Prehospital Trauma Life Support PHTLS Refresher Program
Reaffirm knowledge of prehospital trauma care
Introduce recent changes in trauma care as it affects the prehospital patient
Demonstrate proficiency at performing skills necessary in the care of critically injured patients
Prehospital Trauma Life Support Managing the Multisystem Trauma Patient Part I
Discuss the laws of energy and motion
Discuss trauma associated with blunt impact and penetrating injury
Overview of the effects of energy distribution in MVCs
Review the kinematics of blast and violent injuries
Use kinematics to predict injury patterns
Predicting Injury In a 50 mph (80 km/h) MVC, what types of injuries would occur if the patient were to strike the windshield?
What type of injury patterns might you see in a frontal impact? Frontal Impact
What types of injuries would you expect? Rear Impact
What types of injuries would you expect? Lateral Impact
What types of injuries would you expect? Rotational Impact
What injury patterns might you see following this crash? Rollover
What types of explosions may occur in your area?
Three injury patterns
Cause: pressure/heat wave
What types of injuries would you expect?
Primary Blast Injuries
Cause: flying debris
What types of injuries would you expect?
Secondary Blast Injuries
Cause: victim thrown
against an object
Area of impact or
What types of injuries would you expect?
Tertiary Blast Injuries
Multiple wounds from a single weapon
Cone of injury
A knife, ice pick, and scissors are common weapons. Injuries are usually limited to depth and area of penetration
Stab Wounds Would a longer knife have a larger cone of injury?
Stab Wounds: Key Issues
Type of weapon
Number of wounds
Depth of penetration
Anatomic structures along potential path
Gunshot Wounds How do the injuries differ when created by medium- or high-velocity weapons?
Projectiles: Key Issues
To what is cavitation related? Gunshot Wounds: Cavitation
Entrance and exit wounds Gunshot Wounds
The ultimate in fragmentation is created by shotgun wounds Shotgun Wounds
Scene safety is the top priority!
Anatomic structures along potential path
Crime scene preservation
Patient care takes precedence
Considerations for Penetrating Trauma
Discuss the importance of scene assessment
Identify components of the primary survey
Differentiate between critical and noncritical patients
Defend the need for early transport of critical patients
Describe when to perform a secondary survey
It’s mid-January and you have been dispatched to a multivehicle crash on the interstate. Initial reports indicate there are multiple patients and a fuel tanker is involved. When does your scene assessment begin? Scenario
What are the components of scene assessment?
Ensure safety of rescuers and patients
Threatening situations may include:
Blood and body fluids
Can you think of any other hazards?
What really happened?
What are the kinematics?
How many patients involved? Ages?
Additional resources needed?
How will patients be transported?
Your patient is the 32-year-old female unrestrained driver who is found slumped over in the vehicle. She has no obvious external hemorrhage, is breathing rapidly, and is mumbling inappropriate words.
What do these findings suggest?
How should you assess this patient?
“ Treat as you go”
Definitive care in the field
Glasgow Coma Scale
“ Open your eyes”
Nailbed pressure or axillary tissue squeeze
“ What happened to you?”
Add “T” to score if intubated
“ Hold up two fingers”
Nailbed pressure or axillary tissue squeeze
Glasgow Coma Scale Eye Opening Spontaneous 4 To Voice 3 To Pain 2 None 1 Verbal Response Oriented 5 Confused 4 Inappropriate Words 3 Incomprehensible Words 2 None 1 Motor Response Obeys Command 6 Localizes Pain 5 Withdraws (pain) 4 Flexion (pain) 3 Extension (pain) 2 None 1
Expose patient as environment allows to assess for other life-threatening conditions; then preserve/maintain body heat
Life-threatening conditions missed because of failure to adequately expose the patient
Failing to preserve body heat and to consider environmental conditions
Decision Making Trauma-related incident Scene assessment Primary survey Life -threatening or multisystem injuries No Yes Initiate rapid transport Reassess Secondary survey Secondary survey Reassess Manage injuries as appropriate Initiate transport
A 16-year-old loses control of his bicycle on gravel. Your patient is found on the side of the road holding his right wrist. Multiple abrasions are noted on his face and upper extremities. The scene is safe. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Normal; BS clear C: Minor bleeding from chin laceration; radial pulse normal; skin warm, pink, and dry D: GCS score 15 E: Deformity noted to right wrist How do you proceed?
