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Hope of Israel Primary Source Pack
 

Hope of Israel Primary Source Pack

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Hope of Israel Primary Source Pack

Hope of Israel Primary Source Pack

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    Hope of Israel Primary Source Pack Hope of Israel Primary Source Pack Presentation Transcript

    • The Hope of Israel 1) Return from Exile (Based on Deut. 30:1-10) Isa. 49.5-6, 22-26; 56:8; 60:4, 9; 66:20 Jer. 3:18; 31:10; Ezek. 34.12-16; 36:24-28; 37:21-23; 39:27 Zeph. 3:20; Zech. 8:7-8 Tobit 14:3-7 3 And when he was dying he called Tobias his son, and charged him, saying, Child take thy children; and go into Media, 4for I believe the word of God upon Nineveh, which Nahum spake, that all those things will be, and will befall Assyria and Nineveh. And all the things which the prophets of Israel spake, whom God sent, shall befall; and nothing shall be minished of all the words; and all things shall come to pass in their seasons. And in Media shall be deliverance more than among the Assyrians and in Babylon; wherefore I know and believe that all the things which God hath spoken will be accomplished and will be, and there will not fall to the ground a word of the prophecies. And as for our brethren which dwell in the land of Israel, against all of them will God devise evils, and they will be carried captive from the goodly land, and all the land of Israel will be desolate, and Samaria and Jerusalem will be desolate, 5and the house of God will be in grief and be burned up for a time; and God will again have mercy on them, and God will bring them back into the land of Israel, and they will again build the house, but not like the first, until the time when the time of the seasons be fulfilled; and afterward they will return, all of them, from their captivity, and build up Jerusalem with honour, and the house of God shall be builded in her, even as the prophets of Israel spake concerning her. 6And all the nations which are in the whole earth, all shall turn and fear God truly, and all shall leave their idols, who err after their false error. 7And they shall bless the everlasting God in righteousness. All the children of Israel that are delivered in those days, remembering God in truth, shall be gathered together and come to Jerusalem and shall dwell for ever in the land of Abraham with security, and it shall be given over to them; and they that love God in truth shall rejoice, and they that do sin and shall cease from all the earth.1 Sirach 36:1–13 1 Save us, O God of all, 2 And cast Thy fear upon all the nations. 3 Shake Thy hand against the strange people, And let them see Thy power. 4 As Thou hast sanctified Thyself in us before them, So glorify Thyselfin them before us; 5 That they may know, as we also know, That there is none other God but Thee. 6 Renew the signs, and repeat the wonders, Make Hand and Right Arm glorious. 7 Waken indignation and pour out wrath, Subdue the foe and expel the enemy. 8 Hasten the ‘end’ and ordain the ‘appointed time’, For who may say to Thee: What doest Thou? 9 Let him that escapeth be devoured in the glowing fire, And may Thy people’s wrongers find destruction! 10 Make an end of the head of the enemy’s princes That saith: There is none beside me! 11a Gather all the tribes of Jacob, Baruch 4:36–37 36 O Jerusalem, look about thee toward the east, And behold the joy that cometh unto thee from God. 37 Lo, thy sons come, whom thou sentest away, They come gathered together from the east to the west [at the word of the Holy One], Rejoicing in the glory of God. 2 Maccabees 1:27–29 (Apocrypha of the Old Testament) 27 Gather together our dispersion, set at liberty them that are in bondage among the heathen, look upon them that are despised and abhorred, and let the heathen know that thou art our God. 28 Torment them that oppress us and in arrogancy shamefully treat us. 29 Plant thy people in thy holy place, even as Moses said. Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 1 i1 Apocrypha of the Old Testament ( ed. Robert Henry Charles;Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2004), Tob 14:3–7.
    • 1 Enoch 90:33-36 All those which have been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field and the birds of the sky were gathered together in that house; and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they had all become gentle and returned to his house. 34 I went on seeing until they had laid down that sword which was given to the sheep; they returned it to the house and sealed it in the presence of the Lord. All the sheep were invited to that house but it could not contain them (all). 35 The eyes of all of them were opened, and they saw the beautiful things; not a single one existed among them that could not see. 36 Also I noticed that the house was large, wide, and exceedingly full.2 Jubilees 1:15-18 And afterward they will turn to me from among the nations with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their might. And I shall gather them from the midst of all the nations. And they will seek me so that I might be found by them. When they seek me with all their heart and with all their soul, I shall reveal to them an abundance of peace in righteousness. 16* And with all my heart and with all my soul I shall transplant them as a righteous plant. And they will be a blessing and not a curse. And they will be the head and not the tail. 17* And I shall build my sanctuary in their midst, and I shall dwell with them. And I shall be their God and they will be my people truly and rightly. 18* And I shall not forsake them, and I shall not be alienated from the because I am the Lord their God.”3 Psalms of Solomon 11:1-9 1* Lord, you are our king forevermore, for in you, O God, does our soul take pride. 2 How long is the time of a person’s life on the earth? As is his time, so also is his hope in him. 3* But we hope in God our savior, for the strength of our God is forever with mercy. And the kingdom of our God is forever over the nations in judgment. 4Lord, you chose David to be king over Israel, and swore to him about his descendants forever, that his kingdom should not fail before you. 5 But (because of) our sins, sinners rose up against us, they set upon us and drove us out. Those to whom you did not (make the) promise, they took away (from us) by force; and they did not glorify your honorable name. 6 With pomp they set up a monarchy because of their arrogance; they despoiled the throne of David with arrogant shouting. 7* But you, O God, overthrew them, and uprooted their descendants from the earth, for there rose up against them a man alien to our race. 8* You rewarded them, O God, according to their sins; it happened to them according to their actions. 9 According to their actions, God showed no mercy to them; he hunted down their descendants, and did not let even one of them go. 4 11Q19 [Temple] Col. lix[59] (= 4Q524 6 - 13) 1 […] … […] 2 they shall disband them over many lands and they shall be the[re] a byword and a gibe, and under a heavy yoke, 3 and under lack of everything; and there they shall worship gods made by the hands of man, (of) wood and stone, silver 4 and gold. And during all this, their cities shall become a waste, and a mockery and a ruin; and 5 their enemies shall be appalled at them. And they themselves, in the lands of their enemies, shall sigh 6 and scream under a heavy yoke; and they shall call but I shall not listen, they shall shout but I shall not reply 7 to them, because of the evil of their deeds. And I will hide my face from them; and they shall be fodder Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 2 2 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 1 En 90:33–36. 3 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 2, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), 53. 4 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), Ps Sol 17.
