OB - Teams


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Partially based on the Kreitner/Kinicki (2009, McGraw Hill/Irwin) textbook with updated data from a variety of cited sources.

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  • This is Katzenbach and Smith’s definition of a team, which is not the same as a group, which when related to Tuckman’s theory of group development from Chapter 10—forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning, a team is a task group that has matured to the performing stage.
  • This is Katzenbach and Smith’s definition of a team, which is not the same as a group, which when related to Tuckman’s theory of group development from Chapter 10—forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning, a team is a task group that has matured to the performing stage.
  • We move from a “group” to a team when these behaviors are evident. It is also helpful to note that according to research, while the average North American team has ten members, eight members is the most common size.
  • In answering the questions presented on this slide, we can say that successful basketball teams and successful work teams share many common characteristics, a few of which are described here:Coordination and timing – people need to be at the right place at the right time and be able to rely on one another to complete their tasks because they are dependent on one another.Shared goals and purposeMutual accountability for their outcomesFormal and informal leaders – the coach or the manager is typically the formal leader but individual team members often take on leadership roles and act as role models to more junior players or employees.Outcomes of success – teams that experience some success usually become more cohesive, more confident, and experience greater loyalty among team membersFeedback, coaching, and self-assessment are used to help improve performance.
  • This table shows four general types of teams and what the results of their efforts typically are. Advice teams help broaden the information base for managerial decisions.Production teams perform day-to-day operations.Project teams apply specialized knowledge for creative problem solving.Action teams combine high specialization with high coordination to exhibit peak performance on demand.
  • These competencies have been shown to contribute to positive teamwork and outcomes.Orients team to problem-solving situation by ensuring data and information is available and that all members understand the situation or problem.Organizes and manages team performance by establishing specific and challenging team goals and monitoring the team’s performance.Promotes a positive team environment by reinforcing norms of tolerance, respect, and excellence and by recognizing team member’s efforts.Facilitates and manages task conflict by encouraging productive conflict and helping determine a “win-win” approach.Appropriately promotes perspective by changing or modifying one’s point of view only if a defensible argument is made by another team member.
  • There are 12 key characteristics of Effective Teamwork: Clear Purpose; Inforality; Participation; Listening; Civilized Disagreement (constructive conflict); Consensus Decisions, though we’ll discuss consent decisions rather than consensus; Open Communication; Clear roles and assignments; Shared Leadership; External Relations; Style Diversity; and Self-Assessment.
  • This is not on your test, but is information you need to know.“With most consensus-based processes, everyone must be “for” the decision, and someone can “block” it, whereas consent requires that all perspectives be integrated into the decision-making process until no one knows of an important reason to continue discussion now. No one can “block” a decision; an individual can just add informationto integrate into the decision-making process” (Robertson, 2008).Often with consensus, individuals will go with the group on a decision, even though they have objections, and will then not fully buy into or participate in the consequences or action items related to the decision.Source: Holacracy: A Complete System for Agile Organizational Governance and Steering by Brian J. Robertson (www.holacracy.org)
  • The main threat to team effectiveness is unrealistic expectations that lead to frustration. The top left side of this figure lists common management mistakes that generally relate to not creating a supportive environment for teams. The bottom right side identifies common problems for team members.
  • Effective teamwork requires cooperation, trust, and cohesiveness.While competition from the outside does promote internal cohesiveness, cooperation within the organization is powerful. In most situations, having competition within the organization, even across teams, is not as effective as cooperation because information is not shared, hostility develops, and all skills are not utilized. Research has found that: Cooperation is superior to competition in promoting achievement and productivity.Cooperation is superior to individualistic efforts in promoting achievement and productivity.Cooperation without intergroup competition promotes higher achievement and productivity than cooperation with intergroup competition.This example illustrates the negative results of lack of cooperation: GE’s medical systems division assigned two teams of engineers – one in Wisconsin, another in Japan. Both teams were tasked with creating software for two new ultrasound devices. The teams ended up creating features that made their products popular in only their own countries. They also faced language and cultural barriers that they didn’t work to overcome so they ended up duplicating each other’s efforts.
