Crea%ve
communi%es
for
sustainable

lifestyles
and
collabora%ve
services
on
the

               digital
pla8orm


        ...
Table
of
contents

•  IntroducGon

   –  Me

   –  My
research
unit

   –  Our
research
network

•  Our
research

   –  De...
About
me

Joon
Sang
Baek

joonsbaek@gmail.com

www.sustainable‐everyday.net/codi



•  B.Sc.
in
Industrial
design
@
Korea
...
Where
do
I
work?


Design
and
InnovaGon
for
Sustainability
(DIS)
Research
Unit
is
led

by
Prof.
Ezio
Manzini
and
our
missi...
Research
topics



DIS
leader
>
Ezio
Manzini


  

Strategic
Design

  
 

leader:
Anna
Meroni


  

Design
and
system
i...
Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability
(DESIS)

network

DESIS
is
a
network
of
schools
of
design
and
other
discipl...
Table
of
contents

•  IntroducGon

   –  Me

   –  My
research
unit

   –  Our
network

•  Our
research

   –  Design
for
...
Social
innova%on
and
sustainability

“Social
innova%on
means
the
design
and
implementa%on
of

crea%ve
ways
of
mee%ng
socia...
Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability


Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability
is
a
domain
of

design
tha...
Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability


  How
can
design
contribute
to
social
innova%on
and
sustainability?





...
Projects

1.  Emerging
User
Demands
for
Sustainable
SoluGons
(EMUDE)

2.  Feed
Milan
(Nutrire
Milano),
Italy

3.  Chongmin...
1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)

Emerging
User
Demands
for
Sustainable
SoluGons
(EMUDE)
is
an

EU
founded
specific
support
acGon
(2004‐20...
1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)

1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)





                     case collection of creative
                     communities
1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)





                                 case collection of creative
                                 commu...
1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)





                                          case collection of creative
   roadmaps for future       ...
A
collecGon
of
cases
of
Crea%ve
Communi%es,
the
concept
of
diffused
crea%vity,
the

concept
of
Diffused
Social
Enterprise,
t...
Collabora%ve
services

                                                     more collaborative
                           ...
Collabora%ve
services

                                                     more collaborative
                           ...
2.
Feed
Milan
(Nutrire
Milano)
Project





                                     Partner:
                                ...
2.
Feed
Milan
(Nutrire
Milano)
Project





                 Parco Sud Milano
                                     Partner...
A
network
of
services





Shared resources         Brand identity
Farmers
market
in
Milan

ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and

consump%on
in
Milan

                             Nutrire
Milano
project


       ...
Xianqiao village




                    3. Xianqiao Eco-village
                    Project in Chong Ming
               ...
project
                    To revitalize a rural village,
                    improving the quality of life of
          ...
local projects


                     Organic food

                     Home restaurant

                     Twin school...
organic food
          local project 1




     Xianqiao Village (China)
Home restaurant
         local project 2
framework project
                involvement

Community involvement    Designers involvement
  co-design processes   idea...
Table
of
contents

•  IntroducGon

   –  Me

   –  My
research
unit

   –  Our
network

•  Our
research

   –  Design
for
...
Research
%tle

Designing
sustainable
collabora%ve
services
on
the
digital

pla8orm:
Development
and
evaluaGon
a
socio‐tech...
Research
needs


Extrinsic
needs

• Increasing
social,
environmental
and
economic
problems
and
demands

for
alternaGve
sus...
Research
needs


Extrinsic
needs

• Increasing
social,
environmental
and
economic
problems
and
demands

for
alternaGve
sus...
Research
ques%ons

How
do
creaGve
communiGes
use
ICT
to
collaborate
and
meet

their
social
needs?