    • 8 and prey and spoil, and no-one will save them because of their wickedness - for they broke my covenant 9 and their soul loathed my law, so that they became guilty of all wrong-doing. Afterwards they shall come back 10 to me with all their heart and with all their soul, in agreement with all the words of this law 11 and I will save them from the hand of their enemies and redeem them from the hand of those who hate them, and bring them 12 into the land of their fathers, and I shall redeem them, and multiply them, and rejoice in them. 13 And I shall be their God and they shall be my people. Blank And the king who 14 prostitutes his heart and his eyes (removing them) from my commandments, shall have no- one who will sit on the throne 15 of his fathers, never, because I shall prevent for ever his descendants from governing again in Israel. 16 Blank But if he walks according to my precepts and keeps my commandments and does 17 what is right and good before me, he shall not lack one of his sons to sit on the throne of the kingdom of 18 Israel for ever. And I shall be with him and free him from the hand of those who hate him and from the hand of 19 those who seek to destroy his life; and I shall give to him all his enemies and he shall rule them 20 at his will but they shall not rule him. And I shall place him above and not below, at the head 21 and not at the tail, and he will extend his kingdom for many days, he and his sons after him.5 Testament of Levi 16:5 5 You shall have no place that is clean, but you will be as a curse and a dispersion among the nations until he will again have regard for you, and will take you back in compassion.6 Testament of Judah 23 1 “My grief is great, my children, on account of the licentiousness and witchcraft and idolatry that you practice contrary to the kingship, following ventriloquists, omen dispensers, and demons of deceit. 2 You shall make your daughters into musicians and common women, and you will become involved in revolting gentile affairs. 3 In response to this the Lord will bring you famine and plague, death and the sword, punishment by a siege, scattering by enemies like dogs, the scorn of friends, destruction and putrefaction of your eyes, slaughter of infants, the plunder of your sustenance, the rape of your possessions, consumption of God’s sanctuary by fire, a desolate land, and yourselves enslaved by the gentiles. 4 And they shall s castrate some of you as eunuchs for their wives, 5 until you return to the Lord in integrity of heart, penitent and living according to all the Lord’s commands. Then the Lord will be concerned for you in mercy and will free you from captivity under your enemies.7 Testament of Dan. 5 7 “My sons will draw close to Levi, will participate with them in all manner of sins; and with the sons of Judah they will share in greed, like lions snatching what belongs to others. 8 Accordingly you will be led off with them into captivity; there you will receive all the plagues of Egypt, and all the evils of the gentiles. 9 Therefore when you turn back to the Lord, you will receive mercy, and he will lead you into his holy place, proclaiming peace to you. 10 And there shall arise for you from the tribe of Judah and (the tribe of) Levi the Lord’s salvation. He will make war against Beliar; he will grant the vengeance of victory as our goal.11 And he shall take from Beliar the captives, the souls of the saints;and he shall turn the hearts of the disobedient ones to the Lord, and grant eternal peace to those who call upon him. 12 And the saints shall refresh themselves in Eden;the righteous shall rejoice in the New Jerusalem,which shall be eternally for the glorification of God.13 And Jerusalem shall no Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 3 5 Florentino Garcı́a Martı́nez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, vol. 2, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations) (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997-1998), 1281. 6 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 794. 7 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 801.
    • longer undergo desolation,nor shall Israel be led into captivity,because the Lord will be in her midst [living among human beings].The Holy One of Israel will rule over them in humility and poverty,and he who trusts in him shall reign in truth in the heavens. 2) Renewed and Abundant Prosperity (Deut. 30:5,9) Isaiah 32:14-20; 35:1-2; 44:3; Ezek. 34:24-29; 36:29-30, 33-36; Joel 2:18-26; 3:18 Amos 9:13-14 including removal of disabilities and defects Isa. 29:18; 35:5-6; 42:7,18 1 Enoch 10-11 12* And when they and all their children have battled with each other, and when they have seen the destruction of their beloved ones, bind them for seventy generations underneath the rocks of the ground until the day of their judgment and of their consummation, until the eternal judgment is concluded. 13* In those days they will lead them into the bottom of the fire— and in torment—in the prison (where) they will be locked up forever. 14 And at the time when they will burn and die, those who collaborated with them will be bound together with them from henceforth unto the end of (all) generations. 15 And destroy all the souls of pleasure and the children of the Watchers, for they have done injustice to man. 16 Destroy injustice from the face of the earth. And every iniquitous deed will end, and the plant of righteousness and truth will appear forever and he will plant joy. 17 And then all the righteous ones will escape; and become the living ones until they multiply and become tens of hundreds; and all the days of their youth and the years of their retirement they will complete in peace. 18 And in those days the whole earth will be worked in righteousness, all of her planted with trees, and will find blessing. 19* And they shall plant pleasant trees upon her —vines. And he who plants a vine upon her will produce wine for plenitude. And every seed that is sown on her, one measure will yield a thousand (measures) and one measure of olives will yield ten measures of presses of oil. 20 And you cleanse the earth from all injustice, and from all defilement, and from all oppression, and from all sin, and from all iniquity which is being done on earth; remove them from the earth. 21 And all the children of the people will become righteous, and all nations shall worship and bless me; and they will all prostrate themselves to me. 22 And the earth shall be cleansed from all pollution, and from all sin, and from all plague, and from all suffering; and it shall not happen again that I shall send (these) upon the earth from generation to generation and forever.* “And in those days I shall open the storerooms of blessing which are in the heavens, so that I shall send them down upon the earth, over the work and the toil of the children of man. 2* And peace and truth shall become partners together in all the days of the world, and in all the generations of the world.”8 Sibylline Oracles 3:744-760 * When indeed this fated day also reaches its consummation and the judgment of immortal God comes upon mortals, a great judgment and dominion will come upon men. For the all-bearing earth will give the most excellent unlimited fruit 745* to mortals, of grain, wine, and oil and a delightful drink of sweet honey from heaven, trees, fruit of the top branches, and rich flocks and herds and lambs of sheep and kids of goats. And it will break forth sweet fountains of white milk. 750* The cities will be full of good things and the fields will be rich. There will be no sword on earth or din of battle, and the earth will no longer be shaken, groaning deeply. There will no longer be war or drought on earth, no famine or hail, damaging to fruits, 755 but there will be great peace throughout the whole earth. King will be friend to king to the end of the age. The Immortal in the starry heaven will put in effect Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 4 8 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 1 En 10:12–11:2.
