Perception• Environmental Interpretation• Social perception: Observing and interpreting others to be able to understand and respond appropriately.• 4 Stages of Information Processing
Information Processing Model Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Selective Encoding and Storage and Retrieval andAttention/Comprehension Simplification Response Retention A Competing B A environmental Judgments stimuli C Interpretation C C and and Memory People decisions D categorization F Events E Objects F Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
What Do You Think?Implicit Cognition: Automatic thought or belief.• How are hiring decisions and performance evaluations affected by one’s perceptual process?• Based on social perception research, which of the following would NOT be advised? a. Use mostly subjective measures of performance. b. Be aware of actions that could be perceived as unfair. c. Train interviewers and managers on how best to objectively evaluate others.
What Do You Think?• Jamie is a brand-new salesperson who has just graduated from college. Her first task is to sell consulting services to a new potential client. Based on your knowledge or experience of social perception, which of the following would NOT be advised? a. Check her cell phone to show that she is busy and important b. Convey a positive attitude c. Dress professionally
Stereotypes • A Stereotype is an individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of people whether true or not. • What examples of stereotypes have you experienced?
Stereotyping: Mental Shortcuts1) Begins by categorizing people2) Infer categorized people possess similar traits3) Form expectations of others and interpret their behavior according to stereotypes4) Stereotypes are maintained by a) Overestimating the frequency of stereotypic behaviors exhibited by others b) Incorrectly explaining expected and unexpected behaviors c) Differentiating minority individuals from oneself
Stereotyping Characteristics • Not always negative – Women are nurturing – Asians are smart • Based on often inaccurate generalizations – Older workers are more accident prone – Disabled workers cost a lot of money to accommodate – Women are more emotional • Can lead to poor decisions and discrimination
What Do You Think?• Under what conditions would the use of stereotypes be less likely? 1. (A) You have more knowledge; or (B) You have less knowledge about the individuals you work for or with. 2. (A) You encourage similar people to work together; or (B) You offer opportunities for a diverse set of individuals to gain important job experience.
• Josie is a hard-working administrative assistant. She has a low attention to detail and sometimes handles customer’s calls unprofessionally. However, Josie never misses a day of work and is always on time. As a result, her manager rates her positively on many aspects of her performance. This is an example of which perceptual error? a. Contrast b. Recency c. Halo What Do You Think? d. Leniency e. Central Tendency
Self-fulfilling Prophecy• Pygmalion Effect – Someone’s high expectations for another person result in high performance• Galatea Effect – An individual’s high self- expectations lead to high performance• Golem Effect – Loss in performance due to low leader expectations
What Do You Think?• Based on the self-fulfilling prophecy, which of the following would not be advised? a. Instill confidence in your staff b. Identify errors in employee’s performance, no matter how minor, and discuss them frequently c. Treat all new employees as if they have outstanding potential d. Set high performance goals
Causes of Behavior • Internal factors – Personal characteristics that cause behavior (e.g., ability, effort) • External factors – Environmental characteristics that cause behavior (e.g., task difficulty, good/bad luck)
AttributionsCausal Attributions: Suspected/inferred behavior causes.• Andreas has a history of turning in his monthly reports on time and with 100% accuracy. This month Andreas’ reports were accurate but a week late. Why? a. Andreas doesn’t know how to do monthly reports. b. Andreas is lazy. c. The information he needed was not available to meet the deadline.
Kelley’s Attribution Model Source: Integrated SocioPsychology
Kelley’s Attribution Model Attribution Consensus Consistency Distinctiveness Situational High High High Dispositional Low High LowEach of these (CCD) can be high or low and the particularcombination of these produced by the situations observedleads to making dispositional or situational attributions.According to Kelley, it is important to note that consistencyhas to be high before any kind of attribution can be made. Inother words we cannot judge behavior that takes placeirregularly or unpredictably. Source: Integrated SocioPsychology
Kelley’s Attribution Model - Consensus Low - Internal High - External A B C D E A B C D E People People
Kelley’s Attribution ModelDistinctiveness is determined by comparing a person’s behavior onone task with his or her behavior on other tasks. Low - Internal High – External A B C D E A B C D E Tasks Tasks
Kelley’s Attribution ModelConsistency is determined by judging if the individual’s performanceon a given task is consistent over time. Low - External High - Internal Time Time
Kelley’s Attribution Model External Internal • High consensus • Low consensus • High distinctiveness • Low distinctiveness • Low consistency • High consistency Source: Integrated SocioPsychology
What Do You Think (revisited)• Andreas has a history of turning in his monthly reports on time and with 100% accuracy. This month Andreas’ reports were accurate but a week late.• Which of the following dimensions could we use to make attributions about Andreas? a. Consistency b. Distinctiveness c. Consensus
What Do You Think (revisited)• Nadia’s performance is declining. Her peers performance hasn’t changed, it is occurring on several tasks, and has occurred for the past six months. 1. High (A) or Low (B) for consensus 2. High (A) or Low (B) for distinctiveness 3. High (A) or Low (B) for consistency 4. The attribution her supervisor is likely to make is… a. Internal b. External
Attributional Tendencies• Fundamental • Self-Serving Bias - taking Attribution Bias more personal responsibility - ignoring for success than failure environmental • My success is because of my factors that affect effort/ability behavior • My poor performance is• Your performance is caused by something else caused by you (difficulty; bad luck)
What Can You Do About Your Biases? Do not overlook the external causes of others’ behaviors Identify and confront your stereotypes Evaluate people based on objective factors Avoid making rash judgments
Impressions - Dressing the Part • Even the most objective interview process can be influenced by one’s appearance • Board of directors have admitted evaluating CEO candidate’s clothes when determining who should get the job • Female politicians, in particular, have to be careful because the while a smart style may not win votes, aBinkley, C. Wall Street Journal, Summer/Fall 2008 wrong style can lose them.
Impressions – Dressing the Part• In what other ways could personal appearance affect people in the workplace?• In what situations do you consider the perceptions caused by your clothing and appearance?• How might the organizational culture affect norms of dress and associated perceptions? Binkley, C. Wall Street Journal, Summer/Fall 2008
Impressions - Dressing the Part Tips • Iron your shirts • Men should wear no more than three accessories (i.e., belt, wedding band, watch) • Dress for the position you want, not for the one you currently have • Match the culture of the industry • The darker the color of women’s suits the more likely to be perceived as intimidating – choose carefullyBinkley, C. Wall Street Journal, Summer/Fall 2008
Break the Typecast• Workplace reputations are often formed superficially.• Avoid being “boxed” by: – Paying attention to comments made about you and asking for feedback – Evaluate your image and adjust your appearance/wardrobe – Wait before speaking because words carry weight. Source: The Jungle, Erin White, Wall Street Journal, Feb. 28, 2006
Tying it Together • How does this chapter Values & relate to the previous Diversity Attitudes chapters about individuals, values and attitudes? • How does it relate to our Social Individuals Perception discussion of self- monitoring and self- growth?