How
do
ICT
influence
th...
Case
studies

•  Aim:
To
idenGfy
the
use
of
ICT
in
collaboraGve
services
and

   their
impact
on
the
social
networks
of
co...
Criteria
for
selec%ng
the
cases

•  More
than
100
candidates
of
digital
soluGons
–
web
and

   mobile
plaLorms
–
were
revi...
http://www.sustainable-everyday.net/codi/
Finding
1.
A
typology
based
on
organiza%onal
goals


CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
were
categorized

accord...
1.
Producers/consumers
network


Producer/consumer
network
is
a
type
of
collaboraGve
service
in
which
producers
and

consu...
2.
Mapping
diffused
informa%on

    Mapping
diffused
informaGon
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
users
collaborate
to

   ...
3.
Aggregated
social
ac%on

Aggregated
social
acGon
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
people
act
together
and

use
their
...
4.
Crea%ng
social
network
for
conviviality

CreaGng
social
network
for
conviviality
is
a
collaboraGve
service
whose
primar...
5.
Mutual‐support
circles

   Mutual
support
circles
are
a
collaboraGve
service
where
people
provide
mutual
support

   to...
6.
Competences,
%me
and
products
exchange


Competences,
Gme
and
products
exchange
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
peop...
7.
Products,
places
and
knowledge
sharing


Products,
places
knowledge
sharing
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
people

...
4.
Crea%ng
social
network
for
conviviality

CreaGng
social
network
for
conviviality
is
a
collaboraGve
service
whose
primar...
Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service





                       A platform hosts one or more enabling solutions
  ...
Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service





                          An enabling solution motivates and empowers peo...
Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service




       CollaboraGve
      A service created by users involves activities i...
Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service



                       An event is the result of a collaborative service in...
Finding
3.
A
typology
based
on
network
structure


CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
were
categorized

into
4
t...
ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and

consump%on
in
Milan

                              Nutrire
Milano
project


      ...
ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and

consump%on
in
Milan

                            Nutrire
Milano
project


        ...
ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and

consump%on
in
Milan

                             Nutrire
Milano
project

        ...
Present
works
with
Dr.
Gruzd

•  Social
network
analysis
of
digital
plaLorms
for
collaboraGve

   services,

•  Social
net...
Thank
you.

A
typology
based
on
the
network
structure





Without a platform




 With a platform
CollaboraGon

                  happens
among

                 people
from
same

                    town/city…

Geograph...
creative communities for sustainable lifestyles and collaborative services on the digital platform
creative communities for sustainable lifestyles and collaborative services on the digital platform
creative communities for sustainable lifestyles and collaborative services on the digital platform
creative communities for sustainable lifestyles and collaborative services on the digital platform
creative communities for sustainable lifestyles and collaborative services on the digital platform
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this presentation is partly an introduction of research activities at Design and Innovation for Sustainability Research Unit at Politecnico di Milano and partly an introduction of my PhD research.

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creative communities for sustainable lifestyles and collaborative services on the digital platform

  1. 1. Crea%ve
communi%es
for
sustainable
 lifestyles
and
collabora%ve
services
on
the
 digital
pla8orm
 Joon
Sang
Baek
 Ph.D.
candidate,
Department
of
Industrial
Design
 Politecnico
di
Milano
 Tutor:
Prof.
Ezio
Manzini
 Co‐relatore:
Dr.
Anatoliy
Gruzd
 Contro‐relatore:
Prof.
Alberto
Colorni 

  2. 2. Table
of
contents
 •  IntroducGon
 –  Me
 –  My
research
unit
 –  Our
research
network
 •  Our
research
 –  Design
for
social
innovaGon
and
sustainability
 –  Projects
 •  My
research
 –  CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
 –  Case
studies
 –  Current
work
in
Dalhousie

  3. 3. About
me
 Joon
Sang
Baek
 joonsbaek@gmail.com
 www.sustainable‐everyday.net/codi
 •  B.Sc.
in
Industrial
design
@
Korea
Advanced
InsGtute
of
 Science
and
Technology
(KAIST)
 •  M.Sc.
in
Industrial
design,
InteracGon
design
@
KAIST
 •  User
interface
designer
@
Samsung
Mobile
 •  Ph.D.
candidate
@
Politecnico
di
Milano
 •  Exchange
graduate
study
@
Dalhousie
University

  4. 4. Where
do
I
work?
 Design
and
InnovaGon
for
Sustainability
(DIS)
Research
Unit
is
led
 by
Prof.
Ezio
Manzini
and
our
mission
is
to
design
sustainable
 product‐service
system
innova%on,
from
environmental,
 economic
and
social
perspec%ves.