    • a common law for men throughout the whole earthfor all that is done among wretched mortals. 760* For he himself alone is God and there is no other,and he himself will burn with fire a race of grievous men.9 2 Baruch 29:1-8 That which will happen at that time bears upon the whole earth. Therefore, all who live will notice it. 2* For at that time I shall only protect those found in this land at that time. 3* And it will happen that when all that which should come to pass in these parts has been accomplished, the Anointed One will begin to be revealed. 4 And Behemoth will reveal itself from its place, and Leviathan will come from the sea, the two great monsters which I created on the fifth day of creation and which I shall have kept until that time. And they will be nourishment for all who are left. 5 The earth will also yield fruits ten thousandfold. And on one vine will be a thousand branches, and one branch will produce a thousand clusters, and one cluster will produce a thousand grapes, and one grape will produce a cor of wine. 6 And those who are hungry will enjoy themselves and they will, moreover, see marvels every day. 7* For winds will go out in front of me every morning to bring the fragrance of aromatic fruits and clouds at the end of the day to distill the dew of health. 8* And it will happen at that time that the treasury of manna will come down again from on high, and they will eat of it in those years because these are they who will have arrived at the consummation of time.10 3) Messianic Figure or Divine Agent Isa. 11:2-3; 11:1-16, Isa. 9:1-7; Jer. 23:5-6; 33:14-26 Ezek. 34:24; 37:25 Hag. 2:23 Zech. 3:8; 6:12 Psalms of Solomon 17:21-46 21* See, Lord, and raise up for them their king, the son of David, to rule over your servant Israel in the time known to you, O God. 22* Undergird him with the strength to destroy the unrighteous rulers, to purge Jerusalem from gentiles who trample her to destruction; 23* in wisdom and in righteousness to drive out the sinners from the inheritance; to smash the arrogance of sinners like a potter’s jar; 24To shatter all their substance with an iron rod; to destroy the unlawful nations with the word of his mouth; 25* At his warning the nations will flee from his presence; and he will condemn sinners by the thoughts of their hearts. 26* He will gather a holy people whom he will lead in righteousness; and he will judge the tribes of the people that have been made holy by the Lord their God. 27* He will not tolerate unrighteousness (even) to pause among them, and any person who knows wickedness shall not live with them. For he shall know them that they are all children of their God. 28* He will distribute them upon the land according to their tribes; the alien and the foreigner will no longer live near them. 29* He will judge peoples and nations in the wisdom of his righteousness. Pause. 30 And he will have gentile nations serving him under his yoke, and he will glorify the Lord in (a place) prominent (above) the whole earth. And he will purge Jerusalem (and make it) holy as it was even from the beginning, 31* (for) nations to come from the ends of the earth to see his glory, to bring as gifts her children who had been driven out, and to see the glory of the Lord with which God has glorified her. 32* And he will be a righteous king over them, taught by God. Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 5 9 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 378-79. 10 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 2 Bar 29:1–8.
    • There will be no unrighteousness among them in his days, for all shall be holy, and their king shall be the Lord Messiah. 33 (for) he will not rely on horse and rider and bow, nor will he collect gold and silver for war. Nor will he build up hope in a multitude for a day of war. 34 The Lord himself is his king, the hope of the one who has a strong hope in God. He shall be compassionate to all the nations (who) reverently (stand) before him. 35* He will strike the earth with the word of his mouth forever; he will bless the Lord’s people with wisdom and happiness. 36* And he himself (will be) free from sin, (in order) to rule a great people. He will expose officials and drive out sinners by the strength of his word. 37* And he will not weaken in his days, (relying) upon his God, for God made him powerful in the holy spirit and wise in the counsel of understanding, with strength and righteousness. 38 And the blessing of the Lord will be with him in strength, and he will not weaken; 39 His hope (will be) in the Lord. Then who will succeed against him, 40 mighty in his actions and strong in the fear of God? Faithfully and righteously shepherding the Lord’s flock, he will not let any of them stumble in their pasture. 41 He will lead them all in holiness and there will be no arrogance among them, that any should be oppressed. 42 This is the beauty of the king of Israel which God knew, to raise him over the house of Israel to discipline it. 43* His words will be purer than the finest gold, the best. He will judge the peoples in the assemblies, the tribes of the sanctified. His words will be as the words of the holy ones, among sanctified peoples. 44* Blessed are those born in those days to see the good fortune of Israel which God will bring to pass in the assembly of the tribes. 45 May God dispatch his mercy to Israel; may he deliver us from the pollution of profane enemies; 46* The Lord Himself is our king forevermore. 11 4Q174 (4QFlor) 4QFlorilegium And as for what he said to David: 2 Sam 7:11 « I [shall obtain] for you [rest] from all your enemies »: (it refers to this,) that he will obtain for them rest from a[ll] 8 the sons of Belial, those who make them fall, to destroy th[em on account of] their [sins,] when they come with the plan of [B]el[i]al to make the s[ons of] 9 lig[ht] fall, and to plot against them wicked plans so th[at] they [are] trapped by Belial because of their gui[l]ty error. Blank 10 [And] yhwh [de]clares to you that 2 Sam 7:12-14 « he will build you a house. I will raise up your seed after you and establish the throne of his kingdom 11 [for ev]er. I will be a father to him and he will be a son to me. » This (refers to the) « branch of David », who will arise with the Interpreter of the law who 12 [will rise up] in Zi[on in] the [l]ast days, as it is written: Amos 9:11 « I will raise up the hut of David which has fallen », This (refers to) « the hut of 13 David which has fall[en », w]hich he will raise upto save Israel. Blank 12 4 Ezra 13:29-38 Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 6 11 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), Ps Sol 17:21– 46. 12 Florentino Garcı́a Martı́nez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, vol. 1, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations) (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997-1998), 353.
