Communication:                Negotiation as Process                LDR 655            Siena Heights               Univers...
Communication is CriticalCommunicationprocesses (both verbaland nonverbal), arecritical to achievingnegotiation goals andt...
What’s Your Experience?                                    • Tell us about a                                      communic...
Models                                         Graphic source: www.shkaminski.com(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
Models                                         Graphic source: www.shkaminski.com(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
Berlo’s Model, 1960                                    Graphic source: www.sciencedirect.com(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 20...
Inference                                      http://changingminds.org/explanations/sift/infer.htm(Lewicki, Saunders & Ba...
Intentional Behavior                                        Worth, 1981(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
Communication during Negotiation                                    •   Offers, counters and motives                      ...
Three Key Questions• Consistent or adaptive?    – Familiar (habits) over      improvisation• Early in the process?    – Fi...
How People Communicate                                    • Language:                                      – Logical level...
How People Communicate   • Channels         – Different experiences           per channel         – Multiple vehicles     ...
Nonverbal Leadership                                    • Use erect posture when                                      walk...
Inspiration and Power                                    •   Be credible                                    •   Target the...
Improving Communication                                    1. Questions                                    2. Listening   ...
Manageable Questions     • Attention           – “May I ask you a question?”     • Information           – “How much will ...
Unmanageable Questions                                    • Difficulty                                      – “Where did y...
Listening                                                     Listen                                        Provide       ...
Role Reversal                                    • Active arguing positions                                      until the...
Closing Communications  • Fatal mistakes        – Expectations        – Guarding        – Reviewing feedback  • Closure   ...
Self-Improvement• Seek congruity with your  messages.• Ask for feedback from family,  friends, coworkers, and managers.• O...
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Negotiation - Communication

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Siena Heights University graduate class on Negotiation as Process based on text (2011) from Lewicki, Saunders and Barry (McGraw-Hill).

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  • Are negotiators consistent or adaptive?Many negotiators prefer sticking with the familiar rather than venturing into improvisationDoes it matter what is said early in the process?What negotiators do in the first half of the process has a significant impact on their ability to generate integrative solutions with high joint gainsIs more information always better?There is evidence that having more information does not automatically translate into better outcomes
  • Use of language operates at two levels:Logical level (proposals, offers)Pragmatic level (semantics, syntax, style)Use of nonverbal communicationMaking eye contactAdjusting body positionNonverbally encouraging or discouraging what the other says
  • Selection of a communication channelCommunication is experienced differently when it occurs through different channelsPeople negotiate through a variety of communication media – by phone, in writing and increasingly through electronic channels or virtual negotiationsSocial bandwidth distinguishes one communication channel from another.the ability of a channel to carry and convey subtle social and relational cues from sender to receiver
  • Be Credible. If the speaker is perceived as highly credible, the attempt at persuasive communication is more likely to be successful. Gear Your Message to the Listener. A message must be adapted to the interests and motivations of the listener. People with high intelligence tend to be more influenced by messages based on strong, logical arguments.Sell Group Members on the Benefits of Your Suggestions. Leaders are constrained by the willingness of group members to take actions on their suggestions and initiatives. As a consequence, the leader must explain to group members how much they can benefit from what he or she proposes. Selling group members is quite often done more effectively when the persuader takes the time to build consensus. Instead of inspiring the group in a flash, the leader wins it over gradually. Use Heavy-Impact and Emotion-Provoking Words. Certain words used in the proper context give power and force to your speech. Using powerful, upbeat language can enhance a person’s leadership image. Closely related to using heavy-impact language is the use of emotion-provoking words. Examples of emotion-provoking and powerful words include “outclassing the competition,” “bonding with customers,” and “rebounding from a downturn.” Use Anecdotes to Communicate Meaning. A carefully chosen anecdote is useful in persuading group members about the importance of organizational values. So long as the anecdote is not repeated too frequently, it can communicate an important message. Back Up Conclusions with Data. Persuasiveness increases when spoken and written presentations are supported with solid data. Being too dependent on data, however, could suggest that you have little faith in your intuition. Minimize Language Errors, Junk Words, and Vocalized Pauses. Minimizing common language errors increases persuasiveness because you appear more articulate and informed. An example: “Just between you and I” is wrong. “Just between you and me” is correct. Write Crisp, Clear Memos and Reports, Including a Front-Loaded Message. Business leaders characteristically write easy-to-read, well-organized messages both in email and more formal reports.  A persuasive speaker or writer places key ideas at the beginning of a conversation, memo, paragraph, or sentence. Using the active voice facilitates front-loading messages. Use a Power-Oriented Linguistic Style. A major part of being persuasive involves choosing the right linguistic style, a person’s characteristic speaking pattern. Several components of a linguistic style give power and authority to the message sender in many situations. Several examples follow: (a) downplay uncertainty, (b) use the pronoun I frequently, (c) apologize infrequently, (d) know exactly what you want, and (e) frame your comments in a way that increases your listener’s receptivity.
  • Use of questions: two basic categoriesManageable questionscause attention or prepare the other person’s thinking for further questions:“May I ask you a question?” getting information “How much will this cost?”generating thoughts“Do you have any suggestions for improving this?”
  • Use of questions: two basic categoriesUnmanageable questionscause difficulty“Where did you get that dumb idea?”give information“Didn’t you know we couldn’t afford this?” bring the discussion to a false conclusion“Don’t you think we have talked about this enough?”
  • Passive listening: Receiving the message while providing no feedback to the senderAcknowledgment: Receivers nod their heads, maintain eye contact, or interject responses Active listening: Receivers restate or paraphrase the sender’s message in their own language
  • Role reversalNegotiators understand the other party’s positions by actively arguing these positions until the other party is convinced that he or she is understoodImpact and success of the role-reversal techniqueResearch suggests that role reversal is a useful tool for improving communication and the accurate understanding and appreciation of the other party’s position
  • Avoiding fatal mistakesKeeping track of what you expect to happenSystematically guarding yourself against self-serving expectationsReviewing the lessons from feedback for similar decisions in the futureAchieving closureAvoid surrendering important information needlesslyRefrain from making “dumb remarks”
  • Negotiation - Communication