 DidacGc
acGviGes,
basic
and
applied
research
in
different
fields:
 

service
design
(e.g.
product‐service
system
design),

 

strategic
design,

 

scenario
building,

 

life
cycle
design,

 

mobility
and
transporta%on
management
and
innova%on,

 

natural
resources
management,

 

urban
planning.

  5. 5. Research
topics

 DIS
leader
>
Ezio
Manzini
 

Strategic
Design
 
 

leader:
Anna
Meroni
 

Design
and
system
innova%on
for
sustainability
 
 

leader:
Carlo
Vezzoli
 

Mobility
systems
 
 

leader:
Roberto
Maja
 

E‐learning
and
Didac%cal
Innova%on
 
 

leader:
Alberto
Colorni
 

Planning
and
urban
design
for
sustainability
 
 

leader:
Cesare
Blasi

  6. 6. Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability
(DESIS)
 network
 DESIS
is
a
network
of
schools
of
design
and
other
disciplines,
insGtuGons,
 companies
and
non‐profit
organizaGons
interested
in
promoGng
and
 supporGng
design
for
social
innova/on
and
sustainability.
 www.desis‐network.org

  7. 7. Table
of
contents
 •  IntroducGon
 –  Me
 –  My
research
unit
 –  Our
network
 •  Our
research
 –  Design
for
social
innovaGon
and
sustainability
 –  Projects
 •  My
research
 –  CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
 –  Case
studies
 –  Current
work
in
Dalhousie

  8. 8. Social
innova%on
and
sustainability
 “Social
innova%on
means
the
design
and
implementa%on
of
 crea%ve
ways
of
mee%ng
social
needs.”

 From
the
margins
to
the
mainstream:
 • “The
financial
and
economic
crisis
makes
crea/vity
and
 innova/on
in
general
and
social
innova/on
in
par/cular
even
 more
important
to
foster
sustainable
growth,
secure
jobs
and
 boost
compe//veness.”
(EU
President
Barroso)
 • In
Washington
President
Obama
has
launched
an
Office
of
 Social
InnovaGon
in
the
White
House.

  9. 9. Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability

 Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability
is
a
domain
of
 design
that
deals
with
product‐service
innovaGons
and
their
 relaGon
to
sustainability.

 From
social
innova%on
towards
sustainability:
 “The
radical
innovaGons
of
local
systems
that
challenge
tradiGonal 
 ways
of
doing
things
introduce
a
set
of
new,
very
different
and
 intrinsically
more
sustainable
ones
and
these
micro‐ transformaGons
become
the
groundwork
for
great
systemic
 change.”
(Manzini
in
Meroni
ed.,
2007)

  10. 10. Design
for
social
innova%on
and
sustainability

 How
can
design
contribute
to
social
innova%on
and
sustainability?
 Provide
tools
of
user‐centered
 Collect
cases
of
social
 Develop
and
use
tools
for
 design
to
discover
user
needs
 innovaGons
and
generate
 designing
product‐service
 for
various
products
and
 visions
and
strategies
for
 systems
(e.g.
A
system
map
 services
(e.g.
Human‐centered
 design
research
and
pracGce

 used
to
design
a
product‐ design
toolkit
by
IDEO)
 (e.g.
CreaGve
communiGes
by
 service
system
of
E‐meal)
 Meroni
Ed.)

