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Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
Dementia 2nd part
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Dementia 2nd part

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dementia based on DSM-IV …

dementia based on DSM-IV
includes:
- vascular dementia
- dementia associated w/ medical conditions
- head trauma
- pick's disease
- creutzfeldt-jakob's disease
- parkinson's disease
- HIV
- huntington's disease

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • 1. DEMENTIA (continued) Commonly called “childishness.” It is a condition of mental declination that occurs in certain older persons. The basic change is a progressive deterioration of the nerve cells within the brain in which the person affected was progressively having difficulties in intellectual activities; defective memory, reduced ability to understand what is taking place, and disorientation for time and place.
  • 2. 290.4x VASCULAR DEMENTIA (formerly MULTI INFARCT DEMENTIA)
  • 3. • A permanent cognitive impairment caused by an interruption of the blood supply to the brain. • Stroke may increase the risk of dementia but not all who had strokes will proceed to have vascular dementia. • Onset is earlier than Dementia of the Alzheimer’s • More common in males
  • 4. RISK FACTORS FOR VASCULAR DEMENTIA DIABETES OBESITY HEART DISEASE LACK OF EXERCISE UNHEALTHY DIET WITH HIGH AMOUNTS OF SATURATED FATS SMOKING LONG TERM ALCOHOL ABUSE INCREASING AGE ATHEROSCLEROSIS HIGH CHOLESTEROL ATRIAL FIBRILLATION HISTORY OF HEART ATTACK, STROKES, OR MINI STROKES
  • 5. DEFINITE RISKS AGE APOE - E4 (whites) ATRIAL FIBRILLATION DEPRESSION DOWN SYNDROME FAMILY HISTORY
  • 6. POSSIBLE RISKS DELIRIUM HEAD TRAUMA HEAVY SMOKING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA HYPERTENSION LOWER EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OTHER GENES POSTMENOPAUSAL HORMONE THERAPY
  • 7. NEUROPSYCHAIATRIC SYMPTOMS PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS (HALLUCINATION, DELIRIUM) DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS APATHY AGITATION AND AGGRESSION
  • 8. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA A. The development of multiple cognitive deficits manifested by both 1. Memory impairment 2. One or more of the following cognitive disturbances a. Aphasia b. Apraxia c. Agnosia d. Disturbance in executive functioning
  • 9. SUBTYPES • With Delirium (290.41) – if delirium is superimposed on the dementia • With Delusions (290.42) – delusions are the predominant feature • With Depressed Mood (290.43) – if depressive mood (including presentation of symptoms of Major Depressive Episode) is predominant • Uncomplicated (290.40) – if none of the other subtypes predominates
  • 10. Dementia Associated with Other Medical Conditions
  • 11. (294.1) Head TRAUMA
  • 12. Traumatic Brain Injury • Commonin both young and old but for the dementia,the old aged are more at risk. • 2 most common causes of TBI: driving and falls • May also be caused by penetratinghead injuries • Dementiapugilistica – a sports related type of dementiadue to repetitivehead injuries – Characterized by cognitive symptoms of dementia, various personality changes, extrapyramidal symptoms (e. i, Parkinson’s disease).
  • 13. Traumatic Brain Injury
  • 14. Pick’s Disease (290.10) • Similar to Alzheimer’s except that the first symptom of this disease is personality change followed by memory loss. • People with this disease have Pick cells inside nerve cells in the damaged area of the brain. • Protein tau is normally found in nerve cells but people with this disease have an abnormal amount of this protein. • May also be hereditary. • It can occur in people as young as 20, but usually begins between ages 40 and 60. The average age at which it begins is 54.
  • 15. • This disease gets worse slowly for the tissues in the frontal and temporal lobes start to shrink over time • People with Pick's disease tend to behave the wrong way in different social settings. The changes in behavior continue to get worse and are often one of the most disturbing symptoms of the disease. Some patients will have more prominent difficulty with decision making, complex tasks, or language (trouble finding or understanding words or writing).
