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OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
OB - Empowerment & Engagement
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OB - Empowerment & Engagement

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Based in part on the Organizational Behavior text by Krietner & Kinicki (2009).

Based in part on the Organizational Behavior text by Krietner & Kinicki (2009).

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  • Mutuality of interest is balancing individual and organizational interests through win-win cooperation. We are all born with the inherent instinct towards self-preservation; but in an organizational setting, it is important that employees do what is best for the organization to ensure its livelihood.The right side of this graphic shows the techniques managers and organizations use to focus employees’ energies on the mutuality of interest of organizational effectiveness.
  • Ranked in diminishing order on this and the next slide are nine generic influence tactics used in the workplace. The first five tactics are called “soft” tactics, the last four tactics are called “hard” tactics.
  • Ranked in diminishing order on this and the next slide are nine generic influence tactics used in the workplace. The first five tactics are called “soft” tactics, the last four tactics are called “hard” tactics.
  • Three possible outcomes of the influence tactics you just learned are commitment, compliance, and resistance.The best outcome is commitment because the target person’s intrinsic motivation will energize good performance.Commitment - a strong positive responseThe person will agree and carry out the request because they truly believes it is the right or best thing to doCompliance – completion of requestThe person will agree only because there is something positive in it for him/her or something negative will happen if they don’tResistance - a strong negative responseRequest will be disregarded, influence attempt is unsuccessful
  • Consultation – CommitmentRational persuasion – CommitmentInspirational appeals – CommitmentIngratiation – Compliance – research has shown that this is does improve bosses’ impressions of their subordinates as long as it is perceived to be sincerePressure – Resistance, compliance; This is considered a “hard” tactic and is more often perceived as unfair. Studies have shown that unfair tactics are more likely to lead to resistance.Coalition - compliance or resistance; if you feel ganged up on you may comply or resist depending on the situation.
  • Source: R. B. Cialdini, "Harnessing the Science of Persuasion," Harvard Business Review, October 2001, pp. 72-79. Liking – people tend to like those who like them. This is why it’s important to build rapport with people who you would like to influence. So on a job interview, trying to find something in common with the person helps break the ice and increases liking.Reciprocity – the belief that both good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind. Individuals generally experience powerful pressures to reciprocate benefits they have received from others. So if you offer to do something for someone, the norm of reciprocity would say that they will feel compelled to do something for you.Social proof – role models and peer pressure are powerful cultural forces. So, if a request comes to you from two levels up in the organization, you will be more likely to comply with the request if your peers are also going to comply. You follow the lead from role models or people you want to emulate (respected boss or peer).
  • Liking – people tend to like those who like them. This is why it’s important to build rapport with people who you would like to influence. So on a job interview, trying to find something in common with the person helps break the ice and increases liking.Reciprocity – the belief that both good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind. Individuals generally experience powerful pressures to reciprocate benefits they have received from others. So if you offer to do something for someone, the norm of reciprocity would say that they will feel compelled to do something for you.Social proof – role models and peer pressure are powerful cultural forces. So, if a request comes to you from two levels up in the organization, you will be more likely to comply with the request if your peers are also going to comply. You follow the lead from role models or people you want to emulate (respected boss or peer).
  • It also means having power to influence peers, customers, and managers.
  • McClelland researched people’s needs and categorized them into a need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power. However, he made an important distinction between the need for personalized power and, what he called, socialized power.Personalized power is when someone has the need to be selfish and use power for their own self-centered needs not for the good of the group or organization. Whereas, socialized power is used for the good of the organization and is often self-sacrificing.
  • Answer: C
  • French and Raven have defined five sources of power. Three sources, listed on this slide, are byproducts of one’s position. The other two power sources, listed on the next slide, are earned by individuals through the respect they garner from others.Because of their position, managers are able to offer bonuses, recognition, promotions, and other such rewards. In addition, their position gives them the authority to punish and withhold rewards in order to influence compliance. Finally, position gives managers decision authority that is used to affect subordinates’ behavior.These sources of power can produce negative results if they are used threateningly or in a demeaning way. They can have positive results when they are focused constructively on job performance while being clearly aligned with the goals of the larger organization.