Performing a secondary survey on a critical patient prior to initiating resuscitation
Failing to complete a secondary survey on a noncritical patient
Systematic and Complete
What do we look for?
What do we listen for?
What do we feel for?
Definitive Care in the Field
Spinal immobilization if indicated
Splint musculoskeletal injuries
Closest appropriate facility
In general, bypass closest facility to reach trauma center
Receiving facilities should be determined by local protocol
Trauma Center Candidates
Triage to trauma centers determined by:
Mechanism of injury
Follow local protocol
Consider analgesia for:
Isolated extremity injury
Titrate in small increments IV
Beware of ventilatory depression and vasodilation (hypotension)
You are dispatched to a motorcycle and vehicle collision. Bystanders report that the motorcycle was traveling at about 40 mph (65 km/h) when a car pulled in front of the motorcycle. You find the patient lying on the pavement 30 ft (9 m) away from the crash. His helmet is heavily damaged and has been removed by a bystander. Scenario
Blood is seen in the upper airway
Ventilations are rapid and labored
Patient is cyanotic
Is this airway compromised?
You arrive on the scene of a single vehicle MVC. Your patient is a 25-year-old female who is trapped upright in the driver’s seat. Her VR is 36 and she is cyanotic. Gurgling sounds do not improve with suctioning or manual maneuvers. The fire department estimates that it will be 10 minutes before she is extricated. How would you manage her airway at this point? Scenario
Oral endotracheal intubation can be accomplished by using nontraditional methods
Your patient is a 35-year-old construction worker who fell 25 ft (7.6 m) and landed on his head. His GCS score is 3. He is apneic and is being ventilated with a BVM. Three attempts at orotracheal intubation are unsuccessful. What are the airway management options at this point? Scenario
Alternative Airway Procedures
Laryngeal mask airway (LMA)
Percutaneous transtracheal ventilation (PTV)
At a college baseball game a 22-year-old third baseman is struck in the head by a line drive. Upon your arrival his GCS score is 7 (E-1, V-1, M-5). His teeth are clenched and he is vomiting. How would you manage his airway? Scenario
Describe the pathophysiology of shock
Identify the types of shock
Differentiate between signs of compensated and decompensated shock
Discuss the role of hemorrhage control, hypothermia, PASG, and volume resuscitation in shock management
Shock “ The patient is in shock! ” What does this term mean?
Staged Death Hypoperfusion Cellular hypoxia Anaerobic metabolism Cell death Organ failure Patient death
What conditions can interfere with each component of the Fick principle? Alveolus Capillaries Red blood cells Capillaries Kidney O 2 O 2
Your patient is a 30-year-old woman who lost control of her vehicle, which then struck a light pole. The patient was unrestrained. There is significant damage to the vehicle. You find the patient slumped over in the driver’s seat. You see that the steering wheel is bent. The scene is safe. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Fast; BS clear C: No external hemorrhage; weak and rapid radial pulse; cool and diaphoretic skin D: GCS score 14 (E-4, V-4, M-6); anxious E: Bruising across abdomen and right thigh deformity Vitals: VR, 24; pulse, 118; BP, 112/82 Is this patient in shock? Why?
What is the most likely cause of the patient’s shock? Why is the patient’s BP normal? Primary Survey
Estimated Blood Loss Approximate internal Bone blood loss (mL) Rib 125 Radius or ulna 250–500 Humerus 500–750 Tibia or fibula 500–1000 Femur 1000–2000 Pelvis 1000–massive
Your patient is a 27-year-old male who was working in a grain silo. His left leg became entrapped in an auger. After a 45-minute extrication process, the fire department manages to release his mangled leg. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Marked tachypnea C: Moderate hemorrhage from extensive soft tissue injury to lower left leg; no radial pulse; very fast, weak carotid pulse; pale, cool, diaphoretic skin D: GCS score 12 (E-3, V-3, M-6) Vitals: VR, 38; pulse, 140; BP, 74/50 What stage of shock is the patient in?
A 27-year-old male dock worker was pinned between a fork lift and a loading dock. Upon your arrival, the patient is lying supine on the ground complaining of severe lower abdominal pain. The ambient temperature is 35° F (1° C). You are 25 minutes from the trauma center. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: VR fast C: No external hemorrhage; rapid and weak radial pulse; pale, cool, moist skin D: GCS score 15 E: Significant pain on palpation of lower abdomen and pelvis What are the principles of shock management?