    1. 1. Communication: Negotiation as Process LDR 655 Siena Heights University Wallace(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    2. 2. Communication is CriticalCommunicationprocesses (both verbaland nonverbal), arecritical to achievingnegotiation goals andto resolving conflicts.(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    3. 3. What’s Your Experience? • Tell us about a communications experience (work, family, school) that went poorly? • What about an event where positive outcomes were reached?(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    4. 4. Models Graphic source: www.shkaminski.com(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    5. 5. Models Graphic source: www.shkaminski.com(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    6. 6. Berlo’s Model, 1960 Graphic source: www.sciencedirect.com(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    7. 7. Inference http://changingminds.org/explanations/sift/infer.htm(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    8. 8. Intentional Behavior Worth, 1981(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    9. 9. Communication during Negotiation • Offers, counters and motives • Alternatives • Outcomes • Social accounts – Mitigating circumstances – Exonerating circumstances – Reframing • Process(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    10. 10. Three Key Questions• Consistent or adaptive? – Familiar (habits) over improvisation• Early in the process? – First half is crucial• More is Better? – More doesn’t directly correlate to better outcomes.(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    11. 11. How People Communicate • Language: – Logical level (proposals, offers) – Pragmatic level (semantics, syntax, style) • Nonverbal – Eye contact – Body position – Nonverbally reaction(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    12. 12. How People Communicate • Channels – Different experiences per channel – Multiple vehicles – Social bandwidth varies • Subtlety(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    13. 13. Nonverbal Leadership • Use erect posture when walking, standing, or sitting • Exhibiting dominant behavior at times, such as standing up straight during confrontation • Smiling frequently in a relaxed, natural-appearing manner • Gesturing in a relaxed, non- mechanical or threatening way(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    14. 14. Inspiration and Power • Be credible • Target the listener • Sell your benefits • Impact and emotion words • Anecdotes – stories • Supporting Data • Don’t waste words • Crisp & Clear • Power-oriented linguistics(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    15. 15. Improving Communication 1. Questions 2. Listening 3. Role reversal(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    16. 16. Manageable Questions • Attention – “May I ask you a question?” • Information – “How much will this cost?” • Thoughts – “Do you have any suggestions for improving this?”(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    17. 17. Unmanageable Questions • Difficulty – “Where did you get that dumb idea?” • Information – “Didn’t you know we couldn’t afford this?” • False conclusions – “Don’t you think we have talked about this enough?”(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    18. 18. Listening Listen Provide Give Time 1. Passive Solutions 2. Feedback 3. Active Ask Restate Questions Summarize(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    19. 19. Role Reversal • Active arguing positions until the other party knows we understand • Technique impact and success – Research suggests this improves communication, accurate understanding and appreciation.(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    20. 20. Closing Communications • Fatal mistakes – Expectations – Guarding – Reviewing feedback • Closure – Avoid surrendering – “Dumb remarks”(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
    21. 21. Self-Improvement• Seek congruity with your messages.• Ask for feedback from family, friends, coworkers, and managers.• Observe others’ responses. (Are your messages being received?)• Observe a videotape of yourself.• Decide what to change. (Lumsden & Lumsden, 2005)(Lewicki, Saunders & Barry. 2011)
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