  • Expert and referent sources of power are earned by individuals based on who they are and how they relate to and treat others. How can you increase your expert power? Strategies include becoming an expert in your field, attending meetings of trade or professional associations, reading publications, keeping up with the latest technology, volunteering to learn something new, projecting a positive self-concept, and showing that you have the expertise.A drawback to this type of power is that specializing can sometimes pigeon-hole you into a certain roles and preclude you from more general management opportunities.The referent power base reminds us of a rather obvious truth—that individuals are influenced more by people they identify with and enjoy working with than with those they don’t.
  • Research has shown that leaders take a contingency approach when deciding what influence tactic to use. It will depend on the situation. If there is anticipated resistance or when the follower’s behavior violates important norms a legitimization or pressure tactic might be chosen. When the leader stands to benefit they may use a personal appeal or ingratiation approach. When it is a peer and/or the objective is clearly in alignment with organizational objectives the rational approach would work best.Upward influence – typically rational persuasion is most common – coalitions are also usedLateral tactics – personal appeal, reciprocity, ingratiation, exchange, and legitimization are also used.Downward – Expert and referentIn general, research has shown that the combined use of tactics is the most effective. However, that depends on the combination you choose. What is the right combination?Hard ones are most effective used by themselves.Also, it is better to use a combination of softer tactics first and use the hard one’s only as a last resort.Research has shown that using expert and referent power together get the best combination of results and favorable reactions from lower-level employees.
  • Empowerment involves considering power as not a zero-sum game but instead something that is unlimited and can be shared by all. Empowerment is a win-win proposition and should not be viewed as threatening, but rather as a means of helping managers and employees to develop new skills and reach career goals.
  • This figure shows the varying degrees of empowerment. Certainly a subordinate’s readiness for various tasks should also be a consideration as to what degree of empowerment is appropriate.
  • Personal Initiative: The other side of DelegationPersonal initiative occurs when individuals go beyond formal job requirements and become active self-starters.Personal initiative is important in establishing trust with a manager and ensuring that he or she will think of you for developmental assignments to be delegated.Following these tips can help you move toward personal initiative:Go beyond the job.Follow through on new ideas.Don’t be defeated by criticism; rather learn from it.Look ahead and around for opportunities.
  • The empowerment plan involves sharing information by sharing company performance information and helping people understand the business.In addition, the plan requires creating autonomy through structure and letting teams become the hierarchy.Organizations can create autonomy by creating a clear vision and clarifying the little pictures, creating new decision-making rules that support empowerment, and clarifying goals and roles collaboratively.Organizations can let teams become the hierarchy by providing direction and training for new skills, providing encouragement and support for change, and gradually having managers let go of control.
  • Political behavior is not necessarily bad if it is used to serve the good of the organization.
  • Political maneuvering is triggered primarily by uncertainty. Five common sources of uncertainty are listed here.
  • Given what we know about causes of political behavior, who would be most likely to engage in politics?A new, relatively young employee starting out her career orAn older, more established employee.Answer: B, there is more uncertainty for newer employeesA financial advisor whose pay is 100% commission-based orA financial analyst.Answer: A, when employees understand that their performance will be measured based on a set of standards, they are more likely to work towards meeting those standards, rather than engaging in behaviors that will increase their liking with their manager. A system based on rankings is likely to lead to judgments being made both on objective indicators of performance but also are more likely to be influenced by non-job-related factors.
  • Although much political maneuvering occurs at the individual level, it also can involve group or collective action. Coalitions form because of an issue that matters to the individuals in the coalition; and once that issue is resolved, they typically disband.Networks are a group of individuals who are together to promote each other and assist the members of the network in achieving their goals. For example, a Hispanic network at Avon has been established to support members’ career opportunities. Networks focus on people rather than issues and have longer-term purposes.
