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Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright

Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright



Presentation for BILETA 2007 on copyright and anime fansubs.

Presentation for BILETA 2007 on copyright and anime fansubs.



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    Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright Otaku and Fansubs: Anime and Copyright Presentation Transcript

    • Of otaku and fansubs A critical look at anime online in light of current issues in copyright law BILETA 2007 University of Hertfordshire 17 April 2007 JS Hatcher jordan at opencontentlawyer dot com
    • What is anime?
    • What is a fansub?
    • fan + subtitled = fansub
    • Fan community
    • “Sailor Moon is like a gateway drug” - Janet Varela, referring to her daughter’s new obsession with anime
    • fans = otaku some controversy
    • History
    • • Mid-80’s origin • Universities • Birth of anime distributors • Fansubs helped form the market 010101010111 • Digital copies 110010101010 000111010101 • Move to completely ‘digisubs’
    • Fansub production • Similarities to open source • Distributed work • Highly skilled
    • Between dojinshi and p2p
    • v.
    • v.
    • v.
    • Legal aspects
    • Article 9 Relation to the Berne Convention 1. Members shall comply with Articles 1 through 21 of the Berne Convention (1971) and the Appendix thereto. However, Members shall not have rights or obligations under this Agreement in respect of the rights conferred under Article 6bis of that Convention or of the rights derived therefrom.
    • Rights in national law Translation • adaptations (UK) – CDPA s. 21 (3)(a)(i). • derivative works (US) – 17 U.S.C. § 106 (2) Reproduction Distribution
    • Moral rights • Prevent false attribution – CDPA 1988 s 84 (UK) • Derogatory treatment – CDPA 1988 s 80 (UK) • Right to identification – CDPA 1988 s 77 (UK)
    • False attribution? Passing off?
    • Fair use / dealing
    • Factors to consider • Transformativeness? • Amount and substantiality • Effect on market – Anime = big biz • Translation only + Amazon.co.jp • Fansubs better?
    • Fair Dealing Not likely an exception • Not criticism or review • Doesn't fit into other areas
    • “‘Rights which cannot be realised are worse than useless; they are traps of delay, expense and heartache” Karl N. Llewellyn, Bramble Bush: On our law and its study
    • Fansubs v. licensed Qualitative differences
    • Fansub ethics
    • Justifications • Promotional aspects • Fansub replacement • Try before you buy • Show never licensed outside of Jp • Digisubs too much
    • Ethics cont. • Stop once released in Japan • Stop once announced in N.A. – Avidly follow licensing deals • Compliance appears high in relation to other p2p areas
    • Anime industry approach
    • Anime v. MPAA/RIAA • Don’t seem to use notice and take down (DMCA) • Announce licenses – informal letters • No lawsuits • PR at cons
    • Industry benefits?
    • Potential fansub benefits • In the beginning… • Build non-English language fanbase • Build audience (similar to TV) • Identify shows to license – yaoi, yuri, and shojo
    • Final thoughts • Held captive? – Negative reaction from fans • But could step up enforcement in line with fansub ethics
    • Thanks! JS Hatcher jordan at opencontentlawyer dot com Paper available http://www.law.ed.ac.uk/AHRB/script-ed/vol2-4/hatcher.asp
    • Credits Kobe by Fari - CC-BY http://flickr.com/photos/colloidfarl/439513007/ Hayao Miyazaki drawing = Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Image:Hayao_miyazaki_drawing.jpg Wikipe-tan – CC-BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Image:Wikipe-tan_full_length.png Film Can – imageafter terms http://imageafter.com/image.php? image=b1filmcan001.jpg Bleach by Nora Sama – CC-BY-NC-SA http://flickr.com/photos/ noraphoto/370817366/ BLEACH by flaviapratti – CC-BY-NC-ND http://flickr.com/photos/ plinti/196636313/
    • "Behind the Great Wave at Kanagawa" – Public domain http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Tsunami_by_hokusai_19th_century.jpg Astro Boy 1963 © Tezuka Productions http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Image:AstroBoy1963.jpg LaserDisc by spike55151 – CC-BY-NC-SA http://flickr.com/photos/ spike55151/400302321/ Commodore Amiga 500, 16-bit computer (1987) by Bill Bertram http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Amiga500_system.jpg VHS – freephoto1 terms of use http://www.freephoto1.com/vhs.php huggles huggles by ~fer-nanda-ssk CC-BY-NC-ND http:// www.deviantart.com/deviation/52980701/ Revelations © Panic Struck Productions http://www.panicstruckpro.com/ revelations/ Lessig @ http://lessig.org
    • Piratey – Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Piratey.jpg Wikipedia map of world – Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/ wiki/ Image:A_large_blank_world_map_with_oceans_marked_in_blue.svg Bleach Burichi © TV Tokyo & Studio Pierrot Trinity Blood Toriniti Buraddo © Sunao Yoshida, WTO logo - http://wto.orgWikipedia map of world – Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Image:A_large_blank_world_map_with_oceans_marked_in_blue.svg Auguste Rodin – Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ Image:Netsurf11_-_Rodin.jpg Drop of Pink by code poet (REMIX by jordan) original @: http:// www.flickr.com/photos/74122471@N00/113973923/ Loveless © Yun Kouga Koga Yun)