  • 16. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (290.10) • A form of brain damage that leads to rapid decrease of mental function and movement • May be associated with mad-cow disease (cattle), chronic wasting disease (deer), Kuru (in New Guinea women who ate the brains of dead relatives as part of a ritual), scrapie (sheep), and fatal familial insomnia (humans) • Caused by prions – proteins that can produce on their own and can be infectious. The diseases caused by this proteins are called spongiform diseases for the deterioration of the brain of an infected individual is in the form of holes giving it a sponge-like appearance
  • 17. • Occurs spontaneously in 1 out of a million people • Strikes people at the age of 50-75 • Can be caused by exposure to contaminated products. Other cases have occurred when people were given corneal transplants, other tissues, or blood transfusions from infected donors. It may also have been caused by contaminated electrodes used in brain surgery (before instruments started to be properly disinfected). • Symptoms are dementia, muscle twitching, and vision problems
  • 18. PARKINSON’S DISEASE (294.1)
  • 19. • It is a chronic progressive disorder that usually occurs in middle-aged or elderly persons, characterized by slow movement, muscle rigidity, tremor, and progressive weakness. • Early Parkinsonism may be a sequel of encephalitis (serious inflammation of brain tissue) or when the cells of the brain were deprived of their supply of oxygen for at least five to ten minutes resulting to a permanent damage to the brain.
  • 20. • This mainly results from the death of the cells in the brain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. • There may be tremors, but the most common tremor to the Parkinson’s patients is the repetitive movement by which the tips of the fingers brush past the ball of the thumb – “pill-rolling movement” • Tremors are worse when the patient is tired or excited
  • 21. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (294.9) • Also known as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome • HIV dementia complex is caused by the HIV itself • HIV may affect the brain through several mechanisms. Viral proteins may damage nerve cells directly or by infecting inflammatory cells in the brain and spinal cord. HIV may then induce these cells to damage and disable nerve cells. HIV appears to cause generalized inflammation, which causes chronic disease, memory issues, accelerated aging processes, heart disease, and other diseases.
  • 22. • Common symptoms include decline in thinking, or "cognitive," functions such as memory, reasoning, judgment, concentration, and problem solving. • Other common symptoms are changes in personality and behavior, speech problems, and motor (movement) problems such as clumsiness and poor balance.
  • 23. Huntington’s Disease (294.1) • Huntington’s disease is a hereditary disease characterized by disorders of movement, progressive dementia, and psychiatric/ behavioural disturbance. – Chorea – purposeless jerking, involuntary movements, and progressive mental deterioration
  • 24. Sub-cortical regions – thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, brain stem • Patients with HD find challenges in accomplishing cognitive tasks that require retrieval and synthesis of known facts, such as forming abstractions. They can accomplish tasks that require semantic memory under the right conditions, though, they have difficulties in retrieving facts/ information and remembering new information.
  • 25. TREATMENTS FOR DEMENTIA TREATMENTS WHEN DEMENTIA CAN BE REVERSED TAKE VITAMINS OF A DEFICIENCY OF B12 TAKE TYROID HORMONES FOR HYPOTHYROIDISM HAVE SURGERY TO REMOVE BRAIN TUMOR OR TO REDUCE PRESSURE STOP OR CHANGE MEDICINES THAT CAN CAUSE MEMORY LOSS OR CONFUSION TAKE MEDICINES TO TREAT INFECTIONS SUCH AS ENCEPHALITIS TAKE MEDICINE TO TREAT DEPRESSION GET TREATMENT FOR REVERSIBLE CONDITIONS CAUSED BY AIDS
  • 26. TREATMENTS FOR DEMENTIA TREATMENTS WHEN DEMENTIA CANNOT BE REVERSED TIPS TO HELP THE PERSON BE INDEPENDENT AND MANAGE DAILY LIVING MEDICINES CANNOT CURE DEMENTIA BUT IT CAN HELP THE PERSON IMPROVE MENTAL FUNCTION, MOOD, AND BEHAVIOR A DIAGNOSIS OF DEMENTIA CAN CREATE FEELINGS OF ANGER, FEAR, AND ANXIETY. A PERSON IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE ILLNESS SHOULD SEEK EMOTIONAL SUPPORT FROM FAMILY, FRIENDS, AND PERHAPS A COUNSELOR EXPERIENCED IN WORKING WITH PEOPLE WHO HAVE DEMENTIA.
  • 27. Elyza Mae D.

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