1. Heaven and Hell <ul><li>What happens when we die? </li></ul>
2. Platonic HIJACKing Spiritual/Physical Immortality of the Soul Disembodied Bliss
3. PROBLEMS WITH PLATO... God declared the world and physicality to be good. The Soul is not immortal. Heaven is not my home! God’s Plan for the World.
4. Afterlife in the bible Textual search for the word. HELL KJV 59 NIV 14 ESV 14 NRSV 15
5. Sheol/HAdes: THE Land of the Shadows Sheol: Appears in 64 passages in the OT Hades translates Sheol in the LXX (105x) and 10x in the NT. The only afterlife articulated in the OT is Sheol. This term, with its synonyms ‘pit’ and ‘destruction’, indicates a realm of sleepy, shadowy existence in the depths of the earth. In one description, formerly mighty kings now in Sheol need to be roused to greet a newcomer, the mighty king of Babylon, who has become weak like them (Is. 14:9–11). In another, various conquering armies lie in groups in a great cavern (Ezek. 32:17–32). This is similar to the underworld in much other ancient Near Eastern literature. However, the OT shows a striking disinterest in the fate of the dead.
6. Sheol/HAdes: THE Land of the Shadows Psalm 6:5 For in death there is no remembrance of you; in Sheol who will give you praise? Psalm 115:17 The dead do not praise the Lord, nor do any who go down into silence. Genesis 3:19 By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread, till you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; for you are dust, and to dust you shall return.” Psalm 30:9 “What profit is there in my death, if I go down to the pit? Will the dust praise you? Will it tell of your faithfulness? Psalm 88:3–7 For my soul is full of troubles, and my life draws near to Sheol. 4 I am counted among those who go down to the pit; I am a man who has no strength, 5 like one set loose among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, like those whom you remember no more, for they are cut off from your hand. 6 You have put me in the depths of the pit, in the regions dark and deep. 7 Your wrath lies heavy upon me, and you overwhelm me with all your waves. Selah Isaiah 38:10–11I said, In the middle of my days I must depart; I am consigned to the gates of Sheol for the rest of my years. 11 I said, I shall not see the Lord, the Lord in the land of the living; I shall look on man no more among the inhabitants of the world. 2 Samuel 14:14 14 We must all die; we are like water spilled on the ground, which cannot be gathered up again. But God will not take away life, and he devises means so that the banished one will not remain an outcast. Ecclesiastes 9:5 For the living know that they will die, but the dead know nothing, and they have no more reward, for the memory of them is forgotten.
7. RESURRECTION: LIFE AFTER LIFE AFTER DEATH Daniel 12:2–3 (ESV) 2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 And those who are wise shall shine like the brightness of the sky above; and those who turn many to righteousness, like the stars forever and ever. The biblical language of resurrection (standing up, awakening’) when it emerges, is simple and direct; the belief though infrequent, is clear. it involves, not a construal of life after death, but the reversal of death itself. It is not about discovering that Sheol is not such a bad place after all. It is not a way of saying that teh dust will learn to be happy as dust. The language of awakening is not a new, exciting way of talking about sleep. It is a way of saying that a time will come when sleepers will sleep no more. Creation itself, celebrated throughout the Hebrew scriptures, will be affirmed, remade. Resurrection of the Son of God , pg.128
8. RESURRECTION: LIFE AFTER LIFE AFTER DEATH 2 Maccabees 14:43–46 . The story of Razis 43 Owing to the hurry of the struggle, however, he missed his stroke, and, as a crowd of men was now pouring through the door, he pluckily ran up to the wall and threw himself bravely down among the crowds. 44 They drew back at once, so that he fell between them on the open street. 45 Still alive, however, he got up in a fury of anger and ran, with blood pouring from him, sore wounded as he was, right through the crowds; 46 then, standing on a steep rock, his blood now drained from him, he tore out his bowels, taking both his hands to them, and flung them at the crowds. So he died, calling on Him who is lord of life and spirit to restore them to him again. 1 Enoch 51 1 And in those days shall the earth also give back that which has been entrusted to it, And Sheol also shall give back that which it has received, And hell shall give back that which it owes. 5 a For in those days the Elect One shall arise, 2 And he shall choose the righteous and holy from among them: For the day has drawn nigh that they should be saved. 3 And the Elect One shall in those days sit on My throne, And his mouth shall pour forth all the secrets of wisdom and counsel: For the Lord of Spirits hath given (them) to him and hath glorified him. 4 And in those days shall the mountains leap like rams, And the hills also shall skip like lambs satisfied with milk, And the faces of [all] the angels in heaven shall be lighted up with joy. 5 b And the earth shall rejoice, c And the righteous shall dwell upon it, d And the elect shall walk thereon.0
9. RESURRECTION OF JESUS
10. Jesus InVADES SHeol/HEll He descended into hell, on the third day he rose again....... 1 Peter 3:18–20 (ESV) 18 For Christ also suffered once for sins, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh but made alive in the spirit, 19 in which he went and proclaimed to the spirits in prison, 20 because they formerly did not obey, when God’s patience waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight persons, were brought safely through water. 1 Peter 4:6 (ESV) 6 For this is why the gospel was preached even to those who are dead, that though judged in the flesh the way people are, they might live in the spirit the way God does. Matthew 27:52–53 (ESV) 52 The tombs also were opened. And many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised, 53 and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many.