Suspected pelvic fractures with
SBP less than 90 mm Hg
Suspected intraperitoneal hemorrhage with
SBP less than 90 mm Hg
Suspected retroperitoneal hemorrhage with
SBP less than 90 mm Hg
SBP less than 60 mm Hg
What are contraindications for PASG?
Preferably two large-bore peripheral IVs
Warmed fluid if possible (102° F/39 ° C)
Adults: 1 to 2 L
Pediatric: 20 mL/kg
Delaying transport of critical patients to initiate IVs on scene
Prehospital Trauma Life Support Managing the Multisystem Trauma Patient Part II
Review the anatomy of the chest
Discuss the mechanics of breathing
Detail the assessment process
Cover the management of:
Flail chest injury
Pneumothorax (open and tension)
Blunt cardiac injury
Responding to a call at a police station, you encounter a 19-year-old male complaining of chest pain and dyspnea. You learn that your patient was kicked in the chest during a fight. What injuries could occur with this mechanism? Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Left chest pain during inspiration; BS equal, VR fast C: No external bleeding, normal pulse rate D: GCS score 15 What injuries can you rule out? How should this patient be managed?
Your patient sustained a close-range shotgun blast to the abdomen. A segment of bowel is eviscerated. How are eviscerations managed? Scenario
A 24-year-old female fell down a flight of stairs. She is 36 weeks pregnant. She is complaining of severe back pain. What physiologic changes occur during pregnancy? What are the common causes of injury in the pregnant patient? Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Normal C: Pulse rapid; skin warm and dry D: Anxious E: No obvious injury noted Vitals: pulse, 114; VR, 20; BP, 92/56 Are these findings due to trauma or pregnancy?
After immobilization to a long backboard, reassessment shows her radial pulse to be 140 and weak. Her BP is 80/60. What could explain these findings? How would you manage this patient? Scenario
Define primary and secondary brain injury
Discuss how assessment findings suggest traumatic brain injury
Discuss management for suspected traumatic brain injury
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
Commonly occurs in young adults
Major contributing cause of trauma deaths
Many survivors have permanent disability
Anatomy Skull Periosteum Dura mater } One functional layer Arachnoid membrane Pia mater (directly attached to brain surface and not removable Vessels in subarachnoid space Epidural space Subdural space Subarachnoid space
Primary brain injury
Secondary brain injury
Can you name some examples of systemic and intracranial causes?
Your patient is a 12-year-old Little League baseball player who was struck in the head by a line drive. How could TBI affect:
Primary Survey Bystanders report a 5-minute loss of consciousness. The child is now awake and complaining of a headache and has vomited once. A: Intact B: Normal C: Normal D: GCS score 14 (E-4, V-4, M-6), PERL What is a concussion?
You are called to a local bar where a 22-year-old male has been in a fight. Bystanders state that your patient was beaten with a pool cue. The scene is safe. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Snoring noises B: VR slow and shallow; BS equal C: No external hemorrhage, radial pulse fast D: GCS score 6 (E-1, V-1, M-4); pupils R>L, sluggish E: Multiple hematomas on scalp and face Vitals: VR, 8; pulse, 110; BP, 150/90 What injuries do these findings suggest?
You are called to the scene of a rollover MVC where a 16-year-old female was ejected from the vehicle. You see the patient lying supine on the ground. Her breathing is noisy and rapid. She has a large scalp laceration. You identify no hazards. Scenario
What life-threatening conditions do you identify? What could be causing her shock? Primary Survey
Management Goals for the TBI patient include preventing and reversing causes of secondary brain injury
Identify life-threatening conditions associated with spinal trauma
Recognize the indications for spinal immobilization
Discuss the principles of spinal immobilization
Describe use of rapid extrication
As many as 15,000 to 20,000 spinal injuries occur annually
The most common age is 16 to 35 years old
You are called to a public pool for a 16-year-old male who sustained an injury while diving. Upon your arrival he has been removed from the pool. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Rapid and shallow C: Slow heart rate; weak radial pulse; warm extremities D: GCS score 15, loss of motor and sensory function in extremities E: No other obvious injuries What is the life-threatening problem?