    • 29 Behold, the days are coming when the Most High will deliver those who are on the earth. 30 And bewilderment of mind shall come over those who dwell on the earth. 31* And they shall plan to make war against one another, city against city, place against place, people against people, and kingdom against kingdom. 32 And when these things come to pass and the signs occur which I showed you before, then my son will be revealed, whom you saw as a man coming up from the sea. 33 And when all the nations hear his voice, every man shall leave his own land and the warfare that they have against one another; 34* and an innumerable multitude shall be gathered together, as you saw, desiring to come and conquer him. 35, But he will stand on the top of Mount Zion. 36 And Zion will come and be made manifest to all people, prepared and built, as you saw the mountain carved out without hands. 37* And he, my Son, will reprove the assembled nations for their ungodliness (this was symbolized by the storm), 38 and will reproach them to their face with their evil thoughts and with the torments with which they are to be tortured (which were symbolized by the flames); and he will destroy them without effort by the law (which was symbolized by the fire).13 Josephus Jewish War 6.312-315 (312) But now, what did most elevate them in undertaking this war, was an ambiguous oracle that was also found in their sacred writings, how, “about that time, one from their country should become governor of the habitable earth.” (313) The Jews took this prediction to belong to themselves in particular and many of the wise men were thereby deceived in their determination. Now, this oracle certainly denoted the government of Vespasian, who was appointed emperor in Judea. (314) However, it is not possible for men to avoid fate, although they see it beforehand. (315) But these men interpreted some of these signals according to their own pleasure; and some of them they utterly despised, until their madness was demonstrated, both by the taking of their city, and their own destruction.14 4) Renewed Covenant, Turning from Transgression, law keeping and fresh outpouring of the Spirit. Isa. 44:3-4; 59:20-21; Jer. 31:31-34; Ezek. 36:25-29; 39:28-29; Joel 2:28-3:1; Zech. 14:16:21 Jubilees 1:19-26 19* And Moses fell upon his face, and he prayed and said, “O Lord, my God, do not abandon your people and your inheritance to walk in the error of their heart. And do not deliver them into the hand of their enemy, the gentiles, lest they rule over them and cause them to sin against you. 20* “O Lord, let your mercy be lifted up upon your people, and create for them an upright spirit. And do not let the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before you and ensnare them from every path of righteousness so that they might be destroyed from before your face. 21* But they are your people and your inheritance, whom you saved by your great might from the hand of the Egyptians. Create a pure heart and a holy spirit for them. And do not let them be ensnared by their sin henceforth and forever.” 22* And the Lord said to Moses, “I know their contrariness and their thoughts and their stubbornness. And they will not obey until they acknowledge their sin and the sins of their fathers. 23* But after this they will return to me in all uprighteousness and with all of (their) heart and soul. And I shall cut off the foreskin of their heart and the foreskin of the heart of their Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 7 13 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 4 Ezr 13:29–38. 14 Flavius Josephus and William Whiston, The Works of Josephus: Complete and Unabridged (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1987).
