• Androgeny (also androgynous, bi-gendered, no-gendered): A person who identifies as both or neither ofthe two culturally defined genders, or a person whoexpresses merged culturally/stereotypically feminine andmasculine characteristics or neutral characteristics.• Anti-Semitism: Hostility toward, or prejudice ordiscrimination against Jews or Judaism.• Assigned (Biological) Sex: A social construct referringto the state of being intersex, female, or male. A conceptthat relies on the dichotomous division of various genitive,biological, chromosomal, hormonal and physiologicaldifferences in human.
• Bisexual: A person who is emotionally, physically, and/orsexually attracted to both men and women. Some people avoidthis term because of its implications that there are only twosexes/genders to be sexually attracted to and this reinforces thebinary gender system.• Cross-Dresser: Someone who enjoys wearing clothing typicallyassigned to a gender that the individual has not been socializedas, or does not identify as. Cross-dressers are of all sexualorientations and do not necessarily identify as transgender.“Cross-dresser” is frequently used today in place of the term“transvestite.” This activity seems more obvious when men asopposed to women engage in it publicly, because of an inequityin societal norms concerning attire and other components ofappearance.
• Cultural Humility: A lifelong commitment to self-evaluationand critique, to redressing the power imbalances in the[interpersonal relationship] dynamic[s], and to developingmutually beneficial and non-paternalistic partnerships withcommunities on behalf of individuals and defined populations.• FtM (F2M)/MtF (M2F): Generally, abbreviations used to referto specific members of the trans community. FtM stands forfemale-to-male, as in moving from a female pole of thespectrum to the male. MtF stands for male-to-female and refersto moving from the male pole of the spectrum tot eh female.FtM is sometimes, not always, synonymous with transman.Conversely, someone who identifies as MtF, may identify as atranswoman.
Directed Summary• A directed summary provides readers of yourpaper with the information they need tounderstand your argument and explanation.• State the title and author of the literary worknear the beginning of the first paragraph,perhaps in the first sentence. This is essentialso that the reader knows which work you arediscussing.
• Hook the reader. In the first sentences, write whatis particularly interesting about the work. Thisthought-provoking information must also berelevant to the topic you will discuss in youressay.• Assume that the reader is familiar with the workabout which you are writing. Do not include toomuch plot summary in the introduction or in therest of the essay. Do include the part of the storythat will support your thesis.
• Use transitions throughout the introduction. Becausethere are so many aspects of the work that have to beincluded, the introduction can end up fragmentedand confusing. Make sure that it makes sense on itsown as a paragraph. Clearly transition from yourintroduction into your thesis.• State the thesis near the end of the introduction(your introduction might be more than oneparagraph). The thesis should clearly state what theessay will analyze and should be very specific.
Transition from Introduction tothe Thesis Statement:• In Stone Butch Blues, Leslie Feinberg describes thedevelopment of protagonist, Jess Goldberg, through aseries of moments of resistance to a society that cannot,or will not accept hir. This book shows that socialpressure, oppression, and violence act not only asforces of conformity, but also as powerful sources ofagency; they can inspire people to challenge injustice inpursuit of liberty.
Try writing your introduction1. Title and author2. Hook the reader with a thought-provoking aspectof the story, one that connects to your essay.3. Assuming the reader is familiar with the text,include a brief summary that provides support foryour paper.4. Use transitions to keep the introduction clear andorganized.5. Transition to the thesis.6. Include your thesis near the end of theintroduction.
• When you write an academic essay, you make an argument: youpropose a thesis and offer some reasoning, using evidence, thatsuggests why the thesis is true. When you counter-argue, youconsider a possible argument against your thesis or some aspect ofyour reasoning. This is a good way to test your ideas when drafting,while you still have time to revise them. And in the finished essay, itcan be a persuasive and disarming tactic. It allows you to anticipatedoubts and pre-empt objections that a skeptical reader might have; itpresents you as the kind of person who weighs alternatives beforearguing for one, who confronts difficulties instead of sweeping themunder the rug, who is more interested in discovering the truth thanwinning a point.• Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and youshouldnt include one just to include one. But some imagining ofother views, or of resistance to ones own, occurs in most goodessays.
The Turn AgainstA counterargument in an essay has two stages: you turn against your argument tochallenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. You first imagine a skepticalreader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out aproblem with your demonstration:1. that a different conclusion could be drawn from the same facts, a keyassumption is unwarranted, a key term is used unfairly, certain evidence isignored or played down2. one or more disadvantages or practical drawbacks to what you propose3. an alternative explanation or proposal that makes more sense.You introduce this turn against with a phrase like one of these• Some might object here that• It might seem that• It is true that• Admittedly• Of course
The Turn BackYour return to your own argument—which you announce with abut, yet, however, nevertheless or still—must likewise involvecareful reasoning, not a flippant (or nervous) dismissal. Inreasoning about the proposed counterargument, you may do oneof the following:1. Refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not realproblem2. Acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but suggest why on balanceits relatively less important or less likely than what you propose,and thus doesnt overturn it;3. Concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restateyour thesis in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takesaccount of the objection, or start a new section in which youconsider your topic in light of it.