  • These political tactics are listed in descending order of occurrence.What is the likelihood that each of these would be effective in promoting organizational interests as well as individual self-interests?Attacking or blaming others - 3Using information as a political tool - 2Creating a favorable image (impression management) - 1Developing a base of support - 1Praising others (ingratiation) – 3 (as long as it is perceived to be sincere)Forming political coalitions with strong allies – 2 (as long as those allies also have org’s interests at heart)Associating with influential people - 3Creating obligations (reciprocity) – 2 (indicates compliance rather than commitment, may or may not yield long-term benefits for org.
  • You can get a general indication of your political tendencies by comparing your behavior with the characteristics in this table. Your book makes the distinction between organizational politics that serves one’s self interest and the organizational politics that serves the organization’s goals.
  • Organizational politics cannot be eliminated. A manager would be naïve to expect such an outcome. But political maneuvering can and should be managed to keep it constructive and within reasonable bounds. Therefore, following the practical steps in this list is recommended.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Chapter 15 – Influence,Empowerment and Politics BUSA 220 Spring 2012 - Wallace Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 2. Self Interest vs. Mutual InterestClimate of Destructive Climate of Openness, Competition and Cooperation, and Trust Suspicion Influence tactics Empowerment Organizational Mutuality of Interest Self- Political contributors Motivation (organizational Interest tactics • Individuals effectiveness) Team building • Groups Communication Leadership Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 3. Soft Influence Tactics• Rational persuasion: Using logical arguments and facts to persuade another that a desired result will occur.• Inspirational Appeal: Arousing enthusiasm by appealing to one’s values and beliefs• Consultation: Asking for participation in decision making or planning a change• Ingratiation: Getting someone to do what you want by putting that person in a good mood or getting him or her to like you.• Personal appeal: Appealing to feelings of loyalty and friendship before making a request Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 4. Hard Influence Tactics• Exchange: Promising some benefits in exchange for complying with a request.• Coalition Building: Persuading by seeking the assistance of others or by noting the support of others.• Legitimating: Pointing out one’s authority to make a request or verifying that it is consistent with prevailing organizational policies and practices.• Pressure: Seeking compliance by using demands, threats, or intimidation. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 5. Influence Outcomes • Commitment - a strong positive response • Compliance – completion of request • Resistance - a strong negative response Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 6. What Do You Think? Style Response1. Consultation A. Commitment2. Rational Persuasion B. Compliance3. Inspirational appeals C. Resistance4. Ingratiation5. Pressure6. Coalition Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 7. Principles of Influence Liking: The more we like the other person, the more likely we’ll comply with their requests Reciprocity: The belief that both good and bad deeds should be repaid in kind. Social Proof: Role models and peer pressure are powerful forcesSource: R. B. Cialdini, "Harnessing the Science of Persuasion," Harvard Business Review, October 2001, pp. 72-79. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 8. Principles of Influence • Consistency: Once individuals have stated a commitment they tend to act in accordance with that commitment. • Authority: People tend to defer to and respect credible experts. • Scarcity: Requests that emphasize scarcity or the fact that some object, opportunity, or outcome will soon no longer be available, are difficult to resist.Source: R. B. Cialdini, "Harnessing the Science of Persuasion," Harvard Business Review, October 2001, pp. 72-79. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 9. Power Concepts • Social Power: The ability to get things done with human, informational, and material resources – Power is not power OVER others – Power is the ability to GET THINGS DONE – Influence Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 10. What Do You Think?• Which source of a. Reward power would be most applicable when influencing the b. Coercive following targets? 1. Your manager c. Legitimate 2. Your peers/co-worker ? 