Subjective Utility• based on the individual’s judged weightings of utility, rather than on objective criteriaSubjective Probability• – based on the individual’s estimates of likelihood, rather than on objective statistical computations
Satisficing- We do not consider all possible options and then carefully compute which of the entire universe of options will maximize our gains and minimize our losses rather, we consider options one by one, and then we select an option as soon as we find one that is satisfactory or just good enough to meet our
Elimination By Aspects- offers a behavioralexplanation of thechoice process thataccounts for both theprocess of choice setformation (definitionof consideration sets)
• in the major premise forms theMajor predicate of the conclusionTerm • in the minor premise forms theMinor subject of the conclusionTermMiddle • the categorical termTerm
Linear SyllogismInvolves a quantitative comparison inwhich each term displays either more orless of a particular attribute orquality, and the reasoner must drawconclusions based on the quantification.Example: “John is taller than Bill, and Bill is taller than Pete. Who is the tallest?”
Categorical SyllogismComprise two premise and a conclusion.The premise states something about thecategory membership of the terms.Example:Major Premise: All mammals are warm-blooded.Minor Premise: All black dogs aremammals.Conclusion: Therefore, all black dogs arewarm-blooded
Further aids and Obstacles to Deductive ReasoningOverextension • We overextend the use of strategies that work in some syllogisms in which Errors the strategies fail us.Foreclosure • Failure to consider all the possibilities Effects before reaching a conclusion.Confirmation • We seek confirmation rather than disconfirmation of what we really Bias believe.
An Alternative View of ReasoningSteven Sloman suggested thatpeople have two distinct systems ofreasoning: Associative System – sensitive to observed similarities and temporal contiguities Rule-based System – involves manipulations based on relations among symbols