11. Sheol-HADES WILL HAVE AN ENd Isaiah 25:7–8 (ESV) 7 And he will swallow up on this mountain the covering that is cast over all peoples, the veil that is spread over all nations. 8 He will swallow up death forever; and the Lord God will wipe away tears from all faces, and the reproach of his people he will take away from all the earth, for the Lord has spoken. 1 Corinthians 15:25–26 (ESV) 25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death. Revelation 20:13–14 (ESV) 13 And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them, and they were judged, each one of them, according to what they had done. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.
12. Apocalyptic Dualism/universalism Matthew 25:41 (ESV) 41 “Then he will say to those on his left, ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels.... 46 And these will go away into eternal punishment (kolasin aionion), but the righteous into eternal life (zoen aionion.).” Aionian relates to the Greek aion, which often roughly translates the Hebrew olam. Some Jews thought of these two ‘ages’- ha olam ha-zeh, the present age, and ha olam ha-ba, the age to come. Aionian punishment and the liek would be punishment in the age to come.cited in Her Gates will Never Shut, pg.29
13. Gehenna(12x) Appears 12x in the NT Matthew 5:29–30 (ESV) 29 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell. 30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell. Matthew 10:28 (ESV) 28 And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell. Luke 12:5 (ESV) 5 But I will warn you whom to fear: fear him who, after he has killed, has authority to cast into hell. Yes, I tell you, fear him! Matthew 13:42 (ESV) 42 and throw them into the fiery furnace. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (7x) Mark 9:47–48 (ESV) 47 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than with two eyes to be thrown into hell, 48 ‘where their worm does not die and the fire is not quenched.’
14. Gehenna’S Backstory Valley of the Sons of Hinnon Jeremiah 7:30–34 (ESV) 30 “For the sons of Judah have done evil in my sight, declares the Lord. They have set their detestable things in the house that is called by my name, to defile it. 31 And they have built the high places of Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, to burn their sons and their daughters in the fire, which I did not command, nor did it come into my mind. 32 Therefore, behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when it will no more be called Topheth, or the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, but the Valley of Slaughter; for they will bury in Topheth, because there is no room elsewhere. 33 And the dead bodies of this people will be food for the birds of the air, and for the beasts of the earth, and none will frighten them away. 34 And I will silence in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem the voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, for the land shall become a waste. Isaiah 66:22–24 (ESV) 22 “For as the new heavens and the new earth that I make shall remain before me, says the Lord, so shall your offspring and your name remain. 23 From new moon to new moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before me, declares the Lord. 24 “And they shall go out and look on the dead bodies of the men who have rebelled against me. For their worm shall not die, their fire shall not be quenched, and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.” 2 Kings 23:10 (ESV) 10 And he defiled Topheth, which is in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom, that no one might burn his son or his daughter as an offering to Molech.
15. ThE lake of Fire (4x, Rev) Revelation 20:7–14 (ESV) 7 And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison 8 and will come out to deceive the nations that are at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle; their number is like the sand of the sea. 9 And they marched up over the broad plain of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city, but fire came down from heaven and consumed them, 10 and the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever. 11 Then I saw a great white throne and him who was seated on it. From his presence earth and sky fled away, and no place was found for them. 12 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done. 13 And the sea gave up the dead who were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead who were in them, and they were judged, each one of them, according to what they had done. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.
16. WHAT ABOUT PAUL? Romans 6:22–23 (ESV) 22 But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves of God, the fruit you get leads to sanctification and its end, eternal life. 23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 2 Thessalonians 1:9 (ESV) 9 They will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might,