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  • 1. The Death of the Divine Warrior A study of the Gospel of Mark with a particular emphasis on the use of the Scriptures of Israel in presenting Jesus as the fulfilment of the New Exodus hopes of Isaiah. Rev. Jonathan SwalesA dissertation submitted to the University of Bristol and Trinity College in accordance with the requirements for award of degree of Master of Letters in the Faculty of Arts. March 2012 Word count: 59,992 (text only, excluding preliminary pages, footnotes and bibliography)
  • 2. Abstract: The Death of the Divine WarriorThis thesis seeks to explore the significance of the New Exodus for understanding the Gospelof Mark. In brief, chapter two argues that the opening verses of the Gospel of Mark (1.1-3)and the way section (8.22-10.52) provide a New Exodus framework within which the wholeof the gospel should be read. Jesus, in typological fulfilment of the New Exodus traditions ofIsaiah, has defeated the demonic enemy and is returning to Zion to be welcomed as its trueKing. It is argued that Jesus is the Davidic messiah as well as the embodiment of the God ofIsrael. In a close study of the the scriptural traditions of Mk. 11.1-11 and in comparison withother ancient entry accounts, the third chapter of this thesis maintains that Jesus entry intoJerusalem is anticlimactic and shows that Jesus kingship and his New Exodus project isrejected by the city and its leadership. This, in turn, leads us to the heart of the thesis, in thefinal chapter, where it is shown that the structure of Marks gospel mirrors that of Isaiah40-55. Jesus death, although seemingly a failure, on the basis of the intertextual linksbetween Mark and Isaiah 53, is actually the moment whereby the New Exodus is fulfilled.Jesus death is that of the divine warrior who gave his life as a ransom for many.This study, which maintains a biblical theology method throughout, whilst also interactingwith a number of key debates in biblical studies (Isa. 53, Son of Man, Divine Kingship,Structure of Isa. 40-55), seeks to show that an intertextual and intratextual reading of thescriptures of Israel can add theological depth to the Markan narrative and the Christologicalclaims advanced within it.
  • 3. Author’s declarationI declare that the work in this dissertation was carried out in accordance with therequirements of the Universitys Regulations and Code of Practice for Research DegreeProgrammes and that it has not been submitted for any other academic award. Except whereindicated by specific reference in the text, the work is the candidates own work. Work donein collaboration with, or with the assistance of, others, is indicated as such. Any viewsexpressed in the dissertation are those of the author.SIGNED: ............................................................. DATE:..........................
  • 4. AcknowledgementsI would like to gratefully acknowledge various people who have been journeyed with me inrecent years as I have worked on this thesis. First, I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to mywife, Sarah, and my three children, Rebekah, Benjamin and Talitha. Through the strugglesand trials of this thesis they have been a constant source of joy. Thank you. Secondly, I wouldlike to thank my supervisor and friend, Rev. Dr. David Wenham, who has encouraged andchallenged me to be faithful to Scripture. In himself, David has modelled what it is to be anacademic and a follower of Jesus. Thirdly, special thanks to of Pipe Club who made myyears at Trinity College a delight. I am sure you could all write my thesis for me given thetime you all contributed to the discussion of its contents. May God richly bless you all!Fourthly, I would like to thank the leadership of St. Georges Church, Leeds and also theDiocese of Ripon and Leeds who allowed me to complete this project in the opening year ofordained ministry. I hope that my academic encounter with the Scriptures over the last yearshas prepared me well for missional engagement with those both within and outside of theChurch.Lastly, and most of all, I would like to thank Jesus, the divine warrior, servant king, who gavehis life as a ransom for me. It has been a delight and privilege to fuse together research withworship, and Scriptural study with contemporary discipleship. St. Georges Church, Leeds, March 2012 Soli Deo Gloria,
