Strategic Planning Introduction


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Based partially on Bryson (2011), this is the first class for the Siena Heights Graduate College LDR 660 Strategic Planning class I teach at Lake Michigan College.

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  • Strategic thinking is thinking in context about how to pursue purposes or achieve goals. This also includes thinking about what the context is and how it might or should be changed; what the purposes are or should be; and what capabilities or competencies will or might be needed, and how they might be used, to achieve the purposes.Strategic acting is acting in context in light of future consequences to achieve purposes and/or to facilitate learning.Strategic learning is any change in a system (which could be an individual) that by adapting it better to its environment produces a more or less permanent change in its capacity to pursue its purposes.
  • Although we’re using Bryson as our text, there are numerous strategic planning models. Your assignment for this week aside from the readings and our in class work tonight is to go online, research strategic planning and find a model that appeals to you. Tell us why you picked it and upload the image and a hyperlink so we can all see what you’ve found. We’re going to be using Bryson as an outline in our group projects, but that doesn’t mean there isn’t a model that fits your group project better that the team may decide to use.
  • Source: J. M. Bryson (2010) “The Future of Public and Nonprofit Strategic Planning in the US,” Public Administration Review, Supplement to Volume 70, p. S295
  • Bryson’s Model
  • Urgency relates to reducing the fear, complacency and anger that change creates, because change is not only inevitable, it’s constant.As Collins (Good to Great) would say, “Get the right people on the bus.”. If we don’t have champions who can both communicate and demonstrate the vision, we won’t reach the objectives.If the vision is not clear, or means different things to different departments or different hierarchies, it can’t be clearly communicated, believed in and achieved.As part of the strategy there must be a communication plan in place to reach all stakeholders, and in multiple forms (Gardner).Barriers and obstacles exist, often within organizational processes and culture, and intrinsically as well as externally. If there’s no resources available for example, or we’re not adaptable enough when the market changes, change is blocked. While long term goals (broad) exist, there must be a series of incremental wins, action plans that can be measured, achieved and CELEBRATED to build momentum. Establish critical success factors along the way. Millennials and Generation X in particular aren’t waiting years to find a payoff. They’ll leave.If we’re prepared for resistance (which is natural), and have sufficient rewards and reinforcement plans then persistence will overcome.Psychology tells it takes at least 30 days to form a new habit. Given the variation which comes depending on the size and structure of an organization, making sure that the change flows across the organization is crucial.
  • Reason: Allowing members to understand the need for change.Research: Providing important information that supports the reason.Resonance: The understanding of change must reach to the core beliefs of members.Redescriptions: The basis for change must be expressed in multiple forms (numbers, graphics, etc.). Schein suggests that the stories which bind members together are the most important (Schein, 2004)Resources and Rewards: Members must have the tools they need to complete the change, and a reward for success (beyond simply keeping your job).Real World Events: Change will not be successful if it doesn’t relate to real life and what’s occurring outside of the organization.Resistances: Every human comes from their personal paradigms and resistance to change is inevitable, but can be overcome.
  • Bryson discusses Fernandez and Rainey, and this article is one of those you can choose to review and provide feedback on in your week two assignments, but is simply another variation based on solid scientific evidence, not just theory.
  • Romme is an Economics and Business Administration professor at Tilburg University in the Netherlands and is cited by Bryson in your text. The fact of the matter is that paying attention to how our organizations are designed has a huge impact on the ability reach goals, strategies and objectives. This article is from Organization Science is also available for review in your week two assignments.
  • Roger Martin is the Dean of the Rotman School of Management in Toronto, and one of his books is called The Design of Business.STANCE: My world is reliably oriented. My world rewards existing stage refinement.Nonetheless . . . I seek to balance reliability with validity. I seek to advance the stage of knowledgeTOOLS: Observation. Imagination. ConfigurationEXPERIENCE:Deepen mystery andNurture Originality
  • Martin’s knowledge funnel certainly applies in a strategic planning and management process. The future is uncertain, and it is delving into the mysteries of life, of service, of creating value within our lives and thus our organizations that we derive purpose. As we grow, and in particular within our teams and relationships, we create an organizational learning culture, we develop more experienced based capabilities for problem solving, discovery and visioning (heuristic). As we refine that knowledge through practice, failure and success, remembering that we rarely learn from success, we’re able to turn out competencies into an algorithm. A replicatable process within in us that is better able to respond more rapidly to change and opportunity, or to solve crisis without falling into the abyss of dysfunction. Of course in pure mathematics algorithms can be done by machines, but while there is certainly number crunching within strategic planning, it is much more about quantitative person to person data, and machines simply can’t replace face to face time.