    • descendants. And I shall create for them a holy spirit, and I shall purify them so that they will not turn away from following me from that day and forever. 24* And their souls will cleave to me and to all my commandments. And they will do my commandments. And I shall be a father to them, and they will be sons to me. 25 And they will all be called ‘sons of the living God.’ And every angel and spirit will know and acknowledge that they are my sons and I am their father in uprightness and righteousness. And I shall love them. 15 5) Building of a New Temple Ezekiel 47 Tobit 14:3-7 3 And when he was dying he called Tobias his son, and charged him, saying, Child take thy children; and go into Media, 4for I believe the word of God upon Nineveh, which Nahum spake, that all those things will be, and will befall Assyria and Nineveh. And all the things which the prophets of Israel spake, whom God sent, shall befall; and nothing shall be minished of all the words; and all things shall come to pass in their seasons. And in Media shall be deliverance more than among the Assyrians and in Babylon; wherefore I know and believe that all the things which God hath spoken will be accomplished and will be, and there will not fall to the ground a word of the prophecies. And as for our brethren which dwell in the land of Israel, against all of them will God devise evils, and they will be carried captive from the goodly land, and all the land of Israel will be desolate, and Samaria and Jerusalem will be desolate, 5and the house of God will be in grief and be burned up for a time; and God will again have mercy on them, and God will bring them back into the land of Israel, and they will again build the house, but not like the first, until the time when the time of the seasons be fulfilled; and afterward they will return, all of them, from their captivity, and build up Jerusalem with honour, and the house of God shall be builded in her, even as the prophets of Israel spake concerning her. 6And all the nations which are in the whole earth, all shall turn and fear God truly, and all shall leave their idols, who err after their false error. 7And they shall bless the everlasting God in righteousness. All the children of Israel that are delivered in those days, remembering God in truth, shall be gathered together and come to Jerusalem and shall dwell for ever in the land of Abraham with security, and it shall be given over to them; and they that love God in truth shall rejoice, and they that do sin and unrighteousness shall cease from all the earth.16 Jubilees 1:15-18 And after this they will turn to Me from amongst the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength, and I will gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek me, so that I shall be found of them, when they seek me with all their heart and with all their soul. 16 And I will disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I will †remove them the plant of uprightness†, with all My heart and with all My soul, and they shall be for a blessing and not for a curse, and they shall be the head and not the tail. 17 And I will build My sanctuary in their midst, and I will dwell with them, and I will be their God and they shall be My people in truth and righteousness. 18 And I will not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God.’17 1 Enoch 90:28-29 28 Then I stood still, looking at that ancient house being transformed: All the pillars and all the columns were pulled out; and the ornaments of that house were packed and taken out together with them and abandoned in a certain place in the South of the land. 29 I went on seeing until the Lord of the sheep brought about Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 8 15 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 2, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), 53-54. 16 Apocrypha of the Old Testament ( ed. Robert Henry Charles;Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2004), Tob 14:3–7. 17 , vol. 2, Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament ( ed. Robert Henry Charles;Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2004), 12.
    • a new house, greater and loftier than the first one, and set it up in the first location which had been covered up—all its pillars were new, the columns new; and the ornaments new as well as greater than those of the first, (that is) the old (house) which was gone. All the sheep were within it. 11Q19 (11Q Temple) 29:2-10 2 These (are) […] 3 for burnt-offerings … […] In the house 4 upon which I [shall make] my name [reside …] burnt-offerings, [day] after day, according to the ruling of this regulation, 5 continually, from the children of Israel besides their freewill offerings. All that they will offer, 6 all their vows and all their presents which they bring me for th[eir] acceptance, 7 I shall accept them. They shall be for me a people and I will be for them for ever; and I shall dwell 8 with them for ever and always. I shall sanctify my [te]mple with my glory, for I shall make my glory reside 9 over it until the day of creation, when I shall create my temple, 10 establishing it for myself for all days, according to the covenant which I made with Jacob at Bethel.18 Testament of Benjamin 9:2-3 [likely amended by Christians editors] But in your allotted place will be the temple of God, and the latter temple will exceed the former in glory. The twelve tribes shall be gathered there and all the nations, until such time as the Most High shall send forth his salvation through the ministration of the unique prophet. 3* [He shall enter the first temple, and there the Lord will be abused and will be raised up on wood. And the temple curtain shall be torn, and the spirit of God will move on to all the nations as a fire is poured out. And he shall ascend from Hades and shall pass on from earth to heaven. I understand how humble he will be on the earth, and how splendid in heaven.]19 Sibylline Oracles 3.280-294 Therefore for seven decades of times all your fruitful earth and the wonders of the Temple will be desolate. But a good end and very great glory await you as immortal God decreed for you. But, you, remain, trusting in the holy laws of the great God, 285* whenever he may lift your wearied knee upright to the light. And then the heavenly God will send a king and will judge each man in blood and the gleam of fire. There is a certain royal tribe whose race will never stumble. This too, as time pursues its cyclic course, 290* will reign, and it will begin to raise up a new temple of God.All the kings of the Persians will bring to their aid gold and bronze and much- wrought iron. For God himself will give a holy dream by night and then indeed the temple will again be as it was before.20 6) Return of YHWH to Zion Is. 24.23; 25:9-10; 40:3-5, 9-10; 52:7-8; 59:20; Ezek. 43:2-7; Zech 2:10-12; 8:3; 14:4; Mal 3:1; Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 9 18 Florentino Garcı́a Martı́nez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, vol. 2, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations) (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997-1998), 1251. 19 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 827. 20 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 368.
    • Jubilees 1:26-28 27 And He said to the angel of the presence: ‘Write for Moses from the beginning of creation till My sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity. 28 And the Lord will appear to the eyes of all, and all shall know that I am the God of Israel and the Father of all the children of Jacob, and King on Mount Zion for all eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem shall be holy.’ 21 11Q19 (11Q Temple) 29:7-10 7 I shall accept them. They shall be for me a people and I will be for them for ever; and I shall dwell 8 with them for ever and always. I shall sanctify my [te]mple with my glory, for I shall make my glory reside 9 over it until the day of creation, when I shall create my temple, 10 establishing it for myself for all days, according to the covenant which I made with Jacob at Bethel.22 1 Enoch 1:3-9 3* And I took up with a parable (saying), “The God of the universe, the Holy Great One, will come forth from his dwelling. 4* And from there he will march upon Mount Sinai and appear in his camp emerging from heaven with a mighty power.5*  And everyone shall be afraid, and Watchers shall quiver. And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth. 6 Mountains and high places will fall down and be frightened. And high hills shall be made low; and they shall melt like a honeycomb before the flame. 7 And earth shall be rent asunder; and all that is upon the earth shall perish. And there shall be a judgment upon all, (including) the righteous. 8* And to all the righteous he will grant peace. He will preserve the elect, and kindness shall be upon them. They shall all belong to God and they shall prosper and be blessed; and the light of God shall shine unto them. 9* Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all. He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done, that which the sinners and the wicked ones committed against him.”23 Assumption of Moses 10:1-7 10 1 “Then his kingdom will appear throughout his whole creation. Then the devil will have an end. Yea, sorrow will be led away with him. 2 Then will be filled the hands of the messenger, who is in the highest place appointed. Yea, he will at once avenge them of their enemies. 3* For the Heavenly One will arise from his kingly throne. Yea, he will go forth from his holy habitation with indignation and wrath on behalf of his sons. 4 And the earth will tremble, even to its ends shall it be shaken. And the high mountains will be made low. Yea, they will be shaken, as enclosed valleys will they fall. 5 The sun will not give light. And in darkness the horns of the moon will flee. Yea, they will be broken in pieces. It will be turned wholly into blood. Yea, even the circle of the stars will be thrown into disarray. 6 And the sea all the way to the abyss will retire, to the sources of waters which fail. Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 10 21 , vol. 2, Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament ( ed. Robert Henry Charles;Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2004), 13. 22 Florentino Garcı́a Martı́nez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, vol. 2, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations) (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997-1998), 1251. 23 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 1 En 1:2–9.