  • 5. AbbreviationsGeneral.ALT AlternativeANE Ancient Near EastNE New ExodusNT New TestamentOT Old Testamentcol. CollectionDW Divine Warriorfrg. FragmentIDW Isaianic Divine WarriorINE Isaiahs New ExodusMT Masoretic TextSyr. SyriacTg. TargumVulg. VulgateLXX SeptuagintOG Old GreekTheo. TheodotionHebrew Bible/Old Testament & New TestamentGen. GenesisExod. ExodusLev. LeviticusNum. NumbersDeut. DeuteronomyJosh. JoshuaJudg. Judges1 Sam. 1 Samuel2 Sam. 2 Samuel1 Kgs. 1 Kings2 Kgs. 2 Kings
  • 6. 1 Chron. 1 Chronicles2 Chron. 2 ChroniclesEzra EzraNeh. NehemiahJob JobPs(s). Psalm(s)Prov. ProverbsSong of Sg. Song of SongsIsa. IsaiahJer. JeremiahLam. LamentationsEzek. EzekielDan. DanielHos. HoseaObad. ObadiahMic. MicahNah. NahumHab. HabakkukZeph. ZephaniahHag. HaggaiZech. ZechariahMal. MalachiMt. MatthewMk. MarkLk. LukeRom. Romans1 Cor. 1 Corinthians2 Cor. 2 Corinthians1 Tim. 1 Timothy2 Tim. 2 TimothyHeb. HebrewsRev. Revelation
  • 7. Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Mishnah Talmud and Related LiteratureAss. Mos. Assumption of Mosesb. Babylonian Talmud1 Bar. 1 Baruch2 Bar. 2 BaruchJub. Jubilees1 Macc. 1 Maccabees2 Macc. 2 Maccabeesm. MishnahMeg. MegillahMidr. MidrashPss. of Sol. Psalms of SolomonPesh. PesherRab. RabbahSib. Orac. Sibylline OraclesTest. of Mos. Testament of MosesTest. of Dan Testament of DanTob. TobitSim. of Enoch Similitudes of EnochSir. SirachWisd. of Sol. Wisdom of SolomonDead Sea Scrolls1Qha The Thanksgiving Hymns1QIsa The Isaiah Scroll1QMX11 X11 The War Scroll1QS Community Rule11Q13 11QMelch11Q19 Temple Scroll (a)11Q20 Temple Scroll (b)4Q174 4QFlorilegium4Q175 4QTest4Q176 4QTanhumim4Q177 4QCatenaa4Q246 4QAramaic Apocalypse
  • 8. 4Q252 Pesher on Genesis4Q431 4QHodayote4Q427 4QHa4Q491 4QM War Scroll4Q89 4QPsC.D. The Damascus DocumentGreco-Roman Sources AristotleArt. Rhet. Art of Rhetoric Dio CassiusRom. His. Roman History Dion. Hal. Dionysius of HalicarnassusAnt. Rom. Roman Antiquities HeraclitusHomeric Allegories Homeric Allegories HomerIliad IliadOdyssey Odyssey Justin Martyr.Dial. Dialogue with TryphoApology Apology Jos. JosephusAnt. Antiquities of the JewsWar. The Jewish War LivyEpit. Epitomes
  • 9. PhiloDec. The DecalogueSpec. Laws. Special Laws PlutarchLife of Caesar Life of CeaserLife of Romulus LIfe of Romulus TacitusHistory History Suet. SeutoniusCalig. Life of Caligua VirgilGeorgics Georgics Other.PGM Greek Magical PapyriLAB The Biblical Antiquities of Pseudo-PhiloAlexander Romance Alexander RomanceModern SourcesAB Anchor Bible CommentaryABRL Anchor Bible Research LibraryAnBib Analecta BiblicaANRW Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen WeltAOTC Apollos Old Testament Commentary SeriesAYBD Anchor Yale Bible DictionaryBBR Bulletin of Biblcial ResearchBDAG Walter Bauers Greek-English Lexicon of the NT and Other Early Christian LiteratureBDB Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Old Testament Hebrew LexiconBECNT Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament
  • 10. Bib. BiblicaBNTC Blacks New Testament CommentaryBR Biblical ResearchCNTUOT Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old TestamentCBR Currents in Biblical ResearchEDNT Exegetical Dictionary of the New TestamentESV English Standard Version of the BibleFAT Forschungen zum Alten TestamentGHCLOT Gesenius Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old TestamentHAR Hebrew Annual ReviewHermeneia Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the BibleHTR Harvard Theological reviewICC International Critical CommentaryIJSCC International Journal for the Study of the Christian ChurchJBL Journal of Biblical LiteratureJETS Journal of Evangelical TheologyJGRCJ Journal of Greco-Roman Christianity and JudaismJJS Journal of Jewish StudiesJPS Jewish Publication SocietyJSNT Journal for the Study of the New TestamentJSNTSup Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplemnet SeriesJSOT Journal for the Study of the Old TestamentJSOTSup Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement SeriesLBS Library of Biblical StudiesLNTS Library of New Testament StudiesLoeb Loeb Classical LibraryNA27 Nestle-Aland 27th Edition Greek Text of the New TestamentNCT New Century TheologyNEB New English BibleNETS New English Translation of the SeptuagintNIGTC New International Greek Testament CommentaryNIDOTTE New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and ExegesisNIVAC New International Version Application CommentaryNovT Novum TestamentumNovTSup Novum Testamentum Supplement SeriesNRSV New Revised Standard Version of the BibleNTS New Testament Studies
  • 11. OTL Old Testament LibraryRSV Revised Standard Version of the BibleSemeia SemeiaSBL Society for Biblical LiteratureSBLDS Society for Biblical Literature Dissertation SeriesSBT Studies in Biblical TheologySJT Scottish Journal of TheologySOTBT Studies in Old Testament Biblical TheologySup.JST Supplement to Journal for Study of JudaismSNTSMS Society for New Testament Studies Monograph SeriesTDNT Theological Dictionary of the New TestamentTrinity The Trinity JournalTynBul Tyndale BulletinWEB World English BibleWBC Word Biblical CommentaryWUNT Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen TestamentUnless otherwise stated all citations are from the following translations.English Bible English Standard VersionDead Sea Scrolls Trans. F. G. Martinez and E. J. C. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Leiden: Brill, 1998)Greco-Roman Loeb Classical SeriesPhilo Trans. Yonge The Works of Philo : Complete and Unabridged (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1996)Pseudepigrapha ed. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha Vol 1&2 (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1993)Mishnah Trans.. J. Neusner The Mishnah : A New Translation. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988)Babylonian Talmud Trans. by M. L. Rodkinson The Babylonian Talmud, Volumes 1-10 (Boston: The Talmud Society, 1918)Targums ed. M. McNamara Aramaic Bible: The TargumsTextual Searches were performed using Logos 4 Bible Software Scholars Edition and a range of Logos Lexhamresources including:T. Randall, D. A. deSilva, The Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagintvan der Merwe, The Lexham Hebrew-English Interlinear Bible
  • 12. Footnoting StyleThe first mention of a modern source appears in an extended bibliographic citation. eg. J. Marcus, The Way of the Lord: Christological Exegesis of the Old Testament in the Gospel of Mark (London: T&T Clark, 2004); B. W. Anderson, “Exodus Typology in Second Isaiah,” in eds. B. W. Anderson, and W. Harrelson Is- rael’s Prophetic Heritage: Essays in Honour of James Muilenburg (New York: Harper, 1962); R. E. Watts, “Consolation Or Confrontation? Isaiah 40-55 and the Delay of the New Exodus,” TynBul 41:1 (1990): 31-59.Any subsequent mention of a modern source appears in a shorter bibliographic citation stating name and date ofpublication. eg. Marcus, The Way of the Lord (2004); Anderson "Exodus Typology in Second Isaiah" (1962); Watts, "Consolation or Confrontation" (1990).