  11. 11. Projects
 1.  Emerging
User
Demands
for
Sustainable
SoluGons
(EMUDE)
 2.  Feed
Milan
(Nutrire
Milano),
Italy
 3.  Chongming
Island,
China

  12. 12. 1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)
 Emerging
User
Demands
for
Sustainable
SoluGons
(EMUDE)
is
an
 EU
founded
specific
support
acGon
(2004‐2006)

  13. 13. 1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)

  14. 14. 1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)
 case collection of creative communities
  15. 15. 1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)
 case collection of creative communities scenarios of product- service system innovation
  16. 16. 1.
EMUDE
(2004‐6)
 case collection of creative roadmaps for future communities research, policy agenda, dissemination of the results scenarios of product- service system innovation
  17. 17. A
collecGon
of
cases
of
Crea%ve
Communi%es,
the
concept
of
diffused
crea%vity,
the
 concept
of
Diffused
Social
Enterprise,
the
scenario
of
the
Diffused
Social
Enterprise,
a
 policy
agenda.
The
results
are
published
in
books
and
can
be
downloaded
at:

 hfp://www.sustainable‐everyday.net
 creative communities: cases Collaborative services: scenarios of PSS innovation
  18. 18. Collabora%ve
services
 more collaborative Enabling, active P2P file sharing Cohousing Wikipedia Neighborhood car sharing less relational more relational Predictable, Unpredictable, controlled, codified open, not codified School bus Community-based tourism Guided tour Restaurant that you often go in town less collaborative Disabling, passive Positioning of collaborative service in service matrix model (Cipolla, Manzini 2009)
  19. 19. Collabora%ve
services
 more collaborative Enabling, active RelaGonal
and
 P2P file sharing Cohousing Wikipedia collaboraGve
 Neighborhood car sharing services
 less relational more relational Predictable, Unpredictable, controlled, codified open, not codified School bus Community-based tourism Guided tour Restaurant that you often go in town less collaborative Disabling, passive Positioning of collaborative service in service matrix model (Cipolla, Manzini 2009)
  20. 20. 2.
Feed
Milan
(Nutrire
Milano)
Project
 Partner: Slow Food DIS-Indaco Politecnico Scienze Gastronomiche Ente Parco Sud Fondazione Cariplo EXPO’ 2015
  21. 21. 2.
Feed
Milan
(Nutrire
Milano)
Project
 Parco Sud Milano Partner: Slow Food DIS-Indaco Politecnico Scienze Gastronomiche Ente Parco Sud Fondazione Cariplo EXPO’ 2015
  22. 22. A
network
of
services
 Shared resources Brand identity
  23. 23. Farmers
market
in
Milan

  24. 24. ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and
 consump%on
in
Milan
 Nutrire
Milano
project
 Digital
pla8orm
 Pilot
case
 consumer Farmers
 market
 Vegetable
 garden
 municipality farmer Bread
 producGon
 civil organization
  25. 25. Xianqiao village 3. Xianqiao Eco-village Project in Chong Ming island Tongji University Politecnico di Milano DESIS-China Network Shanghai City Studio TAO China-US Center for Sustainable Development
  26. 26. project To revitalize a rural village, improving the quality of life of both, farmers and citizens. The proximity between farms and the city can be turned in an advantage considering its potentiality in terms of “zero- miles” food and tourism. Chong Ming Island
  27. 27. local projects Organic food Home restaurant Twin schools project Home restaurant Traditional medicine Village businesses social Chong Ming Island innovation initiatives
  28. 28. organic food local project 1 Xianqiao Village (China)
  29. 29. Home restaurant local project 2
  30. 30. framework project involvement Community involvement Designers involvement co-design processes ideas and communication
  31. 31. Table
of
contents
 •  IntroducGon
 –  Me
 –  My
research
unit
 –  Our
network
 •  Our
research
 –  Design
for
social
innovaGon
and
sustainability
 –  Projects
 •  My
research
 –  IntroducGon

 –  CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
 –  Case
studies
 –  Current
work
in
Dalhousie

  32. 32. Research
%tle
 Designing
sustainable
collabora%ve
services
on
the
digital
 pla8orm:
Development
and
evaluaGon
a
socio‐technical
 framework
for
designing
digital
plaLorms
to
support
social
 innovaGon
and
sustainability
in
a
more
systemaGc
way
 Peer‐to‐Peer
digital
 Social
network
 collaboraGon
 CollaboraGve
service

  33. 33. Research
needs
 Extrinsic
needs
 • Increasing
social,
environmental
and
economic
problems
and
demands
 for
alternaGve
sustainable
soluGons.
 • Diffused
informaGon
communicaGon
technologies
(ICTs),
democraGzed
 innovaGons
and
new
ways
to
collaborate.