    • Yea, the rivers will vanish away. 7 For God Most High will surge forth, the Eternal One alone. In full view will he come to work vengeance on the nations. Yea, all their idols will he destroy.24 7) Future of Nations (Blessing, Pilgrimage, Worship YHWH) Isa. 18:7; 45:14; 60:3-16; 61:5-6; Hag. 2:7-9 Psalm 2:8-9; Zeph. 2:9-11 1Q33 (1QM) 1 QWar Scroll Col. i (= 4Q496 2 + 1) 1 For the Ins[tructor: The Rule of] the War. The first attack by the sons of light will be launched against the lot of the sons of darkness, against the army of Belial, against the band of Edom and of Moab and of the sons of Ammon 2 and […] Philistia, and against the bands of the Kittim of Ashur, who are being helped by the violators of the covenant. The sons of Levi, the sons of Judah and the sons of Benjamin, the exiled of the desert, will wage war against them. 3 […] against all their bands, when the exiled sons of light return from the desert of the nations to camp in the desert of Jerusalem. And after the war, they shall go up from there 4 … […] of the Kittim in Egypt. And in his time, he will go out with great rage to wage war against the kings of the North, and his anger wants to exterminate and cut off the horn of 5 I[srael. And th]is is a time of salvation for the nation of God and a period of rule for all the men of his lot, and of everlasting destruction for all the lot of Belial. There will be 6 g[reat] panic [among] the sons of Japhet, Ashur shall fall and there will be no help for him; the rule of the Kittim will come to an end, wickedness having been defeated, with no remnant remaining, and there will be no escape 7 for [any of the sons] of darkness. Blank 8 And [the sons of jus]tice shall shine to all the edges of the earth, they shall go on shining, up to the end of all the periods of darkness; and in the time of God, his exalted greatness will shine for all the et[ernal] times, 9 for peace and blessing, glory and joy, and length of days for all the sons of light. And on the day on which the Kittim fall, there will be a battle, and savage destruction before the God of V 1, p 115 10 Israel, for this will be the day determined by him since ancient times for the war of extermination against the sons of darkness. On this (day), the assembly of the gods and the congregation of men shall confront each other for great destruction. 11 The sons of light and the lot of darkness shall battle together for God’s might, between the roar of a huge multitude and the shout of gods and of men, on the day of the calamity. 25 Sirach 36 Have mercy upon us, O God of all, 2 # and put all the nations in fear of you. 3# Lift up your hand against foreign nations and let them see your might. 4# As you have used us to show your holiness to them, so use them to show your glory to us. 5# Then they will know, as we have known, that there is no God but you, O Lord. 6# Give new signs, and work other wonders; 7# make your hand and right arm glorious. 8# Rouse your anger and pour out your wrath; 9# destroy the adversary and wipe out the enemy. 10# Hasten the day, and remember the appointed time, and let people recount your mighty deeds. 11# Let survivors be consumed in the fiery wrath, and may those who harm your people meet destruction. 12# Crush the heads of hostile rulers who say, “There is no one but ourselves.” 13# Gather all the tribes of Jacob, 16# and give them their inheritance, as at the beginning. Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 11 24 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 931-32. 25 Florentino Garcı́a Martı́nez and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, vol. 1, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Translations) (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997-1998), 113-15.
    • 17# Have mercy, O Lord, on the people called by your name, on Israel, whom you have named your firstborn, 18# Have pity on the city of your sanctuary, Jerusalem, the place of your dwelling. 19# Fill Zion with your majesty, and your temple with your glory. 20# Bear witness to those whom you created in the beginning, and fulfill the prophecies spoken in your name. 21# Reward those who wait for you and let your prophets be found trustworthy. 22# Hear, O Lord, the prayer of your servants, according to your goodwill toward your people, and all who are on the earth will know that you are the Lord, the God of the ages. 26 Tobit 13:7-11 As for me, I exalt my God, and my soul rejoices in the King of heaven. 8# Let all people speak of his majesty, and acknowledge him in Jerusalem. 9# O Jerusalem, the holy city, he afflicted you for the deeds of your hands, but will again have mercy on the children of the righteous. 10# Acknowledge the Lord, for he is good, and bless the King of the ages, so that his tent may be rebuilt in you in joy. May he cheer all those within you who are captives, and love all those within you who are distressed, to all generations forever. 11# A bright light will shine to all the ends of the earth; many nations will come to you from far away, the inhabitants of the remotest parts of the earth to your holy name, bearing gifts in their hands for the King of heaven. Generation after generation will give joyful praise in you; the name of the chosen city will endure forever. 27 1 Enoch 10:21-22  And all the children of the people will become righteous, and all nations shall worship and bless me; and they will all prostrate themselves to me. 22 And the earth shall be cleansed from all pollution, and from all sin, and from all plague, and from all suffering; and it shall not happen again that I shall send (these) upon the earth from generation to generation and forever.28 8) Climactic Period of Tribulation/ Suffering Dan. 12:1-2 Assumption of moses 10:3-6 3* For the Heavenly One will arise from his kingly throne. Yea, he will go forth from his holy habitation with indignation and wrath on behalf of his sons. 4 And the earth will tremble, even to its ends shall it be shaken. And the high mountains will be made low. Yea, they will be shaken, as enclosed valleys will they fall. 5 The sun will not give light. And in darkness the horns of the moon will flee. Yea, they will be broken in pieces. It will be turned wholly into blood. Yea, even the circle of the stars will be thrown into disarray. 6 And the sea all the way to the abyss will retire, to the sources of waters which fail. Yea, the rivers will vanish away. 4 Ezra 8:63- 9:9 Then I answered and said, 63 “Behold, O Lord, you have now shown me a multitude of the signs which you will do in the last times, but you have not shown me when you will do them.” Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 12 26 The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1989), Sir 36:1–22. 27 The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1989), Tob 13:7–11. 28 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 1 En 10:21–22.
