Open Data and the Law: ISWC 2009

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Presentation on open data and intellectual property law as part of a half day tutorial at the International Semantic Web Conference 2009.

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Open Data and the Law: ISWC 2009

  1. 1. Open Data & the law ISWC 2009 Jordan S. Hatcher, JD, LLM Co-founder, Open Data Commons Board of Directors, Open Knowledge Foundation Lawyer and strategy consultant in IP/IT Monday, 26 October 2009 1
  2. 2. Monday, 26 October 2009 2
  3. 3. Open Knowledge Foundation http://www.okfn.org Monday, 26 October 2009 3
  4. 4. We promote open knowledge Monday, 26 October 2009 4
  5. 5. http://www.okfn.org/projects Monday, 26 October 2009 5
  6. 6. Monday, 26 October 2009 6
  7. 7. Monday, 26 October 2009 7
  8. 8. Monday, 26 October 2009 8
  9. 9. Monday, 26 October 2009 9
  10. 10. Monday, 26 October 2009 10
  11. 11. Key points: 1. Legal rights can cover data & databases 2. Legal rights require legal solutions 3. Legal solutions for open data exist Monday, 26 October 2009 11
  12. 12. A few questions before we get started.... Monday, 26 October 2009 12
  13. 13. What do you mean by data? Monday, 26 October 2009 13
  14. 14. Have you ever used an open source license? Monday, 26 October 2009 14
  15. 15. Have you ever used a CC license? Monday, 26 October 2009 15
  16. 16. Key points: 1. Legal rights can cover data & databases 2. Legal rights require legal solutions 3. Legal solutions for open data exist Monday, 26 October 2009 16
  17. 17. •Why we care – (importance of data) •Basics of IP •How copyright applies to databases Monday, 26 October 2009 17
  18. 18. Search Monday, 26 October 2009 18
  19. 19. You’re low on Milk It’s already been ordered ...and I ordered skim this time Monday, 26 October 2009 19
  20. 20. Monday, 26 October 2009 20
  21. 21. Monday, 26 October 2009 21
  22. 22. Linked Data A2K Science Monday, 26 October 2009 22
  23. 23. More data allows cooler stuff Monday, 26 October 2009 23
  24. 24. (contract) IP and other rights Monday, 26 October 2009 24
  25. 25. trademarks ®™ Monday, 26 October 2009 25
  26. 26. trade secrets Monday, 26 October 2009 26
  27. 27. patent Monday, 26 October 2009 27
  28. 28. © Copyright 2009. All Rights Reserved. Monday, 26 October 2009 28
  29. 29. pipe smoking detective who likes to use reason Monday, 26 October 2009 29
  30. 30. Monday, 26 October 2009 30
  31. 31. Copyright: original works fixed in a tangible medium of expression Monday, 26 October 2009 31
  32. 32. original as not copied Monday, 26 October 2009 32
  33. 33. Monday, 26 October 2009 33
  34. 34. “It would be a dangerous undertaking for persons trained only to the law to constitute themselves final judges of the worth of pictorial illustrations…” Bleistein v Donaldson Lithographic, 188 U.S. 239, 251 (1903). Monday, 26 October 2009 34
  35. 35. facts as not original Monday, 26 October 2009 35
  36. 36. but some jurisdictions lean towards a “sweat of the brow” approach for originality i.e., they use copyright law to protect the effort that went into collecting those facts Monday, 26 October 2009 36
  37. 37. Monday, 26 October 2009 37
  38. 38. Monday, 26 October 2009 38
  39. 39. Monday, 26 October 2009 39
  40. 40. Copyright flows from the pen to the paper Monday, 26 October 2009 40
  41. 41. Copyright - exclusive rights granted • Reproduce the work (make copies); • Distribute the work to the public; • Rent or lend the work to the public; • Publicly perform the work; • Broadcast the work or include it in a cable television service; and • Adapt the work or to do any of the above with an adaptation of the work. Monday, 26 October 2009 41
  42. 42. No access without (permission culture) permission Monday, 26 October 2009 42
  43. 43. © = life + 70 Monday, 26 October 2009 43
  44. 44. Monday, 26 October 2009 44