  34. 34. Research
needs
 Extrinsic
needs
 • Increasing
social,
environmental
and
economic
problems
and
demands
 for
alternaGve
sustainable
soluGons.
 • Diffused
informaGon
communicaGon
technologies
(ICTs),
democraGzed
 innovaGons
and
new
ways
to
collaborate.
 Intrinsic
needs
 • A
need
to
idenGfy
how
ICT
is
used
and
can
be
used
by
people
to
 collaborate
and
innovate.
 • A
need
for
a
framework
that
systemaGcally
integrates
social
networks
 into
collaboraGve
services
design.






  35. 35. Research
ques%ons
 How
do
creaGve
communiGes
use
ICT
to
collaborate
and
meet
 their
social
needs?

 How
do
ICT
influence
the
diffusion
of
grassroots
social
 innovaGons?
 How
do
ICT
affect
the
quality
and
quanGty
of
social
networks
of
 the
communiGes?
 How
can
we
systemaGcally
integrate
the
power
of
social
network
 into
the
design
process
to
facilitate
the
diffusion
of
collaboraGve
 services?

  36. 36. Case
studies
 •  Aim:
To
idenGfy
the
use
of
ICT
in
collaboraGve
services
and
 their
impact
on
the
social
networks
of
communiGes


 •  Partner:
Fondazione
Culturale
Responsabilita’
EGca
 •  Period:
2008
November
~
2009
July
 •  Methods:
Contents
analysis
of
websites,
interview
(on
and
 offline)
 •  28
cases
out
of
100+
candidates


  37. 37. Criteria
for
selec%ng
the
cases
 •  More
than
100
candidates
of
digital
soluGons
–
web
and
 mobile
plaLorms
–
were
reviewed.
 •  28
Cases
were
selected
using
the
three
criteria:
 1.  A
service
uses
ICTs
to
promote
itself
and
enhance
 communicaGon
within
a
community.

 2.  A
service
requires
collaboraGon
in
both
the
physical
and
the
 digital
forms.

 3.  A
service
must
be
designed
and
provided
by
users
in
order
to
 saGsfy
their
social
needs.

  38. 38. http://www.sustainable-everyday.net/codi/
  39. 39. Finding
1.
A
typology
based
on
organiza%onal
goals
 CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
were
categorized
 according
to
their
organizaGonal
goals.

 1.  Producer/consumer
network
 2.  Mapping
diffused
informaGon
 3.  Aggregate
social
acGon
 4.  CreaGng
social
network
for
conviviality
 5.  Mutual
support
circle
 6.  Competences,
Gme
and
products
exchange
 7.  Products,
places
and
knowledge
sharing

  40. 40. 1.
Producers/consumers
network

 Producer/consumer
network
is
a
type
of
collaboraGve
service
in
which
producers
and
 consumers
pursue
mutual
benefits
by
establishing
a
direct
network.


  41. 41. 2.
Mapping
diffused
informa%on
 Mapping
diffused
informaGon
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
users
collaborate
to
 map
diffused
locaGonal
informaGon.
 http://www.greenmap.org/greenhouse/en/node/8192
  42. 42. 3.
Aggregated
social
ac%on
 Aggregated
social
acGon
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
people
act
together
and
 use
their
collecGve
power
to
achieve
social
goals.

  43. 43. 4.
Crea%ng
social
network
for
conviviality
 CreaGng
social
network
for
conviviality
is
a
collaboraGve
service
whose
primary
goal
is
 to
improve
social
conviviality
by
forming
and
reinforcing
a
social
network.
People
are
 oren
from
the
same
locality
and
interact
face‐to‐face
and
virtually
on
a
regular
basis.