    • 9 1 He answered me and said, “Measure carefully in your mind, and when you see that a certain part of the predicted signs are past, 2 then you will know that it is the very time when the Most High is about to visit the world which he has made. 3 So when there shall appear in the world earthquakes, tumult of peoples, intrigues of nations, wavering of leaders, confusion of princes, 4 then you will know that it was of these that the Most High spoke from the days that were of old, from the beginning. 5 For just as with everything that has occurred in the world, the beginning is evident, and the end is manifest; 6 so also are the times of the Most High: The beginnings are manifest in wonders and mighty works, and the end in requital and signs. 7 And it shall be that everyone who will be saved and will be able to escape on account of his works, or on account of the faith by which he has believed, 8 will survive the dangers that have been predicted, and will see my salvation in my land and within my borders, which I have sanctified for myself from the beginning. 9 Then those who have now abused my ways shall be amazed, and those who have rejected them with contempt shall dwell in torments.29 2 Baruch 26-27:15 And I answered and said: That tribulation which will be will it last a long time; and that distress, will it embrace many years?1 And he answered and said to me: That time will be divided into twelve parts, and each part has been preserved for that for which it was appointed. 2* In the first part: the beginning of commotions. 3 In the second part: the slaughtering of the great. 4 In the third part: the fall of many into death. 5 In the fourth part: the drawing of the sword. 6 In the fifth part: famine and the withholding of rain. 7* In the sixth part: earthquakes and terrors. 9 In the eighth part: a multitude of ghosts and the appearances of demons. 10 In the ninth part: the fall of fire. 11 In the tenth part: rape and much violence. 12 In the eleventh part: injustice and unchastity. 13* In the twelth part: disorder and a mixture of all that has been before. 14* These parts of that time will be preserved and will be mixed, one with another, and they will minister to each other. 15* For some of these parts will withhold a part of themselves and take from others and will accomplish that which belongs to them and to others; hence, those who live on earth in those days will not understand that it is the end of times.30 Sibylline Oracles 3.795 * I will tell you a very clear sign, so that you may know when the end of all things comes to pass on earth: when swords are seen at night in starry heaven toward evening and toward dawn, 800* and again dust is brought forth from heaven upon the earth and all the light of the sun is eclipsed in the middle from heaven, and the rays of the moon appear and return to the earth. There will be a sign from the rocks, with blood and drops of gore. 805* You will see a battle of infantry and cavalry in the clouds, like a hunt of wild beasts, like a mist. This is the end of war which God, who inhabits heaven, is accomplishing. But all must sacrifice to the great king.31 9) Final Defeat of Satan Isa. 24:12-14 Jubilees 5:3-11 3* And the Lord saw the earth, and behold it was corrupted and all flesh had corrupted its order and all who were on the earth had done every sort of evil in his sight. 4 And he said, “I will wipe out man and all flesh which I have created from upon the surface of the earth.” 5 But Noah alone found favor in the sight of the Lord. 6* And against his angels whom he had sent to the earth he was very angry. He commanded that they be uprooted from all their dominion. And he Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 13 29 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 4 Ezr 8:62–9:9. 30 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 2 Bar 26–27:15. 31 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 379-80.
    • told us to bind them in the depths of the earth, and behold, they are bound in the midst of them, and they are isolated. 7 And against their children a word went forth from before his presence so that he might smite them with the sword and remove them from under heaven. 8 And he said, “My spirit will not dwell upon man forever; for they are flesh, and their days will be one hundred and ten years.” 9 And he sent his sword among them so that each one might kill his fellow and they began to kill one another until they all fell on the sword and they were wiped out from the earth. 10 And their parents also watched. And subsequently they were bound in the depths of the earth forever, until the day of great judgment in order for judgment to be executed upon all of those who corrupted their ways and their deeds before the Lord. 11 And he wiped out every one from their places and not one of them remained whom he did not judge according to all his wickedness. 32 Jubilees 23:26-31 26 And in those days, children will begin to search the law, and to search the commandments and to return to the way of righteousness. 27 And the days will begin to increase and grow longer among those sons of men, generation by generation, and year by year, until their days approach a thousand years, and to a greater number of years than days. 28* And there (will be) no old men and none who is full of days. Because all of them will be infants and children. 29* And all of their days they will be complete and live in peace and rejoicing and there will be no Satan and no evil (one) who will destroy, because all of their days will be days of blessing and healing. 30 And then the Lord will heal his servants, and they will rise up and see great peace. And they will drive out their enemies, and the righteous ones will see and give praise, and rejoice forever and ever with joy; and they will see all of their judgments and all of their curses among their enemies. 31* And their bones will rest in the earth, and their spirits will increase joy, and they will know that the Lord is an executor of judgment; but he will show mercy to hundreds and thousands, to all who love him. 33 Testament of Dan. 5:10-13 10 And there shall arise for you from the tribe of Judah and (the tribe of) Levi the Lord’s salvation. He will make war against Beliar; he will grant the vengeance of victory as our goal. 11 And he shall take from Beliar the captives, the souls of the saints; and he shall turn the hearts of the disobedient ones to the Lord, and grant eternal peace to those who call upon him. 12 And the saints shall refresh themselves in Eden; the righteous shall rejoice in the New Jerusalem, which shall be eternally for the glorification of God. 13 And Jerusalem shall no longer undergo desolation, nor shall Israel be led into captivity, Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 14 32 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 2, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), 64-65. 33 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 2, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), 101-02.
