SOT Prophets Session 2: A Closer Look at Isaiah 53
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SOT Prophets Session 2: A Closer Look at Isaiah 53

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  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • 1. 40.3-5 The highway in the wilderness. \n2. 41.17-20 The transformation of the wilderness. \n3. 42.14-16 Yahweh leads his people in a way they know not. \n4. 43.1-3 Passing through the waters and the fire. \n5. 43.14-21 A way in the wilderness. \n6. 48.20-21 The exodus from Babylon. \n7. 49.8-12 The new entry into the Promised Land. \n8. 51.9-10 The new victory at the sea. \n9. 52.11-12 The new exodus. \n10. 55.12-13 Israel shall go out in joy and peace.\n\nThe nation of Israel are in Babylon due to their own sin but YHWH promises to deliver them. YHWH will embark on a glorious new exodus in which he will defeat the enemy, free his people and lead them on to Zion. Israel, once again, bears the real possibility of being a light and covenant to the nations. However, this return from exile is dependent upon their active trust in the promises of YHWH and his choice of Cyrus the Persian. This 'new exodus' does not materialise due to the rebellious nature of servant Israel. We may represent this substructure diagrammatically,\n\n\nFigure 1: Isaiah 40-48 and the Failed New Exodus\n\nIsrael are in Exile in Babylon\n ↓\n Announcement (Oracle) of Imminent Salvation involving:\n•Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement)\n•Forgiveness of Sins\n•Use of Cyrus\n ↓\nConfrontation and Dialogue with Israel\n ↓\nRejection of YHWH's plan\n ↓\nFailed New Exodus\n\n
  • New Exodus Lanaguge/Divien Warrior\ninoiquity is pardonened\n\n
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SOT Prophets Session 2: A Closer Look at Isaiah 53 SOT Prophets Session 2: A Closer Look at Isaiah 53 Presentation Transcript

  • PROJECT SESSION TWO: A CLOSER LOOK AT ISAIAH 53DATE LOCATION 26TH FEB 2012 ST GEORGES’ CHURCH, LEEDS
  • PROJECT SESSION TWO: A CLOSER LOOK AT ISAIAH 53DATE LOCATION 26TH FEB 2012 ST GEORGES’ CHURCH, LEEDS
  • PROJECT SESSION TWO: A CLOSER LOOK AT ISAIAH 53DATE LOCATION 26TH FEB 2012 ST GEORGES’ CHURCH, LEEDS
  • Is. 53 Group Bible Study
  • Is. 53 Group Bible Study •Suffering, •Death, • Reason for death, •Vindication/Resurrection •Look at the other servant songs 42:1-4, 49:1-6, 50:4-9.
  • Is. 53 Group Bible Study •Suffering, •Death, • Reason for death, •Vindication/Resurrection •Look at the other servant songs 42:1-4, 49:1-6, 50:4-9.Further Study: How is this ‘servant figure’ different or similar to the messianic deliverer of Isaiah 11?
  • •SUFFERING
  • •SUFFERING “He was despised and rejected by men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not.” (53.3) “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he opened not his mouth.” (53.7) “By oppression and judgment he was taken away; and as for his generation, who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people?” (53.8) “Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.” (53.10)
  • •SUFFERING
  • •SUFFERING•DEATH
  • •SUFFERING•DEATH “He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter,.... who considered that he was cut off out of the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people? And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth.” (Isaiah 53:7–9, ESV) “Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.” (Isaiah 53:12, ESV)
  • •SUFFERING•DEATH•DEATH FOROTHERS
  • “Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we•SUFFERING esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was•DEATH the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned—every one•DEATH FOR —to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of usOTHERS all.” (Isaiah 53:4–6, ESV) “Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.” (Isaiah 53:10, ESV) “Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.” (Isaiah 53:12, ESV)
  • “Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we•SUFFERING esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was•DEATH the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his wounds we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned—every one•DEATH FOR —to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of usOTHERS all.” (Isaiah 53:4–6, ESV) “Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.” (Isaiah 53:10, ESV) “Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.” (Isaiah 53:12, ESV) ĀŠAM : as a technical term for an offering that represents the guilty persons attempt to absolve wrongdoing by making restitution.... The asam merely squared the offender with his God, whose honor had been violated. The law required that this offering for the cleansing of a leper (Lev 14.12-28), the rape of a slave girl (19.21-22) and the violation of a Nazarite vow (Numbers 6.12).