Where to Put a Counter argumentCounter argument can appear anywhere in the essay. Try it in several placesand see where it fits best:1. as part of your introduction—before you propose your thesis—where the existenceof a different view is the motive for your essay, the reason it needs writing.2. as a section or paragraph just after your introduction, in which you lay out theexpected reaction or standard position before turning away to develop your own.3. as a quick move within a paragraph, where you imagine a counterargument not toyour main idea but to the sub-idea that the paragraph is arguing or is about toargue.4. as a section or paragraph just before the conclusion of your essay, in which youimagine what someone might object to what you have argued.But watch that you do not overdo it. A turn into counterargument here andthere will sharpen and energize your essay, but too many such turns will havethe reverse effect by obscuring your main idea or suggesting that you areambivalent.
Counter Argument:Of course, there are times when social pressure, oppression, andviolence push people to conform, but these examples generally fallinto one of three main categories: One, people bow to social pressure,oppression, and violence when they do not have a significant reason toresist; two, people bow to social pressure, oppression, and violencewhen the consequences are life threatening; and three, people bow tosocial pressure, oppression, and violence until they can strategize theirresistance. This final response is the one that Feinberg illustratesthrough Jess Goldberg.Thesis: This book shows that social pressure, oppression, andviolence do not act only as forces of conformity, but also aspowerful sources of agency; they can inspire people to challengeinjustice in pursuit of liberty.
Do you need a counterargument?1. Is there an obvious argument against your thesis?2. Is there a different conclusion could be drawn from thesame facts?3. Do you make a key assumption with which others mightdisagree?4. Do you use a term that someone else might define adifferent way?5. Do you ignore certain evidence that others might believeyou need to address?6. Is there an alternative explanation or proposal that somemight more readily believe?
Strategies for Writing a ConclusionConclusions are often the most difficult part of an essayto write, and many writers feel that they have nothingleft to say after having written the paper. A writer needsto keep in mind that the conclusion is often what areader remembers best. Your conclusion should be thebest part of your paper.A conclusion should• stress the importance of the thesis statement,• give the essay a sense of completeness, and• leave a final impression on the reader.
Create a new meaningDemonstrating how your ideas work together cancreate a new picture. Often the sum of the paperis worth more than its parts.Stone Butch Blues shows that socialpressures, oppression, and violence areappropriate ways neither to create harmonynor to manage cultural diversity
Answer the question "So What?”Show your readers why this paper wasimportant.Stone Butch Blues provides knowledgethat can liberate those people who suffersocial oppression by both providingmodels of, and encouraging, successfulresistance.
Propose a course of actionRedirect your readers thought process and help him orher to apply your info and ideas to her own life or tosee the broader implications.Finally, Stone Butch Blues inspires people tochallenge injustice in pursuit of liberty for allpeople.
Let’s try writing a couple of conclusions1. Answer the question "So What?”: Show your readers why this paper wasimportant.2. Synthesize information: Show how the points you made and the support andexamples you used fit together.3. Challenge the reader: Help readers redirect the information in the paper, sothey may apply it to their own lives.4. Create a new meaning: demonstrating how your ideas work together cancreate a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts.5. Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for furtherstudy: Redirect your readers thought process and help him or her to applyyour info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.6. Echo the introduction: If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end withthe same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a newunderstanding.
Henry David Hwang• David Henry Hwang was born on August 11, 1957in Los Angeles, California.• His parents immigrated from China• He went to Stanford University• As an undergraduate, he wrote his first play FOB,which explores the contrast in attitudes betweenrecently arrived Chinese immigrants and twoChinese-American students who have long sinceassimilated.• He went to graduate school at Yale, where hecontinued to write successful plays.
• Hwang returned to the stage with M. Butterfly, one of themost celebrated of recent American plays, and the first byan Asian-American to win universal acclaim.• It was first produced in 1988 and won numerous awards,including the Tony Award for Best Play of the Year, theNew York Drama Desk Award, the Outer Critics CircleAward for Best Broadway play, and the John GassnerAward for the seasons outstanding new playwright.• M. Butterfly enjoyed a popular run on Broadway andwhen it moved to Londons Shaftsbury Theatre in 1989 itbroke all box office records in the first week.M Butterfly
Reading: M ButterflyFinish in-class writing:Introduction,Counterargument, andConclusionPost #20: Post yourcounter argumentBring three completecopies of your draft to ournext meeting.
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