    • because the Lord will be in her midst [living among human beings]. The Holy One of Israel will rule over them in humility and poverty, and he who trusts in him shall reign in truth in the heavens.34 Assumption of Moses 10:1-10 1“Then his kingdom will appear throughout his whole creation. Then the devil will have an end. Yea, sorrow will be led away with him. 2 Then will be filled the hands of the messenger, who is in the highest place appointed. Yea, he will at once avenge them of their enemies. 3* For the Heavenly One will arise from his kingly throne. Yea, he will go forth from his holy habitation with indignation and wrath on behalf of his sons. 4 And the earth will tremble, even to its ends shall it be shaken. And the high mountains will be made low. Yea, they will be shaken, as enclosed valleys will they fall. 5 The sun will not give light. And in darkness the horns of the moon will flee. Yea, they will be broken in pieces. It will be turned wholly into blood. Yea, even the circle of the stars will be thrown into disarray. 6 And the sea all the way to the abyss will retire, to the sources of waters which fail. Yea, the rivers will vanish away. 7 For God Most High will surge forth, the Eternal One alone. In full view will he come to work vengeance on the nations. Yea, all their idols will he destroy. 8 Then will you be happy, O Israel! And you will mount up above the necks and the wings of an eagle. Yea, all things will be fulfilled. 9 And God will raise you to the heights. Yea, he will fix you firmly in the heaven of the stars, in the place of their habitations. 10 And you will behold from on high. Yea, you will see your enemies on the earth. And recognizing them, you will rejoice. And you will give thanks. Yea, you will confess your creator.35 10) Final Judgement Isa. 66:15-16; Dan. 7:10; Zeph. 3:8; Mal. 4:1 Jubilees 5:10-16 10 And their parents also watched. And subsequently they were bound in the depths of the earth forever, until the day of great judgment in order for judgment to be executed upon all of those who corrupted their ways and their deeds before the Lord. 11 And he wiped out every one from their places and not one of them remained whom he did not judge according to all his wickedness. 12* And he made for all his works a new and righteous nature so that they might not sin in all their nature forever, and so that they might all be righteous, each in his kind, always. 13 And the judgment of all of them has been ordained and written in the heavenly tablets without injustice. And (if)d any of them transgress from their way with respect to what was ordained for them to walk in, or if they do not walk in it, the judgment for every (sort of) nature and every kind has been written. 14 And there is nothing excluded which is in heaven or on earth or in the light or in the darkness or in Sheol or in the depths or in the place of darkness. And all their judgments are ordained, written, and engraved. 15 He will judge concerning every one: the great one according to his greatness and the small one Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 15 34 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 809-10. 35 James H. Charlesworth, vol. 1, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 931-32.
    • according to his smallness, and each one according to his way. 16* And he is not one who accepts persons, and he is not one who accepts gifts when he says that he will execute judgment upon each one. If one gave everything which is in the earth, he would not accept gifts or persons. And he would not accept (anything) from his hand because he is a righteous judge. 36 Enoch 22:9-14 And in the manner in which the souls of the righteous are separated (by) this spring of water with light upon it, 10 in like manner, the sinners are set apart when they die and are buried in the earth and judgment has not been executed upon them in their lifetime, 11 upon this great pain, until the great day of judgment—and to those who curse (there will be) plague and pain forever, and the retribution of their spirits. They will bind them there forever—even if from the beginning of the world. 12 And in this manner is a separation made for the souls of those who make the suit (and) those who disclose concerning destruction, as they were killed in the days of the sinners. 13 Such has been made for the souls of the people who are not righteous, but sinners and perfect criminals; they shall be together with (other) criminals who are like them, (whose)b2 souls will not be killed on the day of judgment but will not rise from there.” 14 At that moment I blessed the Lord of Glory and I said, “Blessed be my Lord, the Lord of righteousness who rules forever.”37 Apocalypse of Abraham 22:3-4 And I said, “O sovereign, mighty and eternal! Why are the people in this picture on this side and on that?” 4 And he said to me, “These who are on the left side are a multitude of tribes who existed previously … and after you some (who have been) prepared for judgment and order, others for revenge and perdition at the end of the age. 5 Those on the right side of the picture are the people set apart for me of the people with Azazel; these are the ones I have prepared to be born of you and to be called my people.38 2 Maccabees 7:7-14 7 After the first brother had died in this way, they brought forward the second for their sport. They tore off the skin of his head with the hair, and asked him, “Will you eat rather than have your body punished limb by limb?” 8 He replied in the language of his ancestors and said to them, “No.” Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done. 9 And when he was at his last breath, he said, “You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.” 10 After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands, 11  and said nobly, “I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.” 12 As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man’s spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing. 13  After he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way. 14 When he was near death, he said, “One cannot but choose to die at the hands of mortals and to cherish the hope God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!” 39 Primary Source Pack: The Hope of Israel Rev. Jon Swales SBTC 16 36 James H. Charlesworth, vol.The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the "Old Testament" and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 1985), 64-65. 37 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 1 En 22:9–14. 38 James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1 (New York; London: Yale University Press, 1983), 700. 39 The Holy Bible: New Revised Standard Version (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1989), 2 Mac. 7:7–14.