Nipple line = T4
Umbilical line = T10
How would you manage this patient? Scenario
A 28-year-old male has been shot in the neck by his girlfriend. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Fast; BS equal C: Copious external hemorrhage from neck wound, radial pulse fast and weak D: GCS score 15; no neurological deficits in extremities E: Expanding hematoma to left side of neck When is spinal immobilization indicated for penetrating trauma?
Unstable spinal fractures from penetrating trauma are extremely rare
Life-threatening conditions take priority
Penetrating Trauma Neurological deficit/complaint? No Yes IMMOBILIZE IMMOBILIZATION NOT INDICATED Rapid transport Rapid transport
You are called to a nightclub where a 35-year-old female has fallen down a flight of stairs. Your patient denies neck and back pain but complains of severe left ankle pain. You smell alcohol on her breath. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Normal; BS clear C: Minor bleeding from small scalp laceration; normal radial pulse D: Slurred speech; GCS score 15 E: Grossly deformed left ankle When is spinal immobilization indicated for blunt trauma?
Blunt Trauma Altered level of consciousness (GCS less than 15) No Yes IMMOBILIZE Rapid transport Spinal pain or tenderness? or Neurological deficit or complaint? or Anatomic deformity of spine? No Yes IMMOBILIZE Rapid transport Concerning mechanism of injury?
Concerning Mechanism of Injury
Violent impact to the head, neck, torso, or pelvis
Sudden acceleration, deceleration, or lateral bending forces to neck or torso
Ejection or fall from any motorized or human-powered transport device
Shallow-water diving incident
Any injury that may have the potential to impair the patient’s ability to appreciate other injuries
Long bone fracture
Suspected visceral injury
Large laceration, degloving, or crush injury
Any other injury that produces acute functional impairment
Inability to Communicate
Speech or hearing impaired
Speaks foreign language
Presence of: Evidence of alcohol/drugs or Distracting injury or Inability to communicate When in doubt, immobilize! Concerning Mechanism of Injury No Yes IMMOBILIZE IMMOBILIZATION NOT INDICATED Rapid transport Transport No Yes IMMOBILIZATION NOT INDICATED Transport
You are called to the scene of a multivehicle crash on a highway. After your patient’s vehicle was rear-ended, it was propelled into the vehicle in front of it. The vehicle has moderate damage. The driver was unrestrained and the windshield is spider-webbed. On the basis of kinematics, why should spinal injury be suspected? Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Normal; BS clear C: Normal radial pulse D: GCS score 15 E: Abrasion on forehead What are the indications for rapid extrication?
The patient is complaining of neck pain. What role does a cervical collar play in spinal immobilization? How is spinal immobilization performed? Primary Survey
Prehospital Trauma Life Support Managing the Multisystem Trauma Patient Part III
Discuss the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal trauma
Discuss the management of musculoskeletal trauma in isolated trauma and multisystem trauma
You are called to the scene where an intoxicated male has stumbled and put his hand through a window. On your arrival you see a large amount of blood and broken glass by the front door. The police direct you to a 40-year-old male sitting in a chair, bleeding heavily from the upper arm. On examination you see a laceration to the antecubital fossa with copious, bright-red bleeding. Scenario
What, if any, life-threatening injuries are present? What are some examples of life-threatening musculoskeletal injuries? What ways exist to control the bleeding? Does this injury require rapid packaging and transport? Scenario
A 28-year-old female fell while skiing. Ski patrol has brought her to the lodge. She complains of severe right thigh pain. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Normal C: No external hemorrhage; normal pulse rate; skin warm and dry D: GCS score 15 What are your conclusions based on these findings?
Secondary Survey You find a swollen angulated right thigh. How much blood could a patient lose from this type of injury? Is this enough to cause shock? How would you manage this injury?
Your patient is a 45-year-old male pedestrian who was struck by an SUV. He smells of alcohol. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: VR rapid and shallow; clear BS C: Blood oozing from multiple soft tissue injuries; weak and rapid radial pulse D: GCS score 13 (E-3, V-4, M-5) When you gently stress his pelvis, crepitus is noted and the patient screams in pain.
What are your conclusions based on the primary survey? What are your management priorities for this patient? Primary Survey
A 22-year-old male crashed while riding a mountain bike. Because of the remote location, you reach the patient about 1½ hours after the injury occurred.
