Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
Paraphrase the poem: Discuss passing as a themeOther themes?
Class 4EWRT 1B
AGENDA Presentation: Terms Author Lecture: Langston Hughes QHQ Discussion: Racial Passing: "Passing" and "Passing‖ Lecture: Writing a Summary and Paraphrasing Poetry In-class writing: Directed Summary; paraphrase
Terms 19. Characterization: the creation of the image of imaginary persons in drama, narrative poetry, the novel, and the short story. Characterization generates plot and is revealed by actions, speech, thoughts, physical appearance, and the other characters’ thoughts or words about him. 20. Dialogue: is a conversation, or a literary work in the form of a conversation, that is often used to reveal characters and to advance the plot. Also, it is the lines spoken by a character in a play, essay, story, or novel. 21. Epistle: a letter, especially a formal or didactic one; written communication. Also (usually initial capital letter ) one of the apostolic letters in the new testament or ( often initial capital letter ) an extract, usually from one of the Epistles of the New Testament, forming part of the Eucharistic service in certain churches.
22. Irony: a dryly humorous or lightly sarcastic figure of speech in which theliteral meaning of a word or statement is the opposite of that intended. Inliterature, it is the technique of indicating an intention or attitude opposed towhat is actually stated. Often, only the context of the statement leads thereader to understand it is ironic. Irony makes use ofhyperbole, sarcasm, satire, and understatement.There are four types of irony:• Verbal irony as defined by Cicero: ―Irony is the saying of one thing and meaning another,‖ or Socrates: ‖when one adopts another’s point of view in order to reveal that person’s weaknesses and eventually to ridicule him.‖• Situational irony, such as when a pickpocket gets his own pockets picked• Dramatic irony, such as when Oedipus unwittingly kills his own father• Rhetorical irony, such as that of the innocent narrator in Twain’s Huckleberry Finn
23. Literal: pertaining to a letter of the alphabet. More typically, itmeans ―based on what is actually written or expressed.‖ A literalinterpretation gives an exact rendering— word for word— takingwords in their usual or primary sense. It is also used to describethinking which is unimaginative or matter of fact.24. Literature: writings in which expression and form, inconnection with ideas and concerns of universal and apparentlypermanent interest, are essential features. While applied to anykind of printed material, such as circulars, leaflets, and handbills,there are some who feel it is more correctly reserved for prose andverse of acknowledged excellence, such as George Eliot’s works.The term connotes superior qualities.25. Paraphrase: (also called rewording) – the restatement of apassage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involvesexpanding the original text so as to make it clear.
LANGSTONHUGHES 1902-1967One of the founders of thecultural movement known asthe Harlem Renaissance.
Few authors of the twentieth century are more significant thanLangston Hughes. He is assured his status by his manycontributions to literature.• The length of his career: 1921-1967• The variety of his output: articles, poems, short stories, dramas, novels, and history texts.• His influence on three generations of African American writers: from the Harlem Renaissance through the Civil Rights Movement• His concern for the ―ordinary‖ African American: The subject of his work• His introduction of the jazz idiom: the quality of black colloquial speech and the rhythms of jazz and the blues.
Much of Hughes’s childhood was spent in Lawrence, Kansas, withhis maternal grandmother, Mary Sampson Patterson LearyLangston, a proud woman who was the last surviving widow of JohnBrown’s 1859 raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia.Later, he moved with his mother to Lincoln, Illinois, and then toCleveland, Ohio. There Hughes published poems in his high schoolmagazine and edited the yearbook.After graduation, he spent an extended period of time with his fatherin Mexico, where he had articles, poems, and a children’s playaccepted for publication.In 1921 he enrolled at Columbia University but quickly lost interest inhis studies. Two years later Hughes traveled to Africa and Europe asa sailor.
During his long career Hughes was harshlycriticized by blacks and whites. Because he leftno single masterwork, such as Ralph Ellison’sInvisible Man (1952) or Richard Wright’s NativeSon (1940), and because he consciously wrotein the common idiom of the people, academicinterest in him grew only slowly. Theimportance of his influence on severalgenerations of African American authors is,however, indisputable and widelyacknowledged.
Langston Hughes, whose literary legacy isclearly enormous and varied, was closeted, buthomosexuality was an important influence onhis literary imagination, and many of his poemsmay be read as gay texts.One of the greatest ironies in the life of thepeoples poet was his own understandablesilence regarding the oppression of gays. As agay man, Hughes lived that secret life silently inthe confines of a very narrow, but well-constructed closet--one that still shelters himtoday.
―Passing‖ The Short Story Why does Jack pass? What are the benefits he gets from passing? What are the costs of Jack’s passing?
―Passing‖ By Langston HughesOn sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlemwhen the air is one interminable ball gameand grandma cannot get her gospel hymnsfrom the Saints of God in Christon account of the Dodgers on the radio,on sunny Sunday afternoonswhen the kids look all newand far too clean to stay that way, How does this fit withand Harlem has its Hughes’s short story by thewashed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out, same title?the ones who’ve crossed the lineto live downtownmiss you,Harlem of the bitter dreamsince their dream hascome true.
