Introducing the Synoptic GospelsCOURSE TH4903 Rev. Jon SwalesDATE JAN 2013 LOCATION WTC RESIDENTIAL
AIMS 1. To introduce students to a systematic critical study of Jesus and the gospels in their ancient literary, theological and historical context payingparticular attention to the way in which the meaning of NT texts is determined by to the challengesC1st 2. To sensitize students OT tradition and and problems presentedJudaism. by an historical study of thegospels; their principal themes, interpretative puzzles and the theological issues they raise. 3. 2.ToTo sensitize students to the challenges textual provide students with foundational NT and problems presented a the formation of a biblical resources towards by an historical study of thegospels; theirwhich impacts discipleship, ministry, theology principal themes, interpretative puzzlesleadership, mission and Christian they raise. in the and the theological issues engagement public square. 3. To provide students with foundational NT textual resources towards a the formation of a biblical theology which impacts discipleship, ministry,leadership, mission and Christian engagement in the
HOW DO DO WELL IN THIS MODULE•Read the Synoptics•Keep up with course reading•Read the Synoptics•Ask questions•Active engagement in lectures.•Begin thinking about Essays soonerrather than later•Read good secondary literature•Refer to primary source material•PrayIntroducing the Synoptic Gospels
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WHAT IS THE GOSPEL? •Sin Management •4 Spiritual Laws •Bridge Diagram •Conversion Process •Justification by Faith•Rhetorical Package•Personal Salvation •Do we need Matthew, Mark, Luke & John?
WHAT IS THE GOSPEL?Gk: euangellion (noun)Gk: euangelizomai (Verbal Cognate: gospelize, preach/bring goodnews) Matthew 24:14 (ESV) 14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come. Acts 15:7 (ESV) 7 And after there had been much debate, Peter stood up and said to them, “Brothers, you know that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel and believe.
WHAT IS THE GOSPEL? Romans 1:16 (ESV) 16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. Galatians 1:6–9 (ESV) 6 I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting him whocalled you in the grace of Christ and are turning to a differentgospel— 7 not that there is another one, but there are somewho trouble you and want to distort the gospel of Christ. 8 But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach to you a gospel contrary to the one we preached to you, let him be accursed. 9 As we have said before, so now I say again: Ifanyone is preaching to you a gospel contrary to the one you received, let him be accursed.
PRIENE INSCRIPTIONIt seemed good to the Greeks of Asia, in the opinion of the high priestApollonius of Menophilus Azanitus: Since providence, which has ordered allthings and is deeply interested in our life, has set in most perfect order bygiving us Augustus, whom she filled with virtue that he might benefithumankind, sending him as a savior, both for us and for our descendants, thathe might end war and arrange all things, and since he, Caesar, by hisappearance excelled even our anticipations, surpassing all previousbenefactors, and not even leaving to posterity any hope of surpassing what hehas done, and since the birthday of the god Augustus was the beginning ofthe good tidings for the world that came by reason of him, which Asiaresolved in Smyrna.
1 Corinthians 15:1–8 (ESV)1 Now I would remind you, brothers, of the gospel I preached to you, which you received, in which you stand, 2 and by which you are being saved, if you hold fast to the word I preached to you—unless you believed in vain. 3 For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received: that Christ died for our sins in accordance with the Scriptures, 4 that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day in accordance with the Scriptures, 5 and that he appeared to Cephas, then to thetwelve. 6 Then he appeared to more than five hundred brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, though some have fallen asleep. 7 Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles. 8 Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me. Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.
Romans 1:1–6 (ESV)1 Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, setapart for the gospel of God, 2 which he promised beforehandthrough his prophets in the holy Scriptures, 3 concerning hisSon, who was descended from David according to the flesh 4and was declared to be the Son of God in power according tothe Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, JesusChrist our Lord, 5 through whom we have received grace andapostleship to bring about the obedience of faith for the sakeof his name among all the nations, 6 including you who arecalled to belong to Jesus Christ,
1.The story of Israel is the story of God in the world, and Israel’s story finds its completion in Jesus.2.The story of Jesus brings Israel’s story to its completion.3.Christ died “for our sins”4.Jesus is the Messiah, King of God’s kingdom, Saviour, Son of God and Lord.
Structure of Matthew 5 Blocks of Teaching 1. The Sermon on the Mount (5:1‑7:28) 2. The Missionary Discourse (10:1‑42) 3. The Parable Discourse (13:1‑53) 4. The Community Discourse (17:22‑18:35) 5. The Apocalyptic Discourse (24:1‑25:46) Structural Markers“when Jesus finished saying these things…” (7:28, 11:1, 13:53, 19:1, 26:1).
Luke refers to thirteen women not mentioned elsewhere in theGospels.•Birth Narratives: Mary, Elizabeth, and Anna.•The widow of Nain (7:12–15),•The woman who anointed Jesus’ feet (7:36–50), the women whosupported Jesus (8:1–3),•The woman with a blood disease (8:43–48),•Mary and Martha (10:38–42),•the “daughter of Abraham” (13:10–17),• the poor widow (21:1–4),•the “daughters of Jerusalem” who lament Jesus (23:27–31), thosewho watched the crucifixion (23:49),•those who report the resurrection (23:55–24:11).
What is the genre of the gospels?Richard A. Burridge, What Are The Gospels?, page 218(emphasis his):Thus, there is a high degree of correlation between thegeneric features of Graeco-Roman βίοι and those of thesynoptic gospels; in fact, they exhibit more of the featuresthan are shown by works at the edges of the genre, such asthose of Isocrates, Xenophon, and Philostratus. This is surelya sufficient number of shared features for the genre of thesynoptic gospels to be clear: while they may well form theirown subgenre because of their shared content, thesynoptic gospels belong within the overal genre ofβίοι.
What is the genre of the gospels?‘Our canonical gospels are the theological, historical, and artological(virtue-forming’ biographical narratives that retell the story andproclaim the significance of Jesus Christ, who through the power of theSpirit is the Restorer of God’s reign’ Pennington‘In summary, we can classify the Gospels as historical narrativemotivated by theological concerns. Their intention is not only to conveyaccurate historical material about Jesus but also to explain andinterpret these salvation-bringing events. The Gospels were written notby detached uninterested observers but by Evangelists, ‘proclaimers ofgood news,’ announcing the good news of Jesus CHrist and callingpeople to faith in him’ Strauss
Why were the Gospels Written? •Historical •Catechetical •Liturgical •Exhortatory •Theological •Apologetic •Evangelistic