  45. 45. 1. Notice not required 2. No registration required 3. No single international Copyright copyright system Mythbusting 4. Not absolute - there are exceptions (Fair use) 5. Noncommercial use isn’t a free pass Monday, 26 October 2009 45
  46. 46. 3 key points about © Monday, 26 October 2009 46
  47. 47. Films Performances Music letters to gran Web sites Sculpture Buildings databases Novels Photographs Plays Dance Computer Programs broadcasts Monday, 26 October 2009 47
  48. 48. Facts Monday, 26 October 2009 48
  49. 49. No access without (permission culture) permission Monday, 26 October 2009 49
  50. 50. Licensing giving permission Monday, 26 October 2009 50
  51. 51. 1. Covers a lot of stuff 2. Doesn’t cover facts, but Copyright collections of facts gets key points tricky 3. Licensing is how you get permission Monday, 26 October 2009 51
  52. 52. Crash course in IP and DB’s Monday, 26 October 2009 52
  53. 53. Privacy vs Property Monday, 26 October 2009 53
  54. 54. (contract) IP and Monday, 26 October 2009 54
  55. 55. database: a collection of material arranged in a systematic or methodical way and individually accessible by electronic or other means Monday, 26 October 2009 55
  56. 56. Monday, 26 October 2009 56
  57. 57. Monday, 26 October 2009 57
  58. 58. Monday, 26 October 2009 58
  59. 59. Monday, 26 October 2009 59
  60. 60. Monday, 26 October 2009 60
  61. 61. 1. Content inside the © database 2. Database itself 3. Database software Monday, 26 October 2009 61
  62. 62. Database Rights Monday, 26 October 2009 62
  63. 63. 1. EU Directive (and EU only) Database Rights 2. Automatic protection 3. Overlap w/ © Monday, 26 October 2009 63
  64. 64. Monday, 26 October 2009 64
  65. 65. Monday, 26 October 2009 65
  66. 66. 1. Content inside the Database database Rights 2. Database itself Monday, 26 October 2009 66
  67. 67. contract Monday, 26 October 2009 67
  68. 68. contract Monday, 26 October 2009 68
  69. 69. Other IP rights Monday, 26 October 2009 69
  70. 70. Monday, 26 October 2009 70
  71. 71. TPMs – legal protection for digital locks on ©ontent Trademarks – like any other product Trade secret – like any other company information Monday, 26 October 2009 71
  72. 72. Key points: 1. Legal rights can cover data & databases (& why we care) 2. Legal rights require legal solutions 3. Legal solutions for open data exist Monday, 26 October 2009 72
  73. 73. Key points: 1. Legal rights can cover data & databases (& why we care) 2. Legal rights require legal solutions 3. Legal solutions for open data exist Monday, 26 October 2009 73
  74. 74. Importance of data + Legal rights over data = Need for a legal solution Monday, 26 October 2009 74
  75. 75. • automatic © • worldwide • covers databases • life+70 • no notice required Monday, 26 October 2009 75
  76. 76. No access without (permission culture) permission Monday, 26 October 2009 76
  77. 77. Monday, 26 October 2009 77
  78. 78. Monday, 26 October 2009 78
  79. 79. Monday, 26 October 2009 79
  80. 80. Options 1. Ask for a licence. 2. Use under an exception (fair use or fair dealing). 3. Infringe 4. Use something else Monday, 26 October 2009 80
  81. 81. Options 1. Ask for a licence. 2. Use under an exception (fair dealing such as criticism or private study). 3. Infringe 4. Use something else Monday, 26 October 2009 81
  82. 82. Monday, 26 October 2009 82
  83. 83. 1.What is “open”? 2.What is open data? Baseline 3.What is Share-Alike? 4.What is open licensing Monday, 26 October 2009 83
  84. 84. Open Defined opendefinition.org Monday, 26 October 2009 84
  85. 85. • Use • Reuse “open” • Redistribute • Attribution & Share Alike okay http://www.opendefinition.org/buttons Monday, 26 October 2009 85
  86. 86. Open data is the application of many the same principles and philosophies as free and open source software and open content projects such as Creative Commons to data and databases. Monday, 26 October 2009 86