How to Paraphrase A Paraphrase is a restatement of a passage giving the meaning in another form. This usually involves expanding the original text so as to make it clear. A paraphrase will have none of the beauty or effectiveness of the original. It merely aims, in its prosy way, to spell out the literal meaning. It will not substitute for the original, then, but will help us appreciate the compactness and complexity of many poems. Write in prose, not verse (in prose the lines go all the way to right margin). The line breaks of the original are irrelevant in paraphrasing. Write modern prose, rearranging word order and sentence structure as necessary. As far as possible, within the limits of commonsense, avoid using the words of the original. Finding new words to express the meaning is a test of what you are understanding. Write coherent syntax, imitating that of the original if you can do so with ease, otherwise breaking it down into easier sentence forms. Write in the same grammatical person and tense as the original. If the original is in the first person, as many poems are, so must the paraphrase be.
Expand what is condensed. Spell out explicitly what the original implies or conveys by hints. It follows that a paraphrase will normally be longer than the original. Spell out explicitly all the possible meanings if the original is ambiguous (saying two or more things at once), as many poems are. Use square brackets to mark off any additional elements you find it necessary to insert for the coherence of the meaning. The brackets will show that these bits are editorial -- contributed by you for the sake of clarity but not strictly "said" in the original. An example might be some implied transitional phrase or even an implied thought that occurs to the speaker causing a change in tone or feeling.
I, Too, Sing America by Langston Paraphrased Text Hughes I, too, sing America. I am an American. I am the darker brother. Although the color of my skin may be They send me to eat in the kitchen different from yours, I am like the When company comes, rest of my fellowmen. Now I am But I laugh, separated from whites, but I [and my And eat well, people] are gaining strength. And grow strong. Soon, I [we] will join the rest of Tomorrow, America, and my [our] rights will Ill be at the table assure us that we are not excluded When company comes. from the fruits of the country. Nobodyll dare Say to me, My darker complexion makes me no "Eat in the kitchen," less beautiful than everybody else, Then. which should make whites feel sorry for treating me like less than the Besides, Theyll see how beautiful I am average individual. And be ashamed-- I am like the rest of you. I, too, am America.
―Passing‖ By Langston Hughes On sunny summer Sunday afternoons in Harlem when the air is one interminable ball game and grandma cannot get her gospel hymns from the Saints of God in Christ on account of the Dodgers on the radio, on sunny Sunday afternoons when the kids look all new and far too clean to stay that way, Take a few minutes and Harlem has its washed-and-ironed-and-cleaned-best out, to paraphrase this the ones who’ve crossed the line to live downtown poem miss you, Harlem of the bitter dream since their dream has come true.
The SummaryA summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long nor should it be long. To write a summary, use your own words to briefly express the main idea and relevant details of the piece you have read. Your purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading. What was it about and what did the author want to communicate?
While reading the original work, take note of what or who is the focus and ask the usual questions that reporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions to examine what you are reading can help you to write the summary.Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfully and look for a thesis statement. Finding the thesis statement is like finding a key to a locked door. Frequently, however, the thesis, or central idea, is implied or suggested. Thus, you will have to work harder to figure out what the author wants readers to understand. Use any hints that may shed light on the meaning of the piece: pay attention to the title and any headings and to the opening and closing lines of paragraphs.
In writing the summary, let your reader know the piece that you aresummarizing. Identify the title, author and source of the piece. You may wantto use this formula:In "Title of the Piece" (source and date of piece), author shows that: centralidea of the piece. The author supports the main idea by using_____________________ and showing that______________________________________________________. Remember: • Do not rewrite the original piece. • Keep your summary short. • Use your own wording. • Refer to the central and main ideas of the original piece. • Read with who, what, when, where, why and how questions in mind.
Here is a sample summary:In the short story ―The Secret Life of Walter Mitty,‖ author James Thurberhumorously presents a character who fantasizes about himself as a heroenduring incredibly challenging circumstances. In his real life, Walter Mittylives an ordinary, plain life; he is a husband under the control of anoverbearing, critical wife. Thurber uses lively dialogue to give readers anunderstanding of Mittys character. The story takes place over a period ofabout twenty minutes; during this brief time, Mitty drives his wife to thehairdresser and runs errands that his wife has given him while he waits forher. In between his worrying that he is not doing what she wants him to do,he daydreams about himself as a great surgeon, brilliant repair technician,expert marksman, and brave military captain. This story shows that fantasyis often a good alternative to reality.
―Passing‖the Short StoryBy Langston HughesStart your summary of the story
HOMEWORK• Reading: Kennedy "Racial Passing" Posted under "Secondary Sources."• Writing: Post directed summary of "Passing" and paraphrase of "Passing."• Studying: Terms• Blog Shot #4: Discuss one story from Kennedys article that particularly spoke to you. How did it influence you in your thinking about passing?