Inside the Earth – Third Rock from the Sun<br />The Earth is not a solid rock, but instead consists of layers<br />Inner C...
Plate Tectonics<br />The Earth’s crust is broken into plates<br />The plates move along the flowing mantle in different di...
Air and Water – Necessary for Life on Earth<br />Air<br />Contained with the Earth’s atmosphere – a layer of gasses that s...
Water Cycle<br />
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dkELENdZukI<br />
Wind and Water help keep the earth from overheating<br />Wind<br />Hot air rises – so air in the tropics rises and is carr...
Chapter 2.2Natural Resources<br />Natural resources are anything from the Earth that people use in meeting their needs for...
Chapter 2.2Types of Natural Resources (raw material)<br />Recyclable Resources <br />Recycle naturally through the earth i...
Energy Resources<br />Energy is needed for every living thing<br />Fossil Fuels <br />Include coal, natural gases, petrole...
New Supplies Needed!!<br />1979 OPEC raised the price of oil<br />What was the outcome?<br />Gas prices went up <br />Coun...
Chapter 2.3Climate vs. Weather<br />Weather<br />Day to day changes in the air in terms of precipitation and / or temperat...
Broad Types of Climate on Earth<br />Tropical<br />Low latitudes around the Equator<br />Generally hot, wet and sunny<br /...
Map showing relative positions of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current<br />
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Chapter 2

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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Inside the Earth – Third Rock from the Sun<br />The Earth is not a solid rock, but instead consists of layers<br />Inner Core – solid iron and nickel<br />Outer Core – liquid iron and nickel (contains the basis for our magnetic field – that protects us from most forms of solar radiation)<br />Mantle – semisoft melted rock<br />Crust – thin cooled skin that “floats” on the mantle – contains cracks and moves<br />Movement of the crust causes earthquakes and volcanoes<br />
  2. 2. Plate Tectonics<br />The Earth’s crust is broken into plates<br />The plates move along the flowing mantle in different directions<br />Pressure between the plates builds up until it is released by an earthquake<br />Ring of Fire – hundreds of volcanoes around the Pacific Rim where the Pacific plate interacts with other plates<br />
  3. 3. Air and Water – Necessary for Life on Earth<br />Air<br />Contained with the Earth’s atmosphere – a layer of gasses that surround the planet<br />Actually composed of many different types of gasses<br />Nitrogen – about 78% (essential for development of proteins)<br />Oxygen – about 21% (essential for respiration)<br />Others – about 1% combined<br />Water<br />97% of the water on Earth is found in the Ocean – it’s salty<br />Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh<br />Mostly found in the polar caps and glaciers (huge ice sheets found on mountains, Antarctica and Greenland)<br />Great deal is underground – sometimes miles deep<br />Very little (0.3%) is at the surface (mostly lakes) and therefore useable by living organisms – very important to conserve and keep clean what we have<br />
  4. 4. Water Cycle<br />
  5. 5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dkELENdZukI<br />
  6. 6. Wind and Water help keep the earth from overheating<br />Wind<br />Hot air rises – so air in the tropics rises and is carried towards the polar regions<br />Cold air in the polar regions sinks to the surface and flows towards the tropics<br />Cold air – can not hold much water vapor<br />Warm air – can hold more water vapor<br />Wind happens when the air flows from the areas where it’s sinking to areas where it’s rising<br />The Earth’s rotation helps drive wind direction<br />Water<br />Warm water is lighter than cold, dense water<br />Water in tropical regions flows slowly towards the polar regions<br />Cold water in the polar regions sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south towards the tropical regions, where the cycle begins all over<br />
  7. 7. Chapter 2.2Natural Resources<br />Natural resources are anything from the Earth that people use in meeting their needs for<br />Food <br />Clothing <br />Shelter<br />Examples;<br />
  8. 8. Chapter 2.2Types of Natural Resources (raw material)<br />Recyclable Resources <br />Recycle naturally through the earth itself<br />Water, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen<br />Can refer to items that can be reused without replacing the resource <br />Aluminum <br />Plastic<br />Paper<br />Renewable Resources<br />Resources that can be replaced by man<br />Wood – trees can be replanted<br />Biodiesel and ethanol – crops can be replanted<br />Nonrenewable Resources<br />Can not be replaced<br />Important to conserve and use wisely -- they’re no longer being created<br />Oil, natural gas, coal, minerals<br />
  9. 9. Energy Resources<br />Energy is needed for every living thing<br />Fossil Fuels <br />Include coal, natural gases, petroleum (oil byproduct) <br />Problem? Not everyone has oil I their back yard<br />Saudi Arabia and Mexico have large amounts of oil but other countries like the US and China have more natural gas and coal<br />
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  12. 12. New Supplies Needed!!<br />1979 OPEC raised the price of oil<br />What was the outcome?<br />Gas prices went up <br />Countries with limited sources of oil had to buy at an increased price raising their asking price for products<br />A global problem?<br />EVERYONE NEEDS OIL<br />THE SEARCH IS ON!!<br />
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  14. 14. Chapter 2.3Climate vs. Weather<br />Weather<br />Day to day changes in the air in terms of precipitation and / or temperature<br />“It’s 90 degrees today”<br />Affected by the movement of storms around the planet<br />Changes rapidly over a few days<br />Climate<br />Long term average weather in any one place or region<br />“the climate in Jamaica is tropical”<br />Largely affected by wind patterns, water currents and major landforms<br />Changes take place over years or even millennia<br />
  15. 15. Broad Types of Climate on Earth<br />Tropical<br />Low latitudes around the Equator<br />Generally hot, wet and sunny<br />Rain forests dominate<br />Dry<br />Different places around the Earth – generally on the opposite side of mountain ranges from wind flow<br />Little to rain with sandy soil<br />Sparse to no vegetation<br />Moderate<br />Found in the middle latitudes (like Connecticut)<br />Temperatures and rainfall are generally moderate enough every year to promote agricultural production<br />Continental<br />Hot summers and bitterly cold winters<br />Generally drier than moderate climates<br />Large grasslands in some areas and forests in others<br />Polar<br />Found in high latitudes<br />Cold all year round<br />Vegetation includes low shrubs, mosses<br />Very little life found in these regions<br />
  16. 16. Map showing relative positions of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current<br />

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