  87. 87. Monday, 26 October 2009 87
  88. 88. Monday, 26 October 2009 88
  89. 89. Share Alike Monday, 26 October 2009 89
  90. 90. Monday, 26 October 2009 90
  91. 91. Monday, 26 October 2009 91
  92. 92. Monday, 26 October 2009 92
  93. 93. Monday, 26 October 2009 93
  94. 94. CC Licence Elements • Attribution (BY): The work is made available to the public with the baseline rights, but only if the author receives proper credit. • NonCommercial (NC): The work can be copied, displayed and distributed by the public, but only if these actions are for non- commercial purposes. • No Derivative works (ND): This licence grants baseline rights, but it does not allow derivative works to be created from the original. • Share-Alike (SA): Derivative works can be created and distributed based on the original, but only if the same type of licence is used – reciprocal licensing. Monday, 26 October 2009 94
  95. 95. Six CC licences • Attribution (BY) • Attribution | No Derivatives (BY-ND) • Attribution | Non-Commercial | No Derivatives (BY-NC-ND) • Attribution | Non-Commercial (BY-NC) • Attribution | Non-Commercial | Share Alike (BY-NC-SA) • Attribution | Share Alike (BY-SA) Monday, 26 October 2009 95
  96. 96. Six CC licences • Attribution (BY) • Attribution | No Derivatives (BY-ND) • Attribution | Non-Commercial | No Derivatives (BY-NC-ND) • Attribution | Non-Commercial (BY-NC) • Attribution | Non-Commercial | Share Alike (BY-NC-SA) • Attribution | Share Alike (BY-SA) Monday, 26 October 2009 96
  97. 97. Open licensing How you use it... Monday, 26 October 2009 97
  98. 98. Consumer of content Finding stuff (software, content, databases) Monday, 26 October 2009 98
  99. 99. • making your IP management easier • lowering your risks Monday, 26 October 2009 99
  100. 100. Producer of content Releasing your stuff Monday, 26 October 2009 100
  101. 101. data (and remix) Pirates or partners? You decide... Monday, 26 October 2009 101
  102. 102. Approaches to p2p • No rights reserved - Public domain • Some rights reserved - open licensing • All rights reserved - Soft enforcement • All rights reserved - Heavy enforcement (and remix) Monday, 26 October 2009 102
  103. 103. Key points: 1. Legal rights can cover data & databases (& why we care) 2. Legal rights require legal solutions 3. Legal solutions for open data exist Monday, 26 October 2009 103
  104. 104. • open data commons origins • how the open data commons tools work Monday, 26 October 2009 104
  105. 105. OpenDataCommons - origins Monday, 26 October 2009 105
  106. 106. Talis http://www.talis.com/ Monday, 26 October 2009 106
  107. 107. Importance of data + Legal rights over data = Need for a legal solution Monday, 26 October 2009 107
  108. 108. OpenDataCommons.org Legal tools for Open Data 2007 → Talis → Open Knowledge Foundation Monday, 26 October 2009 108
  109. 109. Why start a licensing project? Monday, 26 October 2009 109
  110. 110. Monday, 26 October 2009 110
  111. 111. ? Software Content Data Monday, 26 October 2009 111
  112. 112. Open Data Diffusion of Innovations / Technology Adoption Curve Monday, 26 October 2009 112
  113. 113. GPL, FSF, OSI, BSD... = software Creative Commons... = content Data is different from software and content both legally and in what you do with it Monday, 26 October 2009 113
  114. 114. • No Public Domain tool for Open databases existed Data • Demand for a share alike Commons database license & CC seen as poor fit Monday, 26 October 2009 114
  115. 115. Why CC-BY-SA is a poor fit. Monday, 26 October 2009 115
  116. 116. CC-BY-SA (2.0 Generic/US) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/legalcode Monday, 26 October 2009 116
  117. 117. • Not all relevant rights licensed Legal • Not consistent b/w international licenses Monday, 26 October 2009 117