  • FOUR INITIAL OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE SERVANT•SUFFERING•DEATH•DEATH FOROTHERS•VINDICATION/RESURRECTION
  • FOUR INITIAL OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE SERVANT “Behold, my servant shall act wisely; he shall be high and lifted up, and shall be exalted.” (Isaiah 52:13, ESV)•SUFFERING “Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him; he has put•DEATH him to grief; when his soul makes an offering for guilt, he shall see his offspring; he shall prolong his days; the•DEATH FOR will of the Lord shall prosper in his hand.” (IsaiahOTHERS 53:10, ESV)•VINDICATION/ “Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see (light) and be satisfied; by his knowledge shall the righteous one,RESURRECTION my servant, make many to be accounted righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities.” (Isaiah 53:11, ESV)
  • Isaiah 40-55
  • Isaiah 40-55 •To the Exiles in Babylon
  • Isaiah 40-55 •To the Exiles in Babylon •Supremacy of YHWH to the Idols
  • Isaiah 40-55 •To the Exiles in Babylon •Supremacy of YHWH to the Idols •Servant Songs
  • Isaiah 40-55 •To the Exiles in Babylon •Supremacy of YHWH to the Idols •Servant Songs •New Exodus/Return from Exile
  • Isaiah 40-55 •To the Exiles in Babylon •Supremacy of YHWH to the Idols •Servant Songs •New Exodus/Return from Exile •Confrontation/Consolation?
  • Isaiah 40-55 •To the Exiles in Babylon •Supremacy of YHWH to the Idols •Servant Songs •New Exodus/Return from Exile •Confrontation/Consolation? •40-48, 49-55
  • •Narrative Substructure 40-48“Comfort, comfort my people, says your God. Speak tenderly to Jerusalem,and cry to her that her warfare is ended, that her iniquity is pardoned, thatshe has received from the Lord’s hand double for all her sins. A voice cries:“In the wilderness prepare the way of the Lord; make straight in the deserta highway for our God. Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountainand hill be made low; the uneven ground shall become level, and the roughplaces a plain. And the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all fleshshall see it together, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.” A voice says,“Cry!” And I said, “What shall I cry?” All flesh is grass, and all its beauty islike the flower of the field. The grass withers, the flower fades when thebreath of the Lord blows on it; surely the people are grass. The grasswithers, the flower fades, but the word of our God will stand forever. Go onup to a high mountain, O Zion, herald of good news; lift up your voice withstrength, O Jerusalem, herald of good news; lift it up, fear not; say to thecities of Judah, “Behold your God!” Behold, the Lord God comes withmight, and his arm rules for him; behold, his reward is with him, and hisrecompense before him. He will tend his flock like a shepherd; he willgather the lambs in his arms; he will carry them in his bosom, and gentlylead those that are with young.” (Isaiah 40:1–11, ESV)
  • CYRUS THE PERSIAN“who says of Cyrus, ‘He is my shepherd, and he shallfulfill all my purpose’; saying of Jerusalem, ‘She shallbe built,’ and of the temple, ‘Your foundation shall belaid.’ ” Thus says the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus,whose right hand I have grasped, to subdue nationsbefore him and to loose the belts of kings, to opendoors before him that gates may not beclosed:” (Isaiah 44:28–45:1, ESV)
  • CONFRONTATION
  • CONFRONTATION“Hear, you deaf, and look, you blind, that you may see! Who is blind but myservant, or deaf as my messenger whom I send? Who is blind as my dedicatedone, or blind as the servant of the Lord?” (Isaiah 42:18–19, ESV)
  • CONFRONTATION“Hear, you deaf, and look, you blind, that you may see! Who is blind but myservant, or deaf as my messenger whom I send? Who is blind as my dedicatedone, or blind as the servant of the Lord?” (Isaiah 42:18–19, ESV) “You have never heard, you have never known, from of old your ear has not been opened. For I knew that you would surely deal treacherously, and that from before birth you were called a rebel.” (Isaiah 48:8, ESV)
