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Understanding Understanding Presentation Transcript

  • Understanding Sentence Structure California Language Arts Standard 1.2 (9th and 10th Grade): Understand sentence construction and proper English Usage.
  • There are Five Simple Sentence Patterns  Subject – Verb (S-V) go Subject – Verb – Direct Object (S-V-DO) Subject – Verb – Indirect Object – Direct Object (S-V-IO-DO) Subject – Verb – Direct Object – Object Complement (S-V-DO-OC) Subject – Linking Verb – Subject Complement (S-LV-SC)
  • SUBJECT - VERB  Some Action Verbs do not need OBJECTS.  These are called INTRANSITIVE verbs.  Some examples: jump, fly, race, and cry. S V The bird is flying.
  • SUBJECT - VERB • Modifiers (adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases) do not change the sentence’s pattern. S V The grey bird with a baby in its beak is flying across the screen.
  • SUBJECT – VERB Some more examples S V The alarm sounded. S V The baby is crying. S V Your dog can run quickly.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – DIRECT OBJECT Some Action Verbs need DIRECT OBJECTS. These are called TRANSITIVE verbs. Some examples: kick, give, deliver, and call. S V DO The quarterback threw the ball.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – DIRECT OBJECT The DIRECT OBJECT indicates what or who is receiving the action. The quarterback threw _______. The quarterback threw WHAT? S V DO The quarterback threw the ball.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – DIRECT OBJECT Some More Examples Thomas has V S caught WHAT? DO Thomas has caught a fish. The bee is pollinating WHAT? S V DO The bee is pollinating the flowers. The men are blowing WHAT? S V DO The men are blowing horns. Jason is V S kissing WHO? DO Jason is kissing Nancy.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – INDIRECT OBJECT – DIRECT OBJECT (1) Some Action Verbs may also take INDIRECT OBJECTS. Some examples: give, make, and bring. S V IO DO The class gave Bill a birthday cake.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – INDIRECT OBJECT – DIRECT OBJECT (2) S V IO DO The class gave Bill a birthday cake. The INDIRECT OBJECT tells to whom (or what) or for whom (or what) the action is done. WHAT did the class give (Direct Object)? A cake! TO WHOM did they give it (Indirect Object)? Bill!
  • SUBJECT – VERB – INDIRECT OBJECT – DIRECT OBJECT (3) Can you identify the Direct and Indirect Objects in the following sentence? S V IO DO Toby bought mother some flowers for Mother’s Day. WHAT did Toby buy? FOR WHOM did he buy them? DO=flowers IO=mother
  • SUBJECT – VERB – INDIRECT OBJECT – DIRECT OBJECT (4) Can you identify the Direct and Indirect Objects in the following sentence? S V IO DO Yesterday, my lab partner lent me his lecture notes. WHAT did my lab partner lend? TO WHOM did he lend them? DO=notes IO=me (That’s me!)
  • SUBJECT – VERB – DIRECT OBJECT – OBJECT COMPLEMENT (1) •An OBJECT COMPLEMENT is an noun, pronoun, or adjective which follows a direct object and renames it or tells what the direct object has become. •It is most often used with verbs of creating or nominating such as make, name, elect, paint, call, etc. S V DO OC We painted the barn red.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – DIRECT OBJECT – OBJECT COMPLEMENT (2) In other words, the OBJECT COMPLEMENT completes the Direct Object. S V DO OC The proud parents named their baby Susan. In this sentence, the Direct Object is baby. The word Susan completes the word baby. It tells us what the parents named their baby. Therefore, Susan is the Object Complement.
  • SUBJECT – VERB – DIRECT OBJECT – OBJECT COMPLEMENT (3) Can you identify the OBJECT COMPLEMENT in each of the following sentences? S V DO OC I find this book interesting. S V DO OC Maria dyed her hair orange. S V DO OC Tracy keeps her room clean. S V DO OC We elected Brian captain of our team.
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (1) Many important verbs do not express action. They help make a statement and they link a noun or adjective to the subject. THE LINKING VERBS: feel look appear taste seem smell become grow remain sound stay The BE verbs: is am are was were be being been
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (2) He is happy. The be verb is links he and happy.
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (3) George Washington became the first president. Became links George Washington and president. Check by saying, George = president, or President George Washington , or substitute the linking verb with a form of "to be" (the be verbs) as in: G. Washington is president.
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (4) The SUBJECT COMPLEMENT completes the subject. The SUBJECT COMPLEMENT may be either a NOUN or an ADJECTIVE. Noun My father is a professor. Adjective Our cat is fat.
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (5) Linking verbs can be action verbs too. The following sentences contain verbs that are either linking or action and how to check it.
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (6) ACTION or LINKING? If you are not sure whether a verb is a linking verb or an action verb, try substituting a form of the verb 'to be' for the verb. The verb is a linking verb if the meaning of the sentence is not significantly altered. SC Linking: The soup tasted good. Check: soup is good, good soup, soup = good Action: I tasted the soup. Check: I am the soup (no), soup am I (no) I = soup (no)
  • SUBJECT – LINKING VERB – SUBJECT COMPLEMENT (7) ACTION or LINKING? SC Linking: He grew tired of walking. Of walking is a prepositional phrase and not included in the check. You should omit the prepositional phrase to check: He grew tired. Check: He is tired, tired is he, he = tired. Action: He grew into a tall man. Omit the prepositional phrase into a tall man before checking. That leaves the sentence, "he grew." There's no noun or adjective left to link to, so grew is an action word in this sentence.
  • Internet Links •Review Linking Verbs •Review Transitive and Intransitive Verbs •Objects and Complements •Review: Parts of the Sentence