  • Healthy” debate is a form of conflict, evident at times in all organizations. Heifetz’s (1994) work in Leadership without Easy Answers concluded that adaptive conflict, the ability of followers to have input, be heard and acknowledged by management, is at the core of successful transformational leadership, and thus organizational change. Within the potential readings for next week’s assignments are a few different articles in this regard, including one that talks about the specific KSA’s one needs to facilitate strategic planning. Make no mistake, a thorough strategic process and strategic management as a whole is fraught with potential conflict as individuals and departments fight over resources and objectives.
  • Campion and Steven’s article from the Journal of Management is where this chart comes from, and again it’s one of the articles you can choose from next week.
  • Bryson’s Model again and his ten steps, based on years of scientific research. Looking at this again, can you see areas where breakdowns may occur, and conflict and resistance are simply natural so the facilitator and leaders need to be prepared for it?
  • Whether you’re a consultant, or a leader in an organization, you must reach agreement on all of these before proceeding.
  • This slide has too many words on it, but was created by Dr. Bryson and is accurate. Leading strategically you must be aware of the tangible and the intangible, as well as understand the real value that comes from aligning purpose, mastery, and some autonomy within the entire organization across divisions, departments, and hierarchies.
  • The research is clear, and if you’re not paying attention to Daniel Pink, you should be. Period. Because understanding how powerful employee motivation and engagement, built upon a foundation of transactional trust is to creating the adaptability, sustainability and profitability of our organizations is what will set you apart from your competition. That doesn’t mean that you don’t have to learn how to operate within the confines of the existing organizational culture and guidelines, but since change starts with self, the only way our organizations change is first with us, then those we lead.
  • This kind of mapping tool discussed in Bryson is going to be very helpful to you in your group projects, and in the future because instead of writing five pages about stakeholders, which in some cases you may still be required to do for a report at work, creates an easy to follow graphic. Another form in which to review the data.
  • No political comments please, though I guess you’d put lobbyists in the “interest groups” section there.
  • These are just some of the tools available for us to learn to use this semester, which doesn’t mean you have to will use all of them. That depends on the needs of the organization and the KSA’s you already have.
  • Another sample graphic form of analyzing the data.
  • Just because someone’s been identified as a stakeholder, doesn’t mean they have the power to affect the change necessary, and all of these categories must be considered.
  • So within your classes to date in the Graduate Leadership program, regardless of the specialty, tell me how you’re going to be able to draw upon your previous class work to fit into this class.
  • I’ve assigned each of you to groups, so lets spend some time together in those groups getting to know each other, reviewing competencies, and working on an agreement of how we’re going to treat each other for the rest of the semester.
  • Strategic Planning Introduction

    1. 1. Strategic PlanningSIENA HEIGHTS - LDR 660 LAWINTER II 2012PROFESSOR WALLACE – WEEK 1
    2. 2. Introductions• Each other• Course design• eCollege• Syllabus• Schedule Change• Groups
    3. 3. Unfortunate Reality Source:
    4. 4. Why Bryson? • This text is much more applicable to your current and projected career fields. • The theories, tools and practices still apply to for profit organizations. • It’s $40 instead of $280 which is a much higher return on value.
    5. 5. Class ObjectivesTo increase yourability as an individualand in groups to apply:• Strategic thinking• Strategic acting• Strategic learning Bryson, 2011
    6. 6. Strategic Planning – Strategic Management • There is no one size fits all model that fits all organizations and circumstances. • Strategic planning and strategic management are more than just a matter of your preferences, but what fits the organizational culture, mission, vision and values.