B: VR slightly increased
C: No external hemorrhage; rapid and weak radial pulse
D: GCS score 15
E: Deformities noted to left upper arm and to both lower legs
Scenario & Primary Survey
Secondary Survey VR, 24; pulse, 122; BP, 104/72 There is no abdominal or pelvic tenderness. How do you explain these findings?
Table of Estimated Blood Loss Approximate internal Bone blood loss (mL) Rib 125 Radius or ulna 250–500 Humerus 500–750 Tibia or fibula 500–1000 Femur 1000–2000 Pelvis 1000–massive
A 70-year-old woman slipped on some ice and fallen down a staircase. On your arrival she is complaining of pain in her left wrist and left ankle. On examination, deformities are found in both extremities. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: VR slightly fast C: Moderate hemorrhage from oozing and open ankle; irregular pulse D: GCS score 15 VR, 22; pulse, 105; BP, 110/70 Complains of pain at fracture sites
Are life-threatening injuries present? How are you going to manage this patient? Primary Survey
Identify, manage, and differentiate critical and noncritical burns
Identify how chemical and electrical burns differ from thermal burns
Discuss assessment and care of CO inhalation
Address the priorities for assessing and managing heat-related injuries
Discuss the priorities for assessing and managing cold-related injuries
You are called to care for a patient who has been burned while fueling his lawn mower. As you approach, you see a 65-year-old male with burns to his right arm and anterior chest. The fire is now extinguished. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Patent B: Normal; clear BS C: No external bleeding; normal pulse rate DL GCS score 15 E: Bright-red skin with blisters on chest and entire right arm What are the key issues in assessing thermal burns?
Rule of Nines What percent of BSA is burned? 9% 18% 9% 9% 18% 18% 18% 1% 18% 18% 9% 9% 18% 1% 13.5% 13.5%
What are other factors in assessing patients with thermal burns? How are you going to treat this patient? When is pain management indicated? Primary Survey
4 mL × BSA × weight (kg)
Calculate the Parkland formula for this patient (wt=70 kg)
If more than 10%, wet dressings can cause hypothermia
You respond to a structure fire/explosion. On your arrival you see a 40-year-old male who has just been removed from the building and appears unresponsive. What are your first priorities? Scenario
Primary Survey A: Stridor noted; oral mucosa appears red B: Rapid; BS equal; rhonchi in all fields C: No external bleeding; weak and rapid pulse D: GCS score 3 (E-1, V-1, M-1) E: Partial-thickness burns of upper chest (9% BSA) What are your immediate concerns? Why is he showing signs and symptoms of shock?
Airway and pulmonary burns secondary to inhalation of superheated gases
How are you going to treat this patient?
Special Burn Situations
What is different about these burns?
How would you treat chemical burns?
Arc (flash) injuries
How do you manage these injuries?
Patients Requiring Burn Centers
Partial-thickness burns more than 10%
Burns to face, hands, feet, genitalia, perineum, or major joints
Burn injury in compromised patient
Other special situations
DO NOT become a victim yourself
Airway management and oxygenation are critical
Early shock after burns points to other injuries
Transport patient to an appropriate facility
Fluid therapy as indicated
You are doing race coverage for a 10-km (6-mile) race. The temperature is 90° F (32° C) with 90% humidity. On finishing the race, a 55-year-old male collapsed. On your arrival you find the patient confused. What places this patient at high risk for a heat emergency? How would you treat him? Scenario
Other Heat-Related Injuries
How do the presentations and management differ for each of the following?
Hypothermia begins when body temperature reaches 95° F (35° C)
Heart rate, ventilations, and BP begin to decrease
Below 90° F (32° C), shivering ceases
Below 82° F (28° C), ventricular fibrillation possible
You respond to the scene where a 34-year-old male has slipped in mud and fallen into a sewer. You are on the scene when, after 10 minutes, the rescue team brings up a limp body. Scenario
Primary Survey A: Water in oropharynx B: Apneic C: No active hemorrhage; very slow and weak carotid pulse D: Unresponsive; GCS score 3 (E-1, V-1, M-1) E: Clothing is wet How are you going to manage this patient?