  • 13. The Death of The Divine Warrior Table of ContentsI. Introduction, Outline and Methodology 1 1. Introduction 1 a. The Warrior Messiah and the New Exodus Hopes of Psalms of Solomon 1 b. Thesis Outline 3 2. Narrative, Intertextuality and Intratextuality 6 3. Monotheism and the Divine Identity of the Davidic King 8 a. Second Temple Jewish Monotheism 9 b. The Divine King and Messiah 12 i. Divine King Ideology 13 ii. Post-Exilic Expectation of a Future Divine King 15 c. Daniel 7 - The Son of Man 17 i. Son of Man as Davidic Messiah 18 ii. Son of Man as Divine 21 iii. First Century Evidence of Son of Man as both Davidic and Divine 24 d. Concluding Remarks 30II. Chapter Two: The March of the Divine Warrior 32 1. Introduction 32 a. New Exodus Motif in Isaiah 32 2. Mk. 1.1-3 36 a. Mk. 1.1-13/15 as a Dramatic Prologue 37 i. The Dramatic Prologue 37 ii. Mk. 1.1 as a Title 39 iii. Summary 40 iv. Citation Formulae 1.2 41 v. Summary 49 b. Marks Use of Isa. 40.3 49 i. Jesus as the κύριος of Mk. 1.3 49 ii. Isa. 40.3 in Context 53 iii. Streams of Tradition 54 iv. Summary 55 c. Interlude: In Search of a Context 55 i. An Overview of Hatinas Method 56 ii. Critique with particular reference to Mk. 1.3 57 d. The significance of Isa. 40.1-11 in the Markan Prologue 60 3. The Use of ὁδός in Mk. 8.22-10.52 64 a. The significance of ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ 64 b. The Healing-of the-Blind Miracles and the Isaianic DW motif 68
  • 14. i. The Motif of Blindness in Isa. and Mk. 68 ii. The Intratextual-Structural Significance of the Healing-of-the-Blind Miracles 71 iii. The Intertextual Significance of Isa. 35.1-10 in Mk. 10.46-52 73 4. Exorcism and INE 75 a. Jesus the Exorcist 76 i. Divine Identity of Jesus 76 ii. Apocalyptic Dualism 79 b. Mk. 3.22-27 and the Defeat of Satan 81 i. Mk. 3.27 and Isa. 49.24 83 ii. Isa. 49.24 in Context 84 5. Conclusions 85III. Chapter Three: The Rejection of the Divine Warrior 86 1. Interlude: Divine Kingship in the Gospel of Mark 86 a. Divine Sonship and the Prologue 86 b. Son of Man 87 2. Mark 11.1-11 89 a. Mk. 11.1 The Geographic Location 90 i. Mount of Olives 90 ii. Bethany 92 iii. Bethphage 95 b. The Scriptural Background 97 i. Gen. 49.8-12 98 ii. Ps. 118 101 iii. Zech. 9.9-10 114 iv. Summary Statement 130 c. Marks Use of Gen. 49.8-12, Ps. 118 and Zech. 9.9-10 131 i. Marks Use of Ps. 118 132 ii. Marks Use of Zech. 9.9-10 and Gen. 49:8-12 134 3. Mk. 11.1-11: Zions Rejection of the DW and NE 137 a. Triumphal Entry? 140 4. Concluding Remarks 144IV. Chapter Four: The Death of the Divine Warrior 145 1. Isa. 40-55: The NE Postponed Until the Death of the Servant 146 a. Isa. 40-55: A Failed New Exodus and the Task of the Servant 147 i. The Unity of Isa. 40-55 147 ii. The Dramatical Plot of Isa. 40-55 149 iii. The Davidic Identity of the Servant 158 b. The Gospel of Mark and Narrative Substructure of Isa. 40-48 171 c. The Gospel of Mark and Narrative Substructure of Isa. 49-55 173 2. Jesus as the Isaianic Servant 174 a. The Suffering Servant and Mk. 9.12 177 b. The Passion Predictions 181
  • 15. c. Mk. 10.45 and the Suffering Servant 182 d. The Last Supper 186 3. The Death of the King 190 a. The Death and Vindication of the Shepherd King 191 b. The Death of Jesus and the Roman Triumph 193 c. The Death of the Davidic King 196 d. The Death of the Divine Son of God 198 e. Resurrection and Vindication of the Divine Warrior 200 4. Conclusions 201 5. Summary, Implications and Suggestions for Future Research 201V. Bibliography 205Figure 1: Isa. 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus 154Figure 2: Oracles of Proclamation and Salvation in Deutero-Isaiah 155Figure 3: Isa. 49-55 and the Task of the Servant 158Table 1: The use of ὁδός in Mark 66Table 2: The Way Section 67