  • CONFRONTATION“Hear, you deaf, and look, you blind, that you may see! Who is blind but myservant, or deaf as my messenger whom I send? Who is blind as my dedicatedone, or blind as the servant of the Lord?” (Isaiah 42:18–19, ESV) “You have never heard, you have never known, from of old your ear has not been opened. For I knew that you would surely deal treacherously, and that from before birth you were called a rebel.” (Isaiah 48:8, ESV)“Oh that you had paid attention to my commandments! Then your peace wouldhave been like a river, and your righteousness like the waves of the sea; youroffspring would have been like the sand, and your descendants like its grains;their name would never be cut off or destroyed from before me.” Go out fromBabylon, flee from Chaldea, declare this with a shout of joy, proclaim it, send itout to the end of the earth; say, “The Lord has redeemed his servant Jacob!”They did not thirst when he led them through the deserts; he made water flow forthem from the rock; he split the rock and the water gushed out. “There is nopeace,” says the Lord, “for the wicked.”” (Isaiah 48:18–22, ESV)
  • ISRAEL ARE IN EXILE IN BABYLONANNOUNCEMENT (ORACLE) OF IMMINENT SALVATION •Promise of New Exodus (Liberation, Journey, Enthronement) •Forgiveness of Sins •Use of Cyrus CONFRONTATION AND DIALOGUE WITH ISRAEL REJECTION OF YHWHS PLAN FAILED NEW EXODUS (IS. 55-66, MAL, ZECH)
  • Narrative Substructure 49-55 •Forms of Speech (No Trial Speeches) •New Exodus •YHWH Has Not forgotten His People •No Confrontation •Salvation less Imminent •Zion •No mention of Cyrus“Sing for joy, O heavens, and exult, O earth; break forth, O mountains,into singing! For the Lord has comforted his people and will havecompassion on his afflicted. But Zion said, “The Lord has forsaken me;my Lord has forgotten me.” “Can a woman forget her nursing child, thatshe should have no compassion on the son of her womb? Even thesemay forget, yet I will not forget you. Behold, I have engraved you on thepalms of my hands; your walls are continually before me. Your buildersmake haste; your destroyers and those who laid you waste go out fromyou. Lift up your eyes around and see; they all gather, they come to you.As I live, declares the Lord, you shall put them all on as an ornament;you shall bind them on as a bride does.” (Isaiah 49:13–18, ESV)
  • PROCLAMATION OF (FUTURE) SALVATION:PROMISE OF NEW EXODUS (LIBERATION, JOURNEY, ENTHRONEMENT) • SERVANT GIVES HIS LIFE AS AN ĀŠAM • SERVANT IS VINDICATED/ RESURRECTED SUCCESSFUL NEW EXODUSISRAEL TO BE A LIGHT TO THE NATIONS
  • THE DAVIDIC IDENTITY OF THE SERVANT•Gezerah Shavah (Intratextual and Intertextual Method)•David Known elsewhere as Servant •!Servant (Is. 37.55) •!David was Known for righteous suffering. (See superscriptions of 3, 34, 52, 56, 59) •!‘Servant of YHWH’ in superscriptions of Psa. 18 and 36•‘High and Lifted Up’ read alongside Isaiah 6.1 and 57.15, with Psalm 110.•Horticultural Imagery (young plant, root 53.2) with Isaiah 11, Zech 3 (myservant, the branch)•Shared language/concepts between Is. 53 and Isa. 11•Targum of Isaiah
  • Isa. 11 Servant Song11.1 ‘Stump of Jesse’ 53.2 ‘Young Plant/Root11.2 ‘Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon 42.1 ‘I have put my Spirit on him’Him’ 52.13 ‘Behold my Servant shall act11.2 Endowed with Wisdom wisely’ 53.10 ‘will of YHWH’ 49.5 Honoured in11.3 Pleases YHWH Eyes of YHWH11.3 Judges 42.3 Brings Justice11.4 Mouth Like a Weapon 49.2 Mouth Like a Sharp Sword11.10,12 Stands as a Signal 49.22, directly after servant song11.6 Gather Nations 49.1, 49.6, 42.211.12 Gather ISrael 49.5
  • PROJECT SESSION TWO: A CLOSER LOOK AT ISAIAH 53DATE LOCATION 26TH FEB 2012 ST GEORGES’ CHURCH, LEEDS
  • PROJECT SESSION TWO: A CLOSER LOOK AT ISAIAH 53DATE LOCATION 26TH FEB 2012 ST GEORGES’ CHURCH, LEEDS
  • PROJECT SESSION TWO: A CLOSER LOOK AT ISAIAH 53DATE LOCATION 26TH FEB 2012 ST GEORGES’ CHURCH, LEEDS
  • nt others more significant than yourselves. Let each of you look not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others. Have this mind among yourselves, which is id not count equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied himself, by taking the form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men. And being found in humandeath, even death on a cross. Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every kneevery tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.” (Philippians 2:3–11, ESV)