Identify injury patterns common to geriatric and pediatric trauma patients
Identify anatomic and physiologic differences in pediatric and geriatric patients
Discuss the importance of obtaining history for pediatric and geriatric trauma patients
Discuss the management of pediatric and geriatric trauma patients
Injury is the most frequent cause of death
Approximately 20% to 40% of deaths may be preventable
What are the common mechanisms of injury in children?
You respond to a call for an injured child. You arrive to find a 5-year-old boy on the ground next to his bicycle.
How will your assessment differ for children? Scenario
Pediatric Vital Signs Age 0-2 months 3 months 6 months 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 7 years 8 years 9 years Mean Weight (kg) 3.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.5 14.5 17.0 18.5 21.0 23.0 25.0 28.0 Pulse Range 100-170 100-170 100-170 90-170 90-170 70-130 70-130 70-130 60-110 60-110 60-110 60-110 Hypotensive Systolic Blood Pressure 60 60 60 70 70 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 Ventilatory Range 30-60 30-60 30-60 30-60 30-60 20-40 20-40 20-40 15-30 15-30 15-30 15-30
Primary Survey A: Snoring noises B: Rapid and shallow ventilations C: No obvious bleeding; weak and rapid pulse D: GCS score 10 (E-2, V-3, M-5); contusion to forehead E: Air is 50° F (10° C) and damp How would you manage this patient?
Peripheral IV preferred
Bolus 20 mL/kg and repeat up to 3 times
You are on the scene with an 85-year-old woman who slipped and fell in her home. How does the assessment of the elderly patient differ from the younger adult? Scenario
Primary Survey A: Open B: VR rapid with slight wheeze C: No obvious bleeding; normal and regular pulse D: Unable to move legs due to pain; GCS score 12 (E-3, V-4, M-5) E: No obvious external trauma How are you going to manage this patient?
Special Considerations in the Elderly
Preexisting disease may increase with age
Age and general physical condition greatly influence response to injury
Trauma may be the result of a medical emergency
You are dispatched to the scene of a pedestrian struck by a vehicle. Law enforcement and the fire department are en route. It is an overcast spring day with a temperature of 50° F (10° C). Scenario
What are your initial concerns as you arrive on the scene?
Ensure the safety of the prehospital care providers and the patient. What are the safety concerns with this scene? Overview
Assess the scene situation to determine the need for additional resources. What additional resources may be needed? Overview
Recognize the kinematics that produced the injuries. What are the factors relating to kinematics implied here? Overview
Use the primary survey approach to identify life-threatening conditions. What are the key concepts of the primary survey? Overview Breathing Airway Kinematics Circulation Disability Expose/ Environment
Provide appropriate management while maintaining cervical spine stabilization. The patient has noisy ventilations and blood is draining from the oropharynx. What should be considered when managing this airway? Overview
The patient’s ventilatory rate is 6 and is shallow. Cyanosis is visible on the patient’s face and fingers. There is bruising across the chest and decreased breath sounds are heard on the left. GCS score is 7 (E-2, V-1, M-4). Support ventilation and deliver oxygen to maintain SpO 2 at 95% or more. How can this be accomplished? Overview
Control any significant external hemorrhage. Overview
Direct pressure controls the external hemorrhage from the right arm. The radial pulse is weak and rapid at about 140 beats/min. The patient is pale, cold, and clammy. There is crepitus and tenderness on palpation of the pelvis and a left thigh deformity consistent with a left midshaft femur fracture. How would you manage these findings? Overview
Provide basic shock therapy, including restoring and maintaining normal body temperature and appropriately splinting musculoskeletal injuries. Consider the use of the PASG for patients with decompensated shock (SBP less than 90 mm Hg) and suspected pelvic, intraperitoneal, or retroperitoneal hemorrhage; and in patients with profound hypotension (SBP less than 60 mm Hg). Overview
Maintain manual spinal stabilization until the patient is immobilized onto a long backboard . When is spinal immobilization indicated? Overview
For critically injured patients, initiate transport to the closest appropriate facility within 10 minutes of arrival on scene. Platinum 10 minutes Golden Period Overview 10
Initiate warmed intravenous fluid replacement en route to the receiving facility. What are the considerations with prehospital fluid therapy? Overview
Ascertain the patient’s medical history and perform a secondary survey when life-threatening problems have been satisfactorily managed or have been ruled out. Overview
Above all, do no further harm.
Key field interventions
Rapid transport to the closest appropriate facility