    7. 7. Multiple Models – Research• The Harvard Policy Model• Strategic Planning Systems• Stakeholder Management Methods• Strategic Issues Management• Hoshin Kanri• Portfolio Models• Competitive Strategy• Balanced Scorecard• Other approaches – causal (oval) mapping, story-making and - telling, simple rules, improvisation
    8. 8. Strategic Management = Strategic Planning + Implementation Strategic Management –“The appropriate and reasonable integration of strategic planningand implementation across an organization (or other entity) in anongoing way to enhance the fulfillment of mission, meeting ofmandates, and sustained creation of public value”Strategic Planning – “a Implementation – “the ongoingdeliberative, disciplined effort effort to realize in practice anto produce fundamental organization’s (or other entity’s)decisions and actions that mission, goals and strategies, theshape and guide what an meeting of its mandates, continuedorganization (or other entity) organizational learning, and theis, what it does, and why it on-going creation of public value”does it” Source: J. M. Bryson (2010) “The Future of Public and Nonprofit Strategic Planning in the US,” Public Administration Review, Supplement to Volume 70, p. S295.
    9. 9. Unfortunate Reality Source:
    10. 10. Process Design Functions Bryson, 2011
    11. 11. Bryson, 2011
    12. 12. God’s Honest Truth• Strategic planning and management are not soft sciences, they are hard arts.• Expertise is something that is built slowly and requires engagement with both theory and practice.• Engaging intentionally with the experiential learning cycle is one of the best ways of building expertise• A key learning has to do with knowing how best to design strategic planning and management processes, including knowing which approaches, tools, and techniques to use Bryson, 2011
    13. 13. Common Phrases“We had a strategic plan in 2004 and it’s sat on the shelf ever since.”“We have a strategic plan, but nobody follows it.”“I saw it once, but it’s 60 pages long and who’s got time to go through that. There’s too much work to do.”
    14. 14. Unfortunate Reality Source:
    15. 15. Kotter & Cohen (2002) - Change • Increase urgency • Build team • Vision • Communicate buy-in • Action empowered • Incremental wins • Persistence • Organizational reinforcement.
    16. 16. Howard Gardner (2006) - Change1. Reason2. Research3. Resonance4. Redescriptions:5. Resources and Rewards6. Real World Events7. Resistances
    17. 17. Fernandez & Rainey (2006) - Change 1. Ensure the need 2. Provide a plan 3. Build internal support & overcome resistance. 4. Top management commitment. 5. External support 6. Resources 7. Institutionalize 8. Pursue comprehensive change
    18. 18. Example• Save the Children – http://www.savethechildre 4E/b.6115947/k.8D6E/Offi cial_Site.htm• What can we tell just by looking at their website?
    19. 19. Case Study Discussion • Take a few minutes to review the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation case study handout. – Stakeholders? – SWOT? – Key Issues? – Suggested Strategies?
    20. 20. Penn Dot Results?• Potholes• Corruption• Image• Finance• Organization• Human resources management• Gov. Thornburgh’s and Tom Larson’s careers
    21. 21. Fernandez & Rainey (2006)• Identify and communicate the need for change• Provide a plan (a course of action or strategy for implementing change)• Build internal support and overcome resistance• Ensure top management support and commitment• Build external support• Provide adequate resources to support the change process• Institutionalize change• Develop an integrative, comprehensive approach that achieves subsystem congruence
    22. 22. Romme: Organizations as Design (2003) • Purpose: Produce systems that do not yet exist; change present system to desired. People • View of knowledge: Pragmatic - emphasize participation, discourse, experimentation.Knowledge Technology • Theory development: Does an integrated set of design propositions work in a certain ill-defined problem situation?
    23. 23. Martin: Design of Business (2009) STANCE Guides Informs TOOLS Guides Informs EXPERIENCE
    24. 24. Martin – Knowledge Funnel (2009)
    25. 25. Constructive Conflict (Deliberative argumentation)• Careful observation• Rich (rather than thin or superficial) description• Normative reasoning about what constitutes a good outcome• Consideration of various strategies for accomplishing outcomes• Evaluation that reflects different (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011 attitudes, beliefs, and values.