  118. 118. • Attribution trigger broad and unclear • Share Alike unclear when Practical combining with other work (collective works) • Doesn’t address SaaS Monday, 26 October 2009 118
  119. 119. “Creative Commons does not recommend using Creative Commons licenses for informational databases” Source: http://sciencecommons.org/resources/faq/databases Monday, 26 October 2009 119
  120. 120. Open Data Commons: Legal tools Monday, 26 October 2009 120
  121. 121. Open Data Commons Legal tools: • Public Domain Dedication and License (PDDL) • Open Database License (ODbL) • Database Contents License (DbCL) Monday, 26 October 2009 121
  122. 122. Who is using and proposing to use Open Data Commons tools... Monday, 26 October 2009 122
  123. 123. Common approach to ODC tools Monday, 26 October 2009 123
  124. 124. Worldwide application Monday, 26 October 2009 124
  125. 125. The party of the first part ("you") agree with the party of the second part ("the presenter") that by hereby reading this terms conditions warranties disclaimer and waiver of liability that you disclaim any and all liability for anything whatsoever from now to the end of eternity in this universe or any parallel dimension or universe whether or not accessible via a wormhole by using a sun's gravitational pull on the part of the presenter and furthermore agree forthwith not to throw tomatoes or any other object (paper money excluded) at the presenter throughout the entirety of any Human readable license and all presentations now known or hereafter created and that this presentation creates no licence, permission, contract, property rights, or claim in any court (temporal or spiritual) for you to actually view, watch, read, or otherwise mentally digest its contents though you are invited to do so only on the above-referenced terms and that if you have been sent this presentation by mistake you must destroy, delete, or demolish the file for to not do so would cause disaster and/or chaos on the part of the party of the second part. Monday, 26 October 2009 125
  126. 126. Open Database License (ODbL) Monday, 26 October 2009 126
  127. 127. ODbL = <http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/> Monday, 26 October 2009 127
  128. 128. (contract) (contract) ODbL trifecta Monday, 26 October 2009 128
  129. 129. Monday, 26 October 2009 129
  130. 130. Monday, 26 October 2009 130
  131. 131. Monday, 26 October 2009 131
  132. 132. 1. Database (ODbL) Elements 2. Contents 3. “Produced Work” (ODbL) Monday, 26 October 2009 132
  133. 133. Database Contents License (DbCL) Monday, 26 October 2009 133
  134. 134. Contents (the “data”) can be anything: facts, ages, dates, sonnets, images, text observation notes, IP addresses, postal addresses haiku, tweets, telephone numbers, income level, NI number survey responses, music lyrics, film cast listings, patent numbers, filing dates, marital status, racial information, education level and on and on and on... Monday, 26 October 2009 134
  135. 135. Contents of the database will be in a spectrum: Some will clearly have © Some will arguably have © Some will not have © (particularly facts) (many databases of factual information will still contain © contents) Monday, 26 October 2009 135
  136. 136. Monday, 26 October 2009 136
  137. 137. 1. Database – ODbL Elements 2. Contents – DbCL 3. “Produced Work” – ODbL +DbCL Monday, 26 October 2009 137
  138. 138. Monday, 26 October 2009 138
  139. 139. Public Domain Dedication & License (PDDL) Monday, 26 October 2009 139
  140. 140. Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data http://sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/open-access-data-protocol/ Monday, 26 October 2009 140
  141. 141. 3.1 The protocol must promote legal predictability and certainty. 3.2 The protocol must be easy to use and understand. 3.3 The protocol must impose the lowest possible transaction costs on users. Monday, 26 October 2009 141