  • Trust involves a "cognitive leap" beyond the expectations that reason and experience alone would warrant. This carries with it the inherent risk of betrayal. In other words, sometimes you have to just hope that others are doing their part and will act responsibly.People in work teams have to trust that others will do their part or else they may micro manage each other and they will lose the positive aspects—including the efficiency—of working together.In order to build and maintain trust, team members should be communicative, supportive, respectful, fair, predictable, and competent.
  • Bennis W. (1989).On Becoming a Leader. Perseus Books, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Cohesive group members stick together for one or both of the following reasons: (1) because they enjoy each other’s company or (2) because they need each other to accomplish a common goal.
  • B.
  • Too much team cohesiveness can be a problem for the organization.True, cohesive teams may go in a direction that is counter to the org’s goals. Also, cohesive groups tend to make poorer decisions and are more susceptible to group think.2. In general, success leads to cohesion, rather than cohesion causing successTrue, the meta-analysis on cohesive work teams found that having some wins in their history made teams more successful than as opposed to the cohesiveness itself causing success.3. Smaller teams are more cohesiveTrue, smaller teams facilitate more interaction among members4. External threats hurt team cohesivenessFalse, perceptions of an external threat, tend to make teams bond more closely together. Military teams are a good example of this, or a competitor coming out with a new product may energize teams. Another example is when all the members of congress joined together to sing the America the Beautiful right after 9/11. 5. Members of cohesive teams enjoy more satisfaction and less turnoverTrue, this is true once they can get over the adjustment period of working as a part of a team.
  • Virtual teams exist as a result of information technology that allows group members in different locations to conduct business.Self-managed teams are described as groups of employees granted administrative oversight for their work.A common characteristic of self-managed teams is cross-functionalism—a term used to describe a team that is made up of technical specialists from different areas.
  • One of the keys to success in virtual teams is that meaningful face-to-face contact, especially during the early phases of the group development process, is absolutely essential.Other research has shown that internet chat rooms tend to create more work and yield poorer decisions than face-to-face meetings and phone calls. Conflict management is also very difficult for virtual team members interacting asynchronously.Following the practical tips listed on this and the next slide can help virtual teams succeed.
  • Answer C – always assume positive intent (e.g., there was a legitimate reason for Aileen missing the call), especially when dealing with a virtual team. Pre-judging the situation could damage the relationship unnecessarily.
  • The process of leading others to lead themselves is called self-management leadership—the fullest meaning of team building in its highest form. Here you see six self-management leadership behaviors. Self-reinforcement is getting team members to praise each other for good work. Self-observation/evaluation is teaching team members to judge how well they are doing. Self-expectation is encouraging team members to expect high performance from themselves and from the team. Self-goal-setting is having the team set its own performance goals. Rehearsal is getting team members to think about and practice new tasks, and self-criticism is encouraging team members to be critical of their own poor performance.
  • OB - Teams

    1. 1. Leading & Developing Teams BUSA 220 – Wallace Spring 2012
    2. 2. Teams are NOT Groups “Groups do not become teams simply because that is what someone calls them. The entire workforce at a large organization is never a team,” - regardless of how many times we here it at rah-rah speeches. (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993).
    3. 3. Teams are NOT Groups A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993).