    26. 26. Conflict KSA’s Conflict Resolution Collaborative Communication Encourage desirable, but Use participative group Understand communication discourage undesirable, problem solving networks and decentralized team conflict. networks Recognize the type and Recognize obstacles and Transparent: Messages should be: source of conflict and implement appropriate (1) behavior- or event-oriented; (2) implement an appropriate corrective actions. congruent; (3) validating; (4) conflict resolution conjunctive; and (5) owned. Use (win-win) negotiation Listen nonevaluatively and use strategy rather than the active listening techniques.traditional distributive (win- lose) strategy. Verbal vs. Nonverbal Realize the importance of small talk & engagement Campion & Stevens, 1994
    27. 27. Bryson, 2011
    28. 28. Initial Agreements • Whose plan is it? • What are the purposes of the process and the plan? • What is “given,” and what is possible? • How will the process be tailored to fit the situation? • How will the process be managed? • How will the process be broken down into phases, steps or tasks? • What schedule will be adopted? (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
    29. 29. Unfortunate Reality Source:
    30. 30. Outcome Categories Documented commitments to: Adopted strategic plan spelling out:Tangible • Work program indicating steps, • Context/Visible • procedures, contacts, and • Mission and vision deliverables • Philosophy and values • Stakeholder involvement process • Goals, objectives, and measures • Data collection and analysis process • Strategies and procedures • Action plans • Procedural requirements and • Budgets expectations • Evaluation processes Widespread appreciation of: Widespread appreciation of, • Stakeholders and relationships, including and commitment to, mission, value positions, interests, and political and vision, philosophy, strategies and • psychological needs other key plan elements by: • How to work together productively • Senior leadership • Effective conflict management • Major employee groupsIntangible • processes/Invisible • Other key stakeholders • Organizational culture – “how we think • about and do things around here” • Uncertainties about relationships, values, • and the environment • Requirements for achieving legitimacy Process Content (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
    31. 31. Stakeholders, not Shareholders.“A stakeholder is any “There is no clear dataperson, group or supporting the notion thatorganization that can making shareholder valueplace a claim on an maximization theorganization’s attention, objective of the firmresources, or output, or actually does maximizeis affected by thatoutput.” shareholder value over the long term.” John Bryson Roger Martin (Daniel Pink)• Who do you include?
    32. 32. Stakeholder Maps (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
    33. 33. Potential Government Stakeholders (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
    34. 34. Bryson’s Complimentary Tools• The Basic Stakeholder Analysis Technique• Power vs. Interest Grids• Stakeholder Influence Maps• Bases of Power – Directions of Interest Diagrams• Stakeholder Position on Issue or Proposal versus Stakeholder Importance Grids• Stakeholder Role Plays• Combined, these: – Specify how each stakeholder influences the organization – Decide what the organization needs from each stakeholder – Rank the stakeholders according to their importance to the organization (c) John M. Bryson, 2004-2011
    35. 35. Power vs. Interest Grids Subjects Players Interest Crowd Context SettersSource: Eden andAckermann, 1998. Power
    36. 36. Bases of Power & Interest Interests will frame stakeholder’s view of situation and Advance Player’s Achieve any program or evaluation View of the Equitable Common Good Garner More Treatment for Resources Pursue Player’s Group Benefits for Preserve Stakeholder Power X or Y PLAYER or other Stakeholder Authority Connections to Influentials Legitimacy Numbers Coercive Experts Money Ability Power affects stakeholder’sability to pursue their interests (c) J. M. Bryson, M. Q. Patton, and R. A. Bowman, 2005-2011
    37. 37. Stakeholder Support vs. Opposition Support Weak Strong supporters supporters Opposition Weak Strong opponents antagonists Weak Strong Stakeholder Power (c) J. M. Bryson, M. Q. Patton, and R. A. Bowman, 2005-2011
    38. 38. How Do Previous Classes Relate?
    39. 39. This Will Not Be Our Reality Source:
    40. 40. Group Project Introductions
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