3. Your subordinate d. Expert e. Referent Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 11. Power ConceptsMcClelland - Achievement, Affiliation and Power.Personalized Power – used for personal gainSocialized Power – used to create motivation – used to accomplish group goals Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 12. What Do You Think?Jarrett has a strong need for power. He enjoys thechallenge of making difficult decisions that have amajor impact on the organization. At times hemakes decisions that have negative consequencesfor himself and his team but are good for the largerorganization. Jarrett…. a. Plays politics to get what he wants b. Has personalized power c. Demonstrates socialized power and mutuality of interest d. Is driven to protect his self-interests Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 13. French & Raven: Power Sources • Position – Reward: If you do it I’ll give you something – Coercive: If you don’t do it something bad will happen – Legitimate: Do it because the boss asks you to • Can be positive or negative Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 14. French & Raven: Power Sources• Personal – Expert: Do it because I know a lot about this subject – Referent: Do it because you like me Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 15. What Do You Think• Which strategy would a. Reward be most effective in b. Coercive each situation? c. Legitimate 1. Upward influence d. Expert 2. Peers e. Referent 3. Downward• What is the best combination of strategies? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 16. Empowerment • Empowerment sharing varying degrees of power with lower- level employees to tap their full potential Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 17. Power Evolution Power High Distribution Followers are granted Power Degree of Empowerment authority to Sharing make Manager/lea decisions Influence der and Sharing followers Manager/leade jointly make r consults decisions Authoritarian followers when Power making Manager/leader decisions impose decisionsNone Domination Consultation Participation Delegation Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 18. Personal Initiative Levels of Taking Action Action Asking for approval to act Asking someone else to actDecreasing time to action to Telling someone about a problem solve a problem Noncompliance Apathy Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 19. Randolph’s Empowerment Model The Empowerment Plan Share Information Create Autonomy Let Teams Become Through Structure the Hierarchy Remember: Empowerment is not magic; It consists of a few simple steps and a lot of persistence Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 20. Organizational Politics• Organizational Politics intentional enhancement of self- interest• …but the self-interest should be aligned with “Politics isn’t about the organization’s winning at all costs. It’s interests about maintaining relationships and getting results at the same time.” --John Eldred, MGMT Professor & Consultant, Kingston U. UK. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 21. Uncertainty Causes Politics 1. Unclear objectives 2. Vague performance measures 3. Ill-defined decision processes 4. Strong individual or group competition 5. Any type of change Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 22. What Do You Think? Given what we know about causes of political behavior, who would be most likely to engage in self-interested politics?1. a. A new, relatively young employee starting out her career or b. An older, more established employee. and2. a. Employee’s whose pay and promotion are based on their manager’s rankings of them b. Employee’s whose pay and promotion are based on an established, known set of standards Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 23. Political Action Levels Distinguishing CharacteristicsNetwork Level Cooperative pursuit of general self-interests Cooperative pursuit ofCoalition Level group interests in specific issuesIndividual Level Individual pursuit of general self-interests Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 24. Political TacticsFor each tactic, estimate 1. Attacking or blaming othersthe effectiveness of using 2. Using information as athis tactic to promote political toolorganizational objectives 3. Creating a favorable image1. Highly unlikely to be (impression management) effective 4. Developing a base of support 5. Praising others (ingratiation)2. May or may not be 6. Forming political coalitions effective with strong allies3. Highly likely to be 7. Associating with influential effective people 8. Creating obligations (reciprocity) Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 25. Political TendenciesCharacteristics Naïve Sensible SharksUnderlying Politics is Politics is Politics is anattitude unpleasant necessary opportunityIntent Avoid it at all Further Self-serving and costs departmental predatory goalsTechniques Tell it like it is Network; expand Manipulate; use connections; use fraud and deceit system to give when necessary and receive favors Bully; misuseFavorite tactics None—the Negotiate, information, truth will win bargain cultivate and use out “friends” and other contacts Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 26. Reasonable Boundaries• Screen out overly political individuals at hiring time• Create and open-book management system• Make sure every employee knows how the business works and has a personal line of sight to key results• Have nonfinancial people interpret periodic financial and accounting statements for all employees• Establish formal conflict resolution and grievance processes• As an ethics filter, do only what you would feel comfortable doing on national television• Publicly recognize and reward people who get real results without political games Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
    • 27. Which Would You Prefer? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009

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