  142. 142. PDDL http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/1.0/ Monday, 26 October 2009 142
  143. 143. Monday, 26 October 2009 143
  144. 144. PDDL + Community Norms PDDL http://www.opendatacommons.org/norms/ Monday, 26 October 2009 144
  145. 145. Monday, 26 October 2009 145
  146. 146. Monday, 26 October 2009 146
  147. 147. <http://www.legalbluebook.com> Monday, 26 October 2009 147
  148. 148. Key points: 1. Legal rights can cover data & databases (& why we care) 2. Legal rights require legal solutions 3. Legal solutions for open data exist Monday, 26 October 2009 148
  149. 149. Closing thoughts Monday, 26 October 2009 149
  150. 150. Monday, 26 October 2009 150
  151. 151. Identify the risks What are the risks for your activities? ____________________________________ • Risk Avoidance – Pick what you do. • Risk Reduction – Find ways to reduce the liability on what you do. • Risk Acceptance – Define your level of acceptable risk and go ahead. • Risk Transfer – Share the risks – Insurance for example. Monday, 26 October 2009 151
  152. 152. OpenDataCommons Protocol for implementing open access data ODbL PDDL Monday, 26 October 2009 152
  153. 153. Collecting data is hard... Monday, 26 October 2009 153
  154. 154. Monday, 26 October 2009 154
  155. 155. Thank you to Talis, OSM community, ODC-discuss list, commenters, Science Commons, & OKFN for feedback and support! Monday, 26 October 2009 155
  156. 156. How you can help: • Volunteer to help bring open data to your community as a Community Contact. • Support the OKFN. • Join the OKF discuss list. • Feedback. Have an idea how we can help or what we should be doing? Let us know. Monday, 26 October 2009 156
  157. 157. Thanks! www.OpenDataCommons.org www.okfn.org/support Jordan S. Hatcher e: webcontact ]AT[ opencontentlawyer D O T com w: www.jordanhatcher.com All original and CC-BY-SA derivative works licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 UK: Scotland Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/scotland/ Monday, 26 October 2009 157
  158. 158. Questions? Monday, 26 October 2009 158
  159. 159. Richard Stallman (public domain) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_-_Denmark_DTU_2007-3-31.jpg Larry Lessig – Lessig portrait by Notwist CC-BY 2.0 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lessig_portrait.jpg Crop of Lawrence Lessig freesouls hero.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lawrence_Lessig_freesouls_hero.jpg Unlocked "open access" symbol" from PLOS http://www.plos.org/ CC-BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg Spacelab, Laboratory Module by cliff1066 CC-BY 2.0 http://www.flickr.com/photos/nostri-imago/2911393890/ The original Tux, the official Linux mascot created by Larry Ewing in 1996: Permission to use and/or modify this image is granted provided you acknowledge lewing@isc.tamu.edu and The GIMP if someone asks. two hats talking to each other by sleepyneko CC-BY-SA http://flickr.com/photos/ejchang/558997184/ Copyleft symbol Public domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Copyleft.svg Edinburgh Map Map data CC-BY-SA Open Street Map and contributors Desert Moon Rising by Josh Sommers CC-BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/joshsommers/935470210/ OpenStreetMap - Coastlines by PeterIto CC-BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/peterito/3120509512/ 097/365: Sunken Treasures by dotbenjamin CC-BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/dotbenjamin/2862947932/ Europe by Albertane CC-BY-SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/albertane/120077777/ Monday, 26 October 2009 159