  44. 44. 5.
Mutual‐support
circles
 Mutual
support
circles
are
a
collaboraGve
service
where
people
provide
mutual
support
 to
one
another
in
order
to
solve
problems
that
they
have
in
common.
 Local Vocals Singing Group
  45. 45. 6.
Competences,
%me
and
products
exchange

 Competences,
Gme
and
products
exchange
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
people
 collaborate
through
the
exchange
of
competences,
Gme
and
products.

  46. 46. 7.
Products,
places
and
knowledge
sharing

 Products,
places
knowledge
sharing
is
a
collaboraGve
service
in
which
people
 collaborate
through
sharing
products,
places
and
knowledge.

  47. 47. 4.
Crea%ng
social
network
for
conviviality
 CreaGng
social
network
for
conviviality
is
a
collaboraGve
service
whose
primary
goal
is
 to
improve
social
conviviality
by
forming
and
reinforcing
a
social
network.
People
are
 oren
from
the
same
locality
and
interact
face‐to‐face
and
virtually
on
a
regular
basis.


  48. 48. Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service
 A platform hosts one or more enabling solutions PlaLorm
 e.g.) Meetup.com
  49. 49. Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service
 An enabling solution motivates and empowers people to Enabling
soluGon

 create a service to meet their needs e.g.) Meetup Group A platform hosts one or more enabling solutions PlaLorm
 e.g.) Meetup.com
  50. 50. Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service
 CollaboraGve
 A service created by users involves activities in the digital service
 and physical world. e.g.) Team Fighting Diabetes An enabling solution motivates and empowers people to Enabling
soluGon

 create a service to meet their needs e.g.) Meetup Group A platform hosts one or more enabling solutions PlaLorm
 e.g.) Meetup.com
  51. 51. Finding
2.
A
system
of
collabora%ve
service
 An event is the result of a collaborative service in the physical Event
 world. e.g.) Team Fighting Diabetes hiking day CollaboraGve
 A service created by users involves activities in the digital service
 and physical world. e.g.) Team Fighting Diabetes An enabling solution motivates and empowers people to Enabling
soluGon

 create a service to meet their needs e.g.) Meetup Group A platform hosts one or more enabling solutions PlaLorm
 e.g.) Meetup.com
  52. 52. Finding
3.
A
typology
based
on
network
structure
 CollaboraGve
services
on
the
digital
plaLorm
were
categorized
 into
4
types
according
to
their
network
structure.
 A group and individuals A network of groups Networked individuals A network of networks
  53. 53. ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and
 consump%on
in
Milan
 Nutrire
Milano
project
 Digital
pla8orm
 Pilot
case
 consumer Farmers
 market
 Vegetable
 garden
 municipality farmer Bread
 producGon
 civil organization
  54. 54. ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and
 consump%on
in
Milan
 Nutrire
Milano
project
 Digital
pla8orm
 Pilot
case
 consumer Farmers
 market
 Vegetable
 garden
 municipality farmer Bread
 producGon
 civil organization
  55. 55. ICT
for
sustainable
food
produc%on
and
 consump%on
in
Milan
 Nutrire
Milano
project
 Stakeholders
 Digital
pla8orm
 Pilot
case
 consumer Farmers
 market
 Vegetable
 garden
 municipality farmer Bread
 producGon
 civil organization
  56. 56. Present
works
with
Dr.
Gruzd
 •  Social
network
analysis
of
digital
plaLorms
for
collaboraGve
 services,
 •  Social
network
analysis
of
farmers
in
the
Agricultural
Park
 South
of
Milan,
 •  ComparaGve
analysis
between
typologies
of
collaboraGve
 services
and
social
media
that
they
use,
 ‐>
The
goal
is
to
develop
and
evaluate
a
socio‐technical
 framework
for
designing
digital
plaLorms
to
support
social
 innovaGon
and
sustainability
in
a
more
systemaGc
way

  57. 57. Thank
you.

  58. 58. A
typology
based
on
the
network
structure
 Without a platform With a platform
  59. 59. CollaboraGon
 happens
among
 people
from
same
 town/city…
 Geographically bounded Tie
strength
– proximity
 Geographically not bounded

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