Of otaku and fansubs
A critical look at anime online
in light of current issues
in copyright law
                     BILE...
What is anime?
What is a fansub?
fan + subtitled = fansub
Fan community
“Sailor Moon is like a
             gateway drug”

- Janet Varela, referring to her daughter’s new obsession with anime
fans = otaku

some controversy
History
• Mid-80’s origin
               • Universities
               • Birth of anime
                 distributors
            ...
Fansub production
• Similarities to open
  source
• Distributed work
• Highly skilled
Between dojinshi and p2p
v.
v.
v.
Legal aspects
Article 9
Relation to the Berne Convention
1. Members shall comply with Articles 1
  through 21 of the Berne Convention (1...
Rights in national law
Translation
• adaptations (UK)
  –   CDPA s. 21 (3)(a)(i).

• derivative works (US)
  –   17 U.S.C....
Moral rights
• Prevent false attribution
  –   CDPA 1988 s 84 (UK)


• Derogatory treatment
  –   CDPA 1988 s 80 (UK)


• ...
False attribution?
Passing off?
Fair use / dealing
Factors to consider
• Transformativeness?
• Amount and substantiality
• Effect on market
  – Anime = big biz
• Translation...
Fair Dealing

   Not likely an exception
   • Not criticism or review
   • Doesn't fit into other areas
“‘Rights which cannot be realised
are worse than useless; they are
   traps of delay, expense and
           heartache”


...
Fansubs v. licensed
   Qualitative differences
Fansub ethics
Justifications
• Promotional aspects
• Fansub replacement
• Try before you buy
• Show never licensed outside of Jp
• Digis...
Ethics cont.
• Stop once released in Japan
• Stop once announced in N.A.
  – Avidly follow licensing deals
• Compliance ap...
Anime industry approach
Anime v. MPAA/RIAA
• Don’t seem to use notice and take
  down (DMCA)
• Announce licenses
  – informal letters
• No lawsuit...
Industry benefits?
Potential fansub benefits

• In the beginning…
• Build non-English language fanbase
• Build audience (similar to TV)
• Ide...
Final thoughts
• Held captive?
  – Negative reaction from fans
• But could step up enforcement in line
  with fansub ethics
Thanks!
          JS Hatcher
          jordan at opencontentlawyer dot com




Paper available
http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/AHR...
Credits
Kobe by Fari - CC-BY http://flickr.com/photos/colloidfarl/439513007/
Hayao Miyazaki drawing = Public Domain http:/...
"Behind the Great Wave at Kanagawa" – Public domain http://
   en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tsunami_by_hokusai_19th_century...
Piratey – Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Piratey.jpg
Wikipedia map of world – Public Domain http://commo...
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright
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Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright

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Presentation for BILETA 2007 on copyright and anime fansubs.

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Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright

  1. 1. Of otaku and fansubs A critical look at anime online in light of current issues in copyright law BILETA 2007 University of Hertfordshire 17 April 2007 JS Hatcher jordan at opencontentlawyer dot com
  2. 2. What is anime?
  3. 3. What is a fansub?
  4. 4. fan + subtitled = fansub
  5. 5. Fan community
  6. 6. “Sailor Moon is like a gateway drug” - Janet Varela, referring to her daughter’s new obsession with anime
  7. 7. fans = otaku some controversy
  8. 8. History
  9. 9. • Mid-80’s origin • Universities • Birth of anime distributors • Fansubs helped form the market 010101010111 • Digital copies 110010101010 000111010101 • Move to completely ‘digisubs’
  10. 10. Fansub production • Similarities to open source • Distributed work • Highly skilled
  11. 11. Between dojinshi and p2p
  12. 12. v.
  13. 13. v.
  14. 14. v.
  15. 15. Legal aspects
  16. 16. Article 9 Relation to the Berne Convention 1. Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix thereto. However, Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.
  17. 17. Rights in national law Translation • adaptations (UK) – CDPA s. 21 (3)(a)(i). • derivative works (US) – 17 U.S.C. § 106 (2) Reproduction Distribution
  18. 18. Moral rights • Prevent false attribution – CDPA 1988 s 84 (UK) • Derogatory treatment – CDPA 1988 s 80 (UK) • Right to identification – CDPA 1988 s 77 (UK)
  19. 19. False attribution? Passing off?
  20. 20. Fair use / dealing
  21. 21. Factors to consider • Transformativeness? • Amount and substantiality • Effect on market – Anime = big biz • Translation only + Amazon.co.jp • Fansubs better?
  22. 22. Fair Dealing Not likely an exception • Not criticism or review • Doesn't fit into other areas
  23. 23. “‘Rights which cannot be realised are worse than useless; they are traps of delay, expense and heartache” Karl N. Llewellyn, Bramble Bush: On our law and its study
  24. 24. Fansubs v. licensed Qualitative differences
  25. 25. Fansub ethics
  26. 26. Justifications • Promotional aspects • Fansub replacement • Try before you buy • Show never licensed outside of Jp • Digisubs too much
  27. 27. Ethics cont. • Stop once released in Japan • Stop once announced in N.A. – Avidly follow licensing deals • Compliance appears high in relation to other p2p areas
  28. 28. Anime industry approach
  29. 29. Anime v. MPAA/RIAA • Don’t seem to use notice and take down (DMCA) • Announce licenses – informal letters • No lawsuits • PR at cons
  30. 30. Industry benefits?
  31. 31. Potential fansub benefits • In the beginning… • Build non-English language fanbase • Build audience (similar to TV) • Identify shows to license – yaoi, yuri, and shojo
  32. 32. Final thoughts • Held captive? – Negative reaction from fans • But could step up enforcement in line with fansub ethics
  33. 33. Thanks! JS Hatcher jordan at opencontentlawyer dot com Paper available http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/AHRB/script-ed/vol2-4/hatcher.asp
  34. 34. Credits Kobe by Fari - CC-BY http://flickr.com/photos/colloidfarl/439513007/ Hayao Miyazaki drawing = Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Image:Hayao_miyazaki_drawing.jpg Wikipe-tan – CC-BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Image:Wikipe-tan_full_length.png Film Can – imageafter terms http://imageafter.com/image.php? image=b1filmcan001.jpg Bleach by Nora Sama – CC-BY-NC-SA http://flickr.com/photos/ noraphoto/370817366/ BLEACH by flaviapratti – CC-BY-NC-ND http://flickr.com/photos/ plinti/196636313/
  35. 35. "Behind the Great Wave at Kanagawa" – Public domain http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tsunami_by_hokusai_19th_century.jpg Astro Boy 1963 © Tezuka Productions http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Image:AstroBoy1963.jpg LaserDisc by spike55151 – CC-BY-NC-SA http://flickr.com/photos/ spike55151/400302321/ Commodore Amiga 500, 16-bit computer (1987) by Bill Bertram http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Amiga500_system.jpg VHS – freephoto1 terms of use http://www.freephoto1.com/vhs.php huggles huggles by ~fer-nanda-ssk CC-BY-NC-ND http:// www.deviantart.com/deviation/52980701/ Revelations © Panic Struck Productions http://www.panicstruckpro.com/ revelations/ Lessig @ http://lessig.org
  36. 36. Piratey – Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Piratey.jpg Wikipedia map of world – Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ Image:A_large_blank_world_map_with_oceans_marked_in_blue.svg Bleach Burichi © TV Tokyo & Studio Pierrot Trinity Blood Toriniti Buraddo © Sunao Yoshida, WTO logo - http://wto.orgWikipedia map of world – Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Image:A_large_blank_world_map_with_oceans_marked_in_blue.svg Auguste Rodin – Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Image:Netsurf11_-_Rodin.jpg Drop of Pink by code poet (REMIX by jordan) original @: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/74122471@N00/113973923/ Loveless © Yun Kouga Koga Yun)

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