  160. 160. Long tail.svg (Public Domain) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Long_tail.svg Picture by Hay Kranen http://www.haykranen.com/ Keys 1 CC-BY by ~Brenda Starr~ http://www.flickr.com/photos/brenda-starr/3466560105/ old refrigerator CC-BY by G & A Sattler http://www.flickr.com/photos/9512074@N02/2149128060/ Earth from the International Space Station Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." <http:// eol.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/sseop/photo.pl?mission=ISS007&roll=E&frame=7304> Catalogue cards CC-BY by by Deborah Fitchett http://www.flickr.com/photos/deborahfitchett/2970373235/ Linked Data diagram CC-BY-SA http://esw.w3.org/topic/SweoIG/TaskForces/CommunityProjects/LinkingOpenData#dbpedia-lod-cloud IMGP0809 CC-BY by mikefats http://www.flickr.com/photos/mikefats/11545170/ (shelf of products) Safe lock CC-BY by Marcin Wichary http://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/2647981973/ Lume (lightbulb) CC-BY by johnmarchan http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnmarchan/3877166306/ Monday, 26 October 2009 160
  161. 161. Lightbulb CC-BY by James Bowe http://www.flickr.com/photos/jamesrbowe/3338776771/ (lightbulb big) Sherlock Holmes Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SherlockHolmes.jpg dan mixtape CC-BY-SA by jm3 http://www.flickr.com/photos/jm3/355212032/ Lake Havasu City Phonebook CC-BY by .Larry Page http://www.flickr.com/photos/igboo/3235239775/ Sponsored by Amdocs - Yellow print directory CC-BY-SA by by avlxyz http://www.flickr.com/photos/avlxyz/3082373502/ Walt Disney's grave, Forest Lawn, Glendale, Los Angeles, CA.JPG CC-BY-SA by gruntzooki (cory doctorow) http://www.flickr.com/photos/doctorow/1149004046/ "You're Going to Need a Hard Hat to Live There" CC-BY-SA by Rob Shenk http://www.flickr.com/photos/rcsj/3194835693/ Handshake CC-BY-SA by Aidan Jones http://www.flickr.com/photos/aidan_jones/3575000735/ (hand drawing) PlaGiaRisM by Digirebelle® CC-BY http://www.flickr.com/photos/ad4evr/2128607/ Monday, 26 October 2009 161
  162. 162. Question mark and arrow CC-BY laurkgibbs http://www.flickr.com/photos/38299630@N05/3635356091/ Court Gavel CC-BY-SA by Jonathunder http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Jonathunder http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CourtGavel.JPG The Elect. Not the elected. CC-BY-SA by Steve Punter http://www.flickr.com/photos/spunter/2907555506/ Bibilios.net screenshot See https://biblios.net/ An empty tin can.by Sun Ladder, CC-BY-SA http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Empty_tin_can2009-01-19.jpg Ground Crew: KellyK CC-BY-SA (cropped) http://www.flickr.com/photos/elasticsoul/162457691/ Don’t Panic Badge - CC-BY by JL2003 and at http://www.flickr.com/photos/brighton/2153602543/ (button from 1984 computer game version of Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy No Unauthorised Access sign Health and Safety Executive (UK) http://www.hse.gov.uk/workplacetransport/images/prohibition-unauth-2.gif The Bluebook cover - The Bluebook is © The Columbia Law Review Association Inc., The Harvard Law Review Association, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, The Yale Law Journal Company, Inc, Source: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Bluebook_18th_ed_Cover.gif> All other trademarks are copyright / trademark their respective owners. Some works may appear here under exceptions or exclusions to copyright and trademark law such as fair use / fair dealing and are not covered by the CC license over this work and these exclusions or exceptions may not apply to you. Monday, 26 October 2009 162
  163. 163. Thanks! www.OpenDataCommons.org www.okfn.org/support Jordan S. Hatcher e: webcontact ]AT[ opencontentlawyer D O T com w: www.jordanhatcher.com All original and CC-BY-SA derivative works licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 UK: Scotland Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/scotland/ Monday, 26 October 2009 163
  164. 164. Questions? Monday, 26 October 2009 164

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