    4. 4. Team Evolution 1. Leadership becomes a shared activity 2. Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective 3. The group develops its own purpose or mission 4. Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity 5. Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products
    5. 5. Team Characteristics As March Madness and the NCAA Tournaments kick off this week, what characteristics of a successful basketball team can be translated into work teams? Source: http://www.msuspartans.com/
    6. 6. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    7. 7. Effective Work Teams Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    8. 8. Teamwork Competencies  Focuses Team to Problem-solving Situation  Organizes and Manages Team Performance  Promotes a Positive Team Environment  Facilitates and Manages Task Conflict  Appropriately Promotes Perspective
    9. 9. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    10. 10. Consent vs ConsensusConsensus tends to focus on the individuals and theirpersonal wants, whereas consent is about thedecision or argument itself and what’s best for thewhole, while recognizing that the best way to get thebest decision is to listen to and integrate theinformation and perspectives brought by theindividuals involved. Source: Robertson, 2008
    11. 11. Leader Mistakes Weak strategies & poor business practices. Hostile work environments (command & control cultures; competitive reward plans; management resistance). Lack of commitment to teams. Failure to transfer knowledge. Vague or conflicting assignments. Poor training & staffing. Lack of trust. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    12. 12. Expectation Failures  Too much too soon  Conflict (style or personality)  Results emphasized over process or dynamics.  Giving up at obstacles  Change resistance.  Weak interpersonal skills  Poor interpersonal chemistry  Lack of trust Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    13. 13. Teamwork Requires  Trust: Reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behavior  Cooperation not competition  Within teams  Among teams within organizations Cohesiveness a sense of “we-ness” building the strength of team members’ desires to remain a part of the team
    14. 14. Trust = Cognitive Leap Cognitive leap Faith in the other person’s good intentions Assumption that other person will behave as desiredFirsthand knowledge of other person’s reliability and Distrust Trust integrity What can you do to build trust? Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    15. 15. Trust Ingredients1. Constancy: “Stay the course.”2. Congruity: “Walk the Talk.”3. Reliability: “Available where and when needed.”4. Integrity: “Honor promises and commitments.” Source: Bennis, 1989.
    16. 16. Cohesiveness A sense of “we-ness” helps the group stick together Socio-emotional cohesiveness  Sense of togetherness based on emotional satisfaction Instrumental cohesiveness  Sense of togetherness based on mutual dependency needed to get the job done Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    17. 17. What do you think?  Military units engaged in coordinated efforts involving life or death situations would most likely rely on a. Socio-emotional cohesiveness b. Instrumental cohesiveness
    18. 18. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    19. 19. What do you think? True (A) or False (B)1. Too much team cohesiveness can be a problem.2. In general, success leads to cohesion, rather than cohesion causing success3. Smaller teams are more cohesive4. External threats hurt team cohesiveness5. Members of cohesive teams enjoy more satisfaction and less turnover
    20. 20. Virtual vs. Self-Managed Teams Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    21. 21. Leading Virtual Teams  Establish regular group interaction  Firm rules for communication  Use visual forms of communication where possible  Imitate the attributes of co-located teams  Give and receive regular feedback & assistance  Agree on technology standards Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    22. 22. Leading Virtual Teams Use 360-degree feedback to better understand and evaluate team members Provide a virtual meeting room via intranet, web site, or bulletin board Note which employees effectively use e-mail to build team rapport Smooth the way for an employee’s next assignment if membership on the team, or the team itself is not permanent Be available to employees, but don’t wait for them to seek you out Encourage informal, off-line conversations between team members Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    23. 23. What do you think?Joachim is the leader of a virtual team. Due to timezone differences, the team has difficulty finding times tomeet but found a time for a conference call today.Aileen, a fellow team member, was supposed to make apresentation to the group but never dialed into the call.In order to preserve the relationships among teammembers, after the conference call Joachim should: a. send an email to Aileens boss regarding her absence from the call. b. complain to team members about Aileens behavior. c. call Aileen directly to inquire about her absence from the call. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    24. 24. Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    25. 25. High Performance Teams 1. Participative leadership 2. Shared responsibility 3. Aligned on purpose 4. High communication 5. Future focused 6. Focused on task 7. Creative talents 8. Rapid response
    26. 26. Dr. Henry WeimanThe ability to learn what others have learned, toappreciate what others appreciate, to feel what othersfeel, and to add this to what the individual hasacquired from other sources, and finally to form out ofit a coherent unity…is what distinguishes the humanmind from everything else. This kind of interchangeand progressive integration makes it possible toexpand beyond any known limits what people mayknow, feel, and control. It makes it possible beyondany known limits appreciative understanding betweenindividuals, groups, and cultures.
    27. 27. Henry Stack SullivanAll of us are capable of being more than we are. Whilecreative interchange has four phases or components, theyare not necessarily sequential. 1. Authentic interacting, 2. Appreciative understanding, 3. Creative integrating, and 4. Growing, learning, transfor ming, developing, expandin g, and/or creating (any of these).
    28. 28. Self-Knowledge/Leadership1. Encourages self- reinforcement2. Encourages self- observation/evaluation3. Encourages self- expectations4. Encourages self-goal- setting5. Encourages rehearsal6. Encourages self- criticism