sunday afternoonswhen the kids look all newand far too clean to stay that way,and Harlem has itswashed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out,the ones who‘ve crossed the lineto live downtownmiss you,Harlem of the bitter dreamsince their dream hascome true.
21. ―Passing‖: The Poem Q: What does the phrase ―the ones who‘ve crossed the line to live downtown miss you, Harlem of the bitter dream since their dream has come true‖ mean? Q: What exactly makes the people who‘ve passed miss Harlem when their ―dreams‖ have already come true? Q: Is it more that the people who have passed miss Harlem or the comfort of their true identities in Harlem? Q. Why on a ‗Sunday sunny afternoon‘ do they miss you? why not relish in there forever lingering memories and bring fond memories of joy to yourself? Q: Why not marry have a wonderful life and continue to provide for both your families? Q: Why is Harlem referred to it as the ―bitter dream‖ as opposed to something else? Q. Is there a connection between the two writings?
22. How to Paraphrase A Paraphrase is a restatement of a passage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involves expanding the original text so as to make it clear. A paraphrase will have none of the beauty or effectiveness of the original. It merely aims, in its prosy way, to spell out the literal meaning. It will not substitute for the original, then, but will help us appreciate the compactness and complexity of many poems. Write in prose, not verse (in prose the lines go all the way to right margin). The line breaks of the original are irrelevant in paraphrasing. Write modern prose, rearranging word order and sentence structure as necessary. As far as possible, within the limits of commonsense, avoid using the words of the original. Finding new words to express the meaning is a test of what you are understanding. Write coherent syntax, imitating that of the original if you can do so with ease, otherwise breaking it down into easier sentence forms. Write in the same grammatical person and tense as the original. If the original is in the first person, as many poems are, so must the paraphrase be.
23. Expand what is condensed.  Spell out explicitly what the original implies or conveys by hints. It follows that a paraphrase will normally be longer than the original.  Spell out explicitly all the possible meanings if the original is ambiguous (saying two or more things at once), as many poems are.  Use square brackets to mark off any additional elements you find it necessary to insert for the coherence of the meaning. The brackets will show that these bits are editorial -- contributed by you for the sake of clarity but not strictly "said" in the original. An example might be some implied transitional phrase or even an implied thought that occurs to the speaker causing a change in tone or feeling.
24. I, Too, Sing America  Paraphrased Textby Langston HughesI, too, sing America. I am an American.I am the darker brother.They send me to eat in the kitchen Although the color of my skin may beWhen company comes, different from yours, I am like the rest ofBut I laugh, my fellowmen. Now I am separated fromAnd eat well, whites, but I [and my people] are gainingAnd grow strong. strength.Tomorrow,Ill be at the table Soon, I [we] will join the rest of America,When company comes. and my [our] rights will assure us that weNobodyll dare are not excluded from the fruits of theSay to me, country."Eat in the kitchen,"Then. My darker complexion makes me no less beautiful than everybody else, which shouldBesides, make whites feel sorry for treating me likeTheyll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed-- less than the average individual.I, too, am America. I am like the rest of you.
25. ―Passing‖ By Langston Hughes On sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlem when the air is one interminable ball game and grandma cannot get her gospel hymns from the Saints of God in Christ on account of the Dodgers on the radio, on sunny Sunday afternoons when the kids look all new and far too clean to stay that way, Take a few minutes and Harlem has its washed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out, to paraphrase this the ones who‘ve crossed the line to live downtown poem miss you, Harlem of the bitter dream since their dream has come true.
26. The SummaryA summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long nor should it be long. To write a summary, use your own words to briefly express the main idea and relevant details of the piece you have read. Your purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading. What was it about and what did the author want to communicate?
27. While reading the original work, take note of what or who is the focus and ask the usual questions that reporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions to examine what you are reading can help you to write the summary.Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfully and look for a thesis statement. Finding the thesis statement is like finding a key to a locked door. Frequently, however, the thesis, or central idea, is implied or suggested. Thus, you will have to work harder to figure out what the author wants readers to understand. Use any hints that may shed light on the meaning of the piece: pay attention to the title and any headings and to the opening and closing lines of paragraphs.
28. In writing the summary, let your reader know the piece that you aresummarizing. Identify the title, author and source of the piece. You may wantto use this formula:In "Title of the Piece" (source and date of piece), author shows/offers/suggeststhat: central idea of the piece. Remember: • Do not rewrite the original piece. • Keep your summary short. • Use your own wording. • Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece. • Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind.
29. Here is a sample summary:In the short story ―The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,‖ authorJames Thurber humorously presents a character whofantasizes about himself as a hero enduring incrediblychallenging circumstances. In his real life, Walter Mitty lives anordinary, plain life; he is a husband under the control of anoverbearing, critical wife. Thurber uses lively dialogue to givereaders an understanding of Mittys character. The story takesplace over a period of about twenty minutes; during this brieftime, Mitty drives his wife to the hairdresser and runs errandsthat his wife has given him while he waits for her. In betweenhis worrying that he is not doing what she wants him to do, hedaydreams about himself as a great surgeon, brilliant repairtechnician, expert marksman, and brave military captain. Thisstory shows that fantasy is often a good alternative to reality.
30. ―Passing‖the Short StoryBy Langston HughesStart your summary of the story
31. HOMEWORK• Reading: Kennedy "Racial Passing" Posted under "Secondary Sources."• Post #5: Post summary of "Passing" and paraphrase of "Passing."• Studying: Terms• Post #6: Discuss one story from Kennedys article that particularly spoke to you